g++-5 Man page

GCC(1) GNU GCC(1)

NAME

gcc – GNU project C and C++ compiler

SYNOPSIS

gcc [-c|-S|-E] [-std=standard] [-g] [-pg] [-Olevel] [-Wwarn…] [-Wpedantic] [-Idir…] [-Ldir…] [-Dmacro[=defn]…] [-Umacro] [-foption…] [-mmachine-option…] [-o outfile] [@file] infile…

Only the most useful options are listed here; see below for the
remainder. g++ accepts mostly the same options as gcc.

DESCRIPTION

When you invoke GCC, it normally does preprocessing, compilation,
assembly and linking. The “overall options” allow you to stop this
process at an intermediate stage. For example, the -c option says not
to run the linker. Then the output consists of object files output by
the assembler.

Other options are passed on to one stage of processing. Some options
control the preprocessor and others the compiler itself. Yet other
options control the assembler and linker; most of these are not
documented here, since you rarely need to use any of them.

Most of the command-line options that you can use with GCC are useful
for C programs; when an option is only useful with another language
(usually C++), the explanation says so explicitly. If the description
for a particular option does not mention a source language, you can use
that option with all supported languages.

The gcc program accepts options and file names as operands. Many
options have multi-letter names; therefore multiple single-letter
options may not be grouped: -dv is very different from -d -v.

You can mix options and other arguments. For the most part, the order
you use doesn’t matter. Order does matter when you use several options
of the same kind; for example, if you specify -L more than once, the
directories are searched in the order specified. Also, the placement
of the -l option is significant.

Many options have long names starting with -f or with -W—for example,
-fmove-loop-invariants, -Wformat and so on. Most of these have both
positive and negative forms; the negative form of -ffoo is -fno-foo.
This manual documents only one of these two forms, whichever one is not
the default.

OPTIONS

Option Summary
Here is a summary of all the options, grouped by type. Explanations
are in the following sections.

Overall Options
-c -S -E -o file -no-canonical-prefixes -pipe -pass-exit-codes
-x language -v -### –help[=class[,…]] –target-help
–version -wrapper @file -fplugin=file -fplugin-arg-name=arg
-fdump-ada-spec[-slim] -fada-spec-parent=unit -fdump-go-spec=file

C Language Options
-ansi -std=standard -fgnu89-inline -aux-info filename
-fallow-parameterless-variadic-functions -fno-asm -fno-builtin
-fno-builtin-function -fhosted -ffreestanding -fopenacc -fopenmp
-fopenmp-simd -fms-extensions -fplan9-extensions -trigraphs
-traditional -traditional-cpp -fallow-single-precision
-fcond-mismatch -flax-vector-conversions -fsigned-bitfields
-fsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -funsigned-char

C++ Language Options
-fabi-version=n -fno-access-control -fcheck-new
-fconstexpr-depth=n -ffriend-injection -fno-elide-constructors
-fno-enforce-eh-specs -ffor-scope -fno-for-scope
-fno-gnu-keywords -fno-implicit-templates
-fno-implicit-inline-templates -fno-implement-inlines
-fms-extensions -fno-nonansi-builtins -fnothrow-opt
-fno-operator-names -fno-optional-diags -fpermissive
-fno-pretty-templates -frepo -fno-rtti -fsized-deallocation
-fstats -ftemplate-backtrace-limit=n -ftemplate-depth=n
-fno-threadsafe-statics -fuse-cxa-atexit -fno-weak -nostdinc++
-fvisibility-inlines-hidden -fvtable-verify=[std|preinit|none] -fvtv-counts -fvtv-debug -fvisibility-ms-compat
-fext-numeric-literals -Wabi=n -Wabi-tag -Wconversion-null
-Wctor-dtor-privacy -Wdelete-non-virtual-dtor -Wliteral-suffix
-Wnarrowing -Wnoexcept -Wnon-virtual-dtor -Wreorder -Weffc++
-Wstrict-null-sentinel -Wno-non-template-friend -Wold-style-cast
-Woverloaded-virtual -Wno-pmf-conversions -Wsign-promo

