systemd-analyze Man page



systemd-analyze – Analyze system boot-up performance


systemd-analyze [OPTIONS…] [time]

systemd-analyze [OPTIONS…] blame

systemd-analyze [OPTIONS…] critical-chain [UNIT…]

systemd-analyze [OPTIONS…] plot [> file.svg]

systemd-analyze [OPTIONS…] dot [PATTERN…] [>]

systemd-analyze [OPTIONS…] dump

systemd-analyze [OPTIONS…] set-log-level LEVEL

systemd-analyze [OPTIONS…] set-log-target TARGET

systemd-analyze [OPTIONS…] verify [FILES…]


systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance
statistics and retrieve other state and tracing information from the
system and service manager, and to verify the correctness of unit

systemd-analyze time prints the time spent in the kernel before
userspace has been reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk
(initrd) before normal system userspace has been reached, and the time
normal system userspace took to initialize. Note that these
measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where all
system services have been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully
finished initialization or the disk is idle.

systemd-analyze blame prints a list of all running units, ordered by
the time they took to initialize. This information may be used to
optimize boot-up times. Note that the output might be misleading as the
initialization of one service might be slow simply because it waits for
the initialization of another service to complete.

systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT…] prints a tree of the
time-critical chain of units (for each of the specified UNITs or for
the default target otherwise). The time after the unit is active or
started is printed after the “@” character. The time the unit takes to
start is printed after the “+” character. Note that the output might be
misleading as the initialization of one service might depend on socket
activation and because of the parallel execution of units.

systemd-analyze plot prints an SVG graphic detailing which system
services have been started at what time, highlighting the time they
spent on initialization.

systemd-analyze dot generates textual dependency graph description in
dot format for further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use a
command line like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg > systemd.svg to
generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless –order or –require is
passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and requirement
dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.
*.target) may be given at the end. A unit dependency is included in the
graph if any of these patterns match either the origin or destination

systemd-analyze dump outputs a (usually very long) human-readable
serialization of the complete server state. Its format is subject to
change without notice and should not be parsed by applications.

systemd-analyze set-log-level LEVEL changes the current log level of
the systemd daemon to LEVEL (accepts the same values as –log-level=
described in systemd).

systemd-analyze set-log-target TARGET changes the current log target of
the systemd daemon to TARGET (accepts the same values as –log-target=,
described in systemd).

systemd-analyze verify will load unit files and print warnings if any
errors are detected. Files specified on the command line will be
loaded, but also any other units referenced by them. This command works
by prepending the directories for all command line arguments at the
beginning of the unit load path, which means that all units files found
in those directories will be used in preference to the unit files found
in the standard locations, even if not listed explicitly.

If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.


The following options are understood:

Operates on the user systemd instance.

Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied

–order, –require
When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), selects
which dependencies are shown in the dependency graph. If –order is
passed, only dependencies of type After= or Before= are shown. If
–require is passed, only dependencies of type Requires=,
Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts= are shown. If neither is passed,
this shows dependencies of all these types.

–from-pattern=, –to-pattern=
When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this
selects which relationships are shown in the dependency graph. Both
options require a glob(7) pattern as an argument, which will be
matched against the left-hand and the right-hand, respectively,
nodes of a relationship.

Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit
name must match one of the values. When tests for both sides of the
relation are present, a relation must pass both tests to be shown.
When patterns are also specified as positional arguments, they must
match at least one side of the relation. In other words, patterns
specified with those two options will trim the list of edges
matched by the positional arguments, if any are given, and fully
determine the list of edges shown otherwise.

When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see
above), also show units, which finished timespan earlier, than the
latest unit in the same level. The unit of timespan is seconds
unless specified with a different unit, e.g. “50ms”.

Do not invoke man to verify the existence of man pages listed in

-H, –host=
Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username
and hostname separated by “@”, to connect to. The hostname may
optionally be suffixed by a container name, separated by “:”, which
connects directly to a specific container on the specified host.
This will use SSH to talk to the remote machine manager instance.
Container names may be enumerated with machinectl -H HOST.

-M, –machine=
Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name to
connect to.

-h, –help
Print a short help text and exit.

Print a short version string and exit.

Do not pipe output into a pager.

On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.

Example 1. Plots all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with

$ systemd-analyze dot ‘avahi-daemon.*’ | dot -Tsvg > avahi.svg
$ eog avahi.svg

Example 2. Plots the dependencies between all known target units

systemd-analyze dot –to-pattern=’*.target’ –from-pattern=’*.target’ | dot -Tsvg > targets.svg
$ eog targets.svg

The following errors are currently detected:

· unknown sections and directives,

· missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,

· man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the

· commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in
the system or not executable.

Example 3. Misspelt directives

$ cat ./user.slice
[Unit] WhatIsThis=11

[Service] Desription=x

$ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
[./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue ‘WhatIsThis’ in section ‘Unit’
[./user.slice:13] Unknown section ‘Service’. Ignoring.
Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed:
Unit different.service failed to load:
No such file or directory.
Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
user.slice: man nosuchfile command failed with code 16

Example 4. Missing service units

$ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
==> ./a.socket <== [Socket] ListenStream=100 ==> ./b.socket <== [Socket] ListenStream=100 Accept=yes $ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started. Service b@0.service not loaded, b.socket cannot be started. ENVIRONMENT $SYSTEMD_PAGER Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. Setting this to an empty string or the value "cat" is equivalent to passing --no-pager. $SYSTEMD_LESS Override the default options passed to less ("FRSXMK").


systemd, systemctl

systemd 229 SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)