ls Man page

LS(1) User Commands LS(1)

NAME

ls – list directory contents

SYNOPSIS

ls [OPTION]… [FILE]…

DESCRIPTION

List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor –sort is speci‐
fied.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options
too.

-a, –all
do not ignore entries starting with .

-A, –almost-all
do not list implied . and ..

–author
with -l, print the author of each file

-b, –escape
print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

–block-size=SIZE
scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g., ‘–block-size=M’
prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below

-B, –ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~

-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
file status information); with -l: show ctime and sort by name;
otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first

-C list entries by columns

–color[=WHEN] colorize the output; WHEN can be ‘always’ (default if omitted),
‘auto’, or ‘never’; more info below

-d, –directory
list directories themselves, not their contents

-D, –dired
generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode

-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls –color

-F, –classify
append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

–file-type
likewise, except do not append ‘*’

–format=WORD
across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
verbose -l, vertical -C

–full-time
like -l –time-style=full-iso

-g like -l, but do not list owner

–group-directories-first
group directories before files;

can be augmented with a –sort option, but any use of
–sort=none (-U) disables grouping

-G, –no-group
in a long listing, don’t print group names

-h, –human-readable
with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

–si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

-H, –dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line

–dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
follow each command line symbolic link

that points to a directory

–hide=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden
by -a or -A)

–indicator-style=WORD
append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default),
slash (-p), file-type (–file-type), classify (-F)

-i, –inode
print the index number of each file

-I, –ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

-k, –kibibytes
default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage

-l use a long listing format

-L, –dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa‐
tion for the file the link references rather than for the link
itself

-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries

-n, –numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

-N, –literal
print raw entry names (don’t treat e.g. control characters spe‐
cially)

-o like -l, but do not list group information

-p, –indicator-style=slash
append / indicator to directories

-q, –hide-control-chars
print ? instead of nongraphic characters

–show-control-chars
show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is
‘ls’ and output is a terminal)

-Q, –quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes

–quoting-style=WORD
use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell,
shell-always, shell-escape, shell-escape-always, c, escape

-r, –reverse
reverse order while sorting

-R, –recursive
list subdirectories recursively

-s, –size
print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

-S sort by file size, largest first

–sort=WORD
sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t),
version (-v), extension (-X)

–time=WORD
with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time:
atime or access or use (-u); ctime or status (-c); also use
specified time as sort key if –sort=time (newest first)

–time-style=STYLE
with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso,
locale, or +FORMAT; FORMAT is interpreted like in ‘date’; if
FORMAT is FORMAT1FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies to
non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is pre‐
fixed with ‘posix-‘, STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX
locale

-t sort by modification time, newest first

-T, –tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show access
time and sort by name; otherwise: sort by access time, newest
first

-U do not sort; list entries in directory order

-v natural sort of (version) numbers within text

-w, –width=COLS
set output width to COLS. 0 means no limit

-x list entries by lines instead of by columns

-X sort alphabetically by entry extension

-Z, –context
print any security context of each file

-1 list one file per line. Avoid ‘\n’ with -q or -b

–help display this help and exit

–version
output version information and exit

The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is
10*1024). Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,…
(powers of 1000).

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and
with –color=never. With –color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment
variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.

Exit status:
0 if OK,

1 if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

2 if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

AUTHOR

Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS

GNU coreutils online help:
Report ls translation bugs to

COPRYRIGHT

Copyright © 2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU
GPL version 3 or later .
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO

Full documentation at:
or available locally via: info ‘(coreutils) ls invocation’

GNU coreutils 8.25 February 2016 LS(1)