Objective-C and Objective-C++ Language Options
-fconstant-string-class=class-name -fgnu-runtime -fnext-runtime
-fno-nil-receivers -fobjc-abi-version=n -fobjc-call-cxx-cdtors
-fobjc-direct-dispatch -fobjc-exceptions -fobjc-gc -fobjc-nilcheck
-fobjc-std=objc1 -fno-local-ivars
-fivar-visibility=[public|protected|private|package] -freplace-objc-classes -fzero-link -gen-decls -Wassign-intercept
-Wno-protocol -Wselector -Wstrict-selector-match
-Wundeclared-selector

Language Independent Options
-fmessage-length=n -fdiagnostics-show-location=[once|every-line] -fdiagnostics-color=[auto|never|always] -fno-diagnostics-show-option -fno-diagnostics-show-caret

Warning Options
-fsyntax-only -fmax-errors=n -Wpedantic -pedantic-errors -w
-Wextra -Wall -Waddress -Waggregate-return
-Waggressive-loop-optimizations -Warray-bounds -Warray-bounds=n
-Wbool-compare -Wno-attributes -Wno-builtin-macro-redefined
-Wc90-c99-compat -Wc99-c11-compat -Wc++-compat -Wc++11-compat
-Wc++14-compat -Wcast-align -Wcast-qual -Wchar-subscripts
-Wclobbered -Wcomment -Wconditionally-supported -Wconversion
-Wcoverage-mismatch -Wdate-time -Wdelete-incomplete -Wno-cpp
-Wno-deprecated -Wno-deprecated-declarations -Wno-designated-init
-Wdisabled-optimization -Wno-discarded-qualifiers
-Wno-discarded-array-qualifiers -Wno-div-by-zero -Wdouble-promotion
-Wempty-body -Wenum-compare -Wno-endif-labels -Werror -Werror=*
-Wfatal-errors -Wfloat-equal -Wformat -Wformat=2
-Wno-format-contains-nul -Wno-format-extra-args -Wformat-nonliteral
-Wformat-security -Wformat-signedness -Wformat-y2k
-Wframe-larger-than=len -Wno-free-nonheap-object -Wjump-misses-init
-Wignored-qualifiers -Wincompatible-pointer-types -Wimplicit
-Wimplicit-function-declaration -Wimplicit-int -Winit-self
-Winline -Wno-int-conversion -Wno-int-to-pointer-cast
-Wno-invalid-offsetof -Winvalid-pch -Wlarger-than=len
-Wunsafe-loop-optimizations -Wlogical-op -Wlogical-not-parentheses
-Wlong-long -Wmain -Wmaybe-uninitialized -Wmemset-transposed-args
-Wmissing-braces -Wmissing-field-initializers
-Wmissing-include-dirs -Wno-multichar -Wnonnull
-Wnormalized=[none|id|nfc|nfkc] -Wodr -Wno-overflow -Wopenmp-simd -Woverlength-strings -Wpacked
-Wpacked-bitfield-compat -Wpadded -Wparentheses
-Wpedantic-ms-format -Wno-pedantic-ms-format -Wpointer-arith
-Wno-pointer-to-int-cast -Wredundant-decls -Wno-return-local-addr
-Wreturn-type -Wsequence-point -Wshadow -Wno-shadow-ivar
-Wshift-count-negative -Wshift-count-overflow -Wsign-compare
-Wsign-conversion -Wfloat-conversion -Wsizeof-pointer-memaccess
-Wsizeof-array-argument -Wstack-protector -Wstack-usage=len
-Wstrict-aliasing -Wstrict-aliasing=n -Wstrict-overflow
-Wstrict-overflow=n
-Wsuggest-attribute=[pure|const|noreturn|format] -Wsuggest-final-types -Wsuggest-final-methods -Wsuggest-override
-Wmissing-format-attribute -Wswitch -Wswitch-default
-Wswitch-enum -Wswitch-bool -Wsync-nand -Wsystem-headers
-Wtrampolines -Wtrigraphs -Wtype-limits -Wundef -Wuninitialized
-Wunknown-pragmas -Wno-pragmas -Wunsuffixed-float-constants
-Wunused -Wunused-function -Wunused-label -Wunused-local-typedefs
-Wunused-parameter -Wno-unused-result -Wunused-value
-Wunused-variable -Wunused-but-set-parameter
-Wunused-but-set-variable -Wuseless-cast -Wvariadic-macros
-Wvector-operation-performance -Wvla -Wvolatile-register-var
-Wwrite-strings -Wzero-as-null-pointer-constant

C and Objective-C-only Warning Options
-Wbad-function-cast -Wmissing-declarations
-Wmissing-parameter-type -Wmissing-prototypes -Wnested-externs
-Wold-style-declaration -Wold-style-definition -Wstrict-prototypes
-Wtraditional -Wtraditional-conversion
-Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wpointer-sign

Debugging Options
-dletters -dumpspecs -dumpmachine -dumpversion -fsanitize=style
-fsanitize-recover -fsanitize-recover=style
-fasan-shadow-offset=number -fsanitize-undefined-trap-on-error
-fcheck-pointer-bounds -fchkp-check-incomplete-type
-fchkp-first-field-has-own-bounds -fchkp-narrow-bounds
-fchkp-narrow-to-innermost-array -fchkp-optimize
-fchkp-use-fast-string-functions -fchkp-use-nochk-string-functions
-fchkp-use-static-bounds -fchkp-use-static-const-bounds
-fchkp-treat-zero-dynamic-size-as-infinite -fchkp-check-read
-fchkp-check-read -fchkp-check-write -fchkp-store-bounds
-fchkp-instrument-calls -fchkp-instrument-marked-only
-fchkp-use-wrappers -fdbg-cnt-list -fdbg-cnt=counter-value-list
-fdisable-ipa-pass_name -fdisable-rtl-pass_name -fdisable-rtl-pass-
name=range-list -fdisable-tree-pass_name -fdisable-tree-pass-
name=range-list -fdump-noaddr -fdump-unnumbered
-fdump-unnumbered-links -fdump-translation-unit[-n] -fdump-class-hierarchy[-n] -fdump-ipa-all -fdump-ipa-cgraph
-fdump-ipa-inline -fdump-passes -fdump-statistics -fdump-tree-all
-fdump-tree-original[-n] -fdump-tree-optimized[-n] -fdump-tree-cfg
-fdump-tree-alias -fdump-tree-ch -fdump-tree-ssa[-n] -fdump-tree-pre[-n] -fdump-tree-ccp[-n] -fdump-tree-dce[-n] -fdump-tree-gimple[-raw] -fdump-tree-dom[-n] -fdump-tree-dse[-n] -fdump-tree-phiprop[-n] -fdump-tree-phiopt[-n] -fdump-tree-forwprop[-n] -fdump-tree-copyrename[-n] -fdump-tree-nrv
-fdump-tree-vect -fdump-tree-sink -fdump-tree-sra[-n] -fdump-tree-forwprop[-n] -fdump-tree-fre[-n] -fdump-tree-vtable-verify -fdump-tree-vrp[-n] -fdump-tree-storeccp[-n] -fdump-final-insns=file
-fcompare-debug[=opts] -fcompare-debug-second
-feliminate-dwarf2-dups -fno-eliminate-unused-debug-types
-feliminate-unused-debug-symbols -femit-class-debug-always
-fenable-kind-pass -fenable-kind-pass=range-list
-fdebug-types-section -fmem-report-wpa -fmem-report
-fpre-ipa-mem-report -fpost-ipa-mem-report -fprofile-arcs
-fopt-info -fopt-info-options[=file] -frandom-seed=string
-fsched-verbose=n -fsel-sched-verbose -fsel-sched-dump-cfg
-fsel-sched-pipelining-verbose -fstack-usage -ftest-coverage
-ftime-report -fvar-tracking -fvar-tracking-assignments
-fvar-tracking-assignments-toggle -g -glevel -gtoggle -gcoff
-gdwarf-version -ggdb -grecord-gcc-switches
-gno-record-gcc-switches -gstabs -gstabs+ -gstrict-dwarf
-gno-strict-dwarf -gvms -gxcoff -gxcoff+ -gz[=type] -fno-merge-debug-strings -fno-dwarf2-cfi-asm
-fdebug-prefix-map=old=new -femit-struct-debug-baseonly
-femit-struct-debug-reduced -femit-struct-debug-detailed[=spec-
list] -p -pg -print-file-name=library -print-libgcc-file-name
-print-multi-directory -print-multi-lib -print-multi-os-directory
-print-prog-name=program -print-search-dirs -Q -print-sysroot
-print-sysroot-headers-suffix -save-temps -save-temps=cwd
-save-temps=obj -time[=file]

Optimization Options
-faggressive-loop-optimizations -falign-functions[=n] -falign-jumps[=n] -falign-labels[=n] -falign-loops[=n] -fassociative-math -fauto-profile -fauto-profile[=path] -fauto-inc-dec -fbranch-probabilities -fbranch-target-load-optimize
-fbranch-target-load-optimize2 -fbtr-bb-exclusive -fcaller-saves
-fcheck-data-deps -fcombine-stack-adjustments -fconserve-stack
-fcompare-elim -fcprop-registers -fcrossjumping -fcse-follow-jumps
-fcse-skip-blocks -fcx-fortran-rules -fcx-limited-range
-fdata-sections -fdce -fdelayed-branch -fdelete-null-pointer-checks
-fdevirtualize -fdevirtualize-speculatively
-fdevirtualize-at-ltrans -fdse -fearly-inlining -fipa-sra
-fexpensive-optimizations -ffat-lto-objects -ffast-math
-ffinite-math-only -ffloat-store -fexcess-precision=style
-fforward-propagate -ffp-contract=style -ffunction-sections -fgcse
-fgcse-after-reload -fgcse-las -fgcse-lm -fgraphite-identity
-fgcse-sm -fhoist-adjacent-loads -fif-conversion -fif-conversion2
-findirect-inlining -finline-functions
-finline-functions-called-once -finline-limit=n
-finline-small-functions -fipa-cp -fipa-cp-clone -fipa-cp-alignment
-fipa-pta -fipa-profile -fipa-pure-const -fipa-reference -fipa-icf
-fira-algorithm=algorithm -fira-region=region -fira-hoist-pressure
-fira-loop-pressure -fno-ira-share-save-slots
-fno-ira-share-spill-slots -fira-verbose=n
-fisolate-erroneous-paths-dereference
-fisolate-erroneous-paths-attribute -fivopts
-fkeep-inline-functions -fkeep-static-consts -flive-range-shrinkage
-floop-block -floop-interchange -floop-strip-mine
-floop-unroll-and-jam -floop-nest-optimize -floop-parallelize-all
-flra-remat -flto -flto-compression-level -flto-partition=alg
-flto-report -flto-report-wpa -fmerge-all-constants
-fmerge-constants -fmodulo-sched -fmodulo-sched-allow-regmoves
-fmove-loop-invariants -fno-branch-count-reg -fno-defer-pop
-fno-function-cse -fno-guess-branch-probability -fno-inline
-fno-math-errno -fno-peephole -fno-peephole2 -fno-sched-interblock
-fno-sched-spec -fno-signed-zeros -fno-toplevel-reorder
-fno-trapping-math -fno-zero-initialized-in-bss
-fomit-frame-pointer -foptimize-sibling-calls -fpartial-inlining
-fpeel-loops -fpredictive-commoning -fprefetch-loop-arrays
-fprofile-report -fprofile-correction -fprofile-dir=path
-fprofile-generate -fprofile-generate=path -fprofile-use
-fprofile-use=path -fprofile-values -fprofile-reorder-functions
-freciprocal-math -free -frename-registers -freorder-blocks
-freorder-blocks-and-partition -freorder-functions
-frerun-cse-after-loop -freschedule-modulo-scheduled-loops
-frounding-math -fsched2-use-superblocks -fsched-pressure
-fsched-spec-load -fsched-spec-load-dangerous
-fsched-stalled-insns-dep[=n] -fsched-stalled-insns[=n] -fsched-group-heuristic -fsched-critical-path-heuristic
-fsched-spec-insn-heuristic -fsched-rank-heuristic
-fsched-last-insn-heuristic -fsched-dep-count-heuristic
-fschedule-fusion -fschedule-insns -fschedule-insns2
-fsection-anchors -fselective-scheduling -fselective-scheduling2
-fsel-sched-pipelining -fsel-sched-pipelining-outer-loops
-fsemantic-interposition -fshrink-wrap -fsignaling-nans
-fsingle-precision-constant -fsplit-ivs-in-unroller
-fsplit-wide-types -fssa-phiopt -fstack-protector
-fstack-protector-all -fstack-protector-strong
-fstack-protector-explicit -fstdarg-opt -fstrict-aliasing
-fstrict-overflow -fthread-jumps -ftracer -ftree-bit-ccp
-ftree-builtin-call-dce -ftree-ccp -ftree-ch
-ftree-coalesce-inline-vars -ftree-coalesce-vars -ftree-copy-prop
-ftree-copyrename -ftree-dce -ftree-dominator-opts -ftree-dse
-ftree-forwprop -ftree-fre -ftree-loop-if-convert
-ftree-loop-if-convert-stores -ftree-loop-im -ftree-phiprop
-ftree-loop-distribution -ftree-loop-distribute-patterns
-ftree-loop-ivcanon -ftree-loop-linear -ftree-loop-optimize
-ftree-loop-vectorize -ftree-parallelize-loops=n -ftree-pre
-ftree-partial-pre -ftree-pta -ftree-reassoc -ftree-sink
-ftree-slsr -ftree-sra -ftree-switch-conversion -ftree-tail-merge
-ftree-ter -ftree-vectorize -ftree-vrp -funit-at-a-time
-funroll-all-loops -funroll-loops -funsafe-loop-optimizations
-funsafe-math-optimizations -funswitch-loops -fipa-ra
-fvariable-expansion-in-unroller -fvect-cost-model -fvpt -fweb
-fwhole-program -fwpa -fuse-linker-plugin –param name=value -O
-O0 -O1 -O2 -O3 -Os -Ofast -Og

Preprocessor Options
-Aquestion=answer -A-question[=answer] -C -dD -dI -dM -dN
-Dmacro[=defn] -E -H -idirafter dir -include file -imacros file
-iprefix file -iwithprefix dir -iwithprefixbefore dir -isystem
dir -imultilib dir -isysroot dir -M -MM -MF -MG -MP -MQ -MT
-nostdinc -P -fdebug-cpp -ftrack-macro-expansion
-fworking-directory -remap -trigraphs -undef -Umacro -Wp,option
-Xpreprocessor option -no-integrated-cpp

Assembler Option
-Wa,option -Xassembler option

Linker Options
object-file-name -fuse-ld=linker -llibrary -nostartfiles
-nodefaultlibs -nostdlib -pie -rdynamic -s -static -static-libgcc
-static-libstdc++ -static-libasan -static-libtsan -static-liblsan
-static-libubsan -static-libmpx -static-libmpxwrappers -shared
-shared-libgcc -symbolic -T script -Wl,option -Xlinker option -u
symbol -z keyword

Directory Options
-Bprefix -Idir -iplugindir=dir -iquotedir -Ldir -specs=file -I-
–sysroot=dir –no-sysroot-suffix

Machine Dependent Options
AArch64 Options -mabi=name -mbig-endian -mlittle-endian
-mgeneral-regs-only -mcmodel=tiny -mcmodel=small -mcmodel=large
-mstrict-align -momit-leaf-frame-pointer
-mno-omit-leaf-frame-pointer -mtls-dialect=desc
-mtls-dialect=traditional -mfix-cortex-a53-835769
-mno-fix-cortex-a53-835769 -mfix-cortex-a53-843419
-mno-fix-cortex-a53-843419 -march=name -mcpu=name -mtune=name

Adapteva Epiphany Options -mhalf-reg-file -mprefer-short-insn-regs
-mbranch-cost=num -mcmove -mnops=num -msoft-cmpsf -msplit-lohi
-mpost-inc -mpost-modify -mstack-offset=num -mround-nearest
-mlong-calls -mshort-calls -msmall16 -mfp-mode=mode -mvect-double
-max-vect-align=num -msplit-vecmove-early -m1reg-reg

ARC Options -mbarrel-shifter -mcpu=cpu -mA6 -mARC600 -mA7 -mARC700
-mdpfp -mdpfp-compact -mdpfp-fast -mno-dpfp-lrsr -mea -mno-mpy
-mmul32x16 -mmul64 -mnorm -mspfp -mspfp-compact -mspfp-fast -msimd
-msoft-float -mswap -mcrc -mdsp-packa -mdvbf -mlock -mmac-d16
-mmac-24 -mrtsc -mswape -mtelephony -mxy -misize -mannotate-align
-marclinux -marclinux_prof -mepilogue-cfi -mlong-calls
-mmedium-calls -msdata -mucb-mcount -mvolatile-cache -malign-call
-mauto-modify-reg -mbbit-peephole -mno-brcc -mcase-vector-pcrel
-mcompact-casesi -mno-cond-exec -mearly-cbranchsi -mexpand-adddi
-mindexed-loads -mlra -mlra-priority-none -mlra-priority-compact
mlra-priority-noncompact -mno-millicode -mmixed-code -mq-class
-mRcq -mRcw -msize-level=level -mtune=cpu -mmultcost=num
-munalign-prob-threshold=probability

ARM Options -mapcs-frame -mno-apcs-frame -mabi=name
-mapcs-stack-check -mno-apcs-stack-check -mapcs-float
-mno-apcs-float -mapcs-reentrant -mno-apcs-reentrant
-msched-prolog -mno-sched-prolog -mlittle-endian -mbig-endian
-mfloat-abi=name -mfp16-format=name -mthumb-interwork
-mno-thumb-interwork -mcpu=name -march=name -mfpu=name
-mtune=name -mprint-tune-info -mstructure-size-boundary=n
-mabort-on-noreturn -mlong-calls -mno-long-calls -msingle-pic-base
-mno-single-pic-base -mpic-register=reg -mnop-fun-dllimport
-mpoke-function-name -mthumb -marm -mtpcs-frame -mtpcs-leaf-frame
-mcaller-super-interworking -mcallee-super-interworking -mtp=name
-mtls-dialect=dialect -mword-relocations -mfix-cortex-m3-ldrd
-munaligned-access -mneon-for-64bits -mslow-flash-data
-masm-syntax-unified -mrestrict-it

AVR Options -mmcu=mcu -maccumulate-args -mbranch-cost=cost
-mcall-prologues -mint8 -mn_flash=size -mno-interrupts -mrelax
-mrmw -mstrict-X -mtiny-stack -nodevicelib -Waddr-space-convert

Blackfin Options -mcpu=cpu[-sirevision] -msim
-momit-leaf-frame-pointer -mno-omit-leaf-frame-pointer
-mspecld-anomaly -mno-specld-anomaly -mcsync-anomaly
-mno-csync-anomaly -mlow-64k -mno-low64k -mstack-check-l1
-mid-shared-library -mno-id-shared-library -mshared-library-id=n
-mleaf-id-shared-library -mno-leaf-id-shared-library -msep-data
-mno-sep-data -mlong-calls -mno-long-calls -mfast-fp -minline-plt
-mmulticore -mcorea -mcoreb -msdram -micplb

C6X Options -mbig-endian -mlittle-endian -march=cpu -msim
-msdata=sdata-type

CRIS Options -mcpu=cpu -march=cpu -mtune=cpu -mmax-stack-frame=n
-melinux-stacksize=n -metrax4 -metrax100 -mpdebug -mcc-init
-mno-side-effects -mstack-align -mdata-align -mconst-align
-m32-bit -m16-bit -m8-bit -mno-prologue-epilogue -mno-gotplt
-melf -maout -melinux -mlinux -sim -sim2 -mmul-bug-workaround
-mno-mul-bug-workaround

CR16 Options -mmac -mcr16cplus -mcr16c -msim -mint32 -mbit-ops
-mdata-model=model

Darwin Options -all_load -allowable_client -arch
-arch_errors_fatal -arch_only -bind_at_load -bundle
-bundle_loader -client_name -compatibility_version
-current_version -dead_strip -dependency-file -dylib_file
-dylinker_install_name -dynamic -dynamiclib
-exported_symbols_list -filelist -flat_namespace
-force_cpusubtype_ALL -force_flat_namespace
-headerpad_max_install_names -iframework -image_base -init
-install_name -keep_private_externs -multi_module
-multiply_defined -multiply_defined_unused -noall_load
-no_dead_strip_inits_and_terms -nofixprebinding -nomultidefs
-noprebind -noseglinkedit -pagezero_size -prebind
-prebind_all_twolevel_modules -private_bundle -read_only_relocs
-sectalign -sectobjectsymbols -whyload -seg1addr -sectcreate
-sectobjectsymbols -sectorder -segaddr -segs_read_only_addr
-segs_read_write_addr -seg_addr_table -seg_addr_table_filename
-seglinkedit -segprot -segs_read_only_addr -segs_read_write_addr
-single_module -static -sub_library -sub_umbrella
-twolevel_namespace -umbrella -undefined -unexported_symbols_list
-weak_reference_mismatches -whatsloaded -F -gused -gfull
-mmacosx-version-min=version -mkernel -mone-byte-bool

DEC Alpha Options -mno-fp-regs -msoft-float -mieee
-mieee-with-inexact -mieee-conformant -mfp-trap-mode=mode
-mfp-rounding-mode=mode -mtrap-precision=mode -mbuild-constants
-mcpu=cpu-type -mtune=cpu-type -mbwx -mmax -mfix -mcix
-mfloat-vax -mfloat-ieee -mexplicit-relocs -msmall-data
-mlarge-data -msmall-text -mlarge-text -mmemory-latency=time

FR30 Options -msmall-model -mno-lsim

FRV Options -mgpr-32 -mgpr-64 -mfpr-32 -mfpr-64 -mhard-float
-msoft-float -malloc-cc -mfixed-cc -mdword -mno-dword -mdouble
-mno-double -mmedia -mno-media -mmuladd -mno-muladd -mfdpic
-minline-plt -mgprel-ro -multilib-library-pic -mlinked-fp
-mlong-calls -malign-labels -mlibrary-pic -macc-4 -macc-8 -mpack
-mno-pack -mno-eflags -mcond-move -mno-cond-move
-moptimize-membar -mno-optimize-membar -mscc -mno-scc -mcond-exec
-mno-cond-exec -mvliw-branch -mno-vliw-branch -mmulti-cond-exec
-mno-multi-cond-exec -mnested-cond-exec -mno-nested-cond-exec
-mtomcat-stats -mTLS -mtls -mcpu=cpu

GNU/Linux Options -mglibc -muclibc -mbionic -mandroid
-tno-android-cc -tno-android-ld

H8/300 Options -mrelax -mh -ms -mn -mexr -mno-exr -mint32
-malign-300

HPPA Options -march=architecture-type -mdisable-fpregs
-mdisable-indexing -mfast-indirect-calls -mgas -mgnu-ld -mhp-ld
-mfixed-range=register-range -mjump-in-delay -mlinker-opt
-mlong-calls -mlong-load-store -mno-disable-fpregs
-mno-disable-indexing -mno-fast-indirect-calls -mno-gas
-mno-jump-in-delay -mno-long-load-store -mno-portable-runtime
-mno-soft-float -mno-space-regs -msoft-float -mpa-risc-1-0
-mpa-risc-1-1 -mpa-risc-2-0 -mportable-runtime -mschedule=cpu-
type -mspace-regs -msio -mwsio -munix=unix-std -nolibdld
-static -threads

IA-64 Options -mbig-endian -mlittle-endian -mgnu-as -mgnu-ld
-mno-pic -mvolatile-asm-stop -mregister-names -msdata -mno-sdata
-mconstant-gp -mauto-pic -mfused-madd
-minline-float-divide-min-latency
-minline-float-divide-max-throughput -mno-inline-float-divide
-minline-int-divide-min-latency -minline-int-divide-max-throughput
-mno-inline-int-divide -minline-sqrt-min-latency
-minline-sqrt-max-throughput -mno-inline-sqrt -mdwarf2-asm
-mearly-stop-bits -mfixed-range=register-range -mtls-size=tls-size
-mtune=cpu-type -milp32 -mlp64 -msched-br-data-spec
-msched-ar-data-spec -msched-control-spec -msched-br-in-data-spec
-msched-ar-in-data-spec -msched-in-control-spec -msched-spec-ldc
-msched-spec-control-ldc -msched-prefer-non-data-spec-insns
-msched-prefer-non-control-spec-insns
-msched-stop-bits-after-every-cycle
-msched-count-spec-in-critical-path
-msel-sched-dont-check-control-spec -msched-fp-mem-deps-zero-cost
-msched-max-memory-insns-hard-limit -msched-max-memory-insns=max-
insns

LM32 Options -mbarrel-shift-enabled -mdivide-enabled
-mmultiply-enabled -msign-extend-enabled -muser-enabled

M32R/D Options -m32r2 -m32rx -m32r -mdebug -malign-loops
-mno-align-loops -missue-rate=number -mbranch-cost=number
-mmodel=code-size-model-type -msdata=sdata-type -mno-flush-func
-mflush-func=name -mno-flush-trap -mflush-trap=number -G num

M32C Options -mcpu=cpu -msim -memregs=number

M680x0 Options -march=arch -mcpu=cpu -mtune=tune -m68000 -m68020
-m68020-40 -m68020-60 -m68030 -m68040 -m68060 -mcpu32 -m5200
-m5206e -m528x -m5307 -m5407 -mcfv4e -mbitfield -mno-bitfield
-mc68000 -mc68020 -mnobitfield -mrtd -mno-rtd -mdiv -mno-div
-mshort -mno-short -mhard-float -m68881 -msoft-float -mpcrel
-malign-int -mstrict-align -msep-data -mno-sep-data
-mshared-library-id=n -mid-shared-library -mno-id-shared-library
-mxgot -mno-xgot

MCore Options -mhardlit -mno-hardlit -mdiv -mno-div
-mrelax-immediates -mno-relax-immediates -mwide-bitfields
-mno-wide-bitfields -m4byte-functions -mno-4byte-functions
-mcallgraph-data -mno-callgraph-data -mslow-bytes -mno-slow-bytes
-mno-lsim -mlittle-endian -mbig-endian -m210 -m340
-mstack-increment

MeP Options -mabsdiff -mall-opts -maverage -mbased=n -mbitops -mc=n
-mclip -mconfig=name -mcop -mcop32 -mcop64 -mivc2 -mdc -mdiv -meb
-mel -mio-volatile -ml -mleadz -mm -mminmax -mmult -mno-opts
-mrepeat -ms -msatur -msdram -msim -msimnovec -mtf -mtiny=n

MicroBlaze Options -msoft-float -mhard-float -msmall-divides
-mcpu=cpu -mmemcpy -mxl-soft-mul -mxl-soft-div -mxl-barrel-shift
-mxl-pattern-compare -mxl-stack-check -mxl-gp-opt -mno-clearbss
-mxl-multiply-high -mxl-float-convert -mxl-float-sqrt -mbig-endian
-mlittle-endian -mxl-reorder -mxl-mode-app-model

MIPS Options -EL -EB -march=arch -mtune=arch -mips1 -mips2
-mips3 -mips4 -mips32 -mips32r2 -mips32r3 -mips32r5 -mips32r6
-mips64 -mips64r2 -mips64r3 -mips64r5 -mips64r6 -mips16
-mno-mips16 -mflip-mips16 -minterlink-compressed
-mno-interlink-compressed -minterlink-mips16 -mno-interlink-mips16
-mabi=abi -mabicalls -mno-abicalls -mshared -mno-shared -mplt
-mno-plt -mxgot -mno-xgot -mgp32 -mgp64 -mfp32 -mfpxx -mfp64
-mhard-float -msoft-float -mno-float -msingle-float
-mdouble-float -modd-spreg -mno-odd-spreg -mabs=mode
-mnan=encoding -mdsp -mno-dsp -mdspr2 -mno-dspr2 -mmcu -mmno-mcu
-meva -mno-eva -mvirt -mno-virt -mxpa -mno-xpa -mmicromips
-mno-micromips -mfpu=fpu-type -msmartmips -mno-smartmips
-mpaired-single -mno-paired-single -mdmx -mno-mdmx -mips3d
-mno-mips3d -mmt -mno-mt -mllsc -mno-llsc -mlong64 -mlong32
-msym32 -mno-sym32 -Gnum -mlocal-sdata -mno-local-sdata
-mextern-sdata -mno-extern-sdata -mgpopt -mno-gopt
-membedded-data -mno-embedded-data -muninit-const-in-rodata
-mno-uninit-const-in-rodata -mcode-readable=setting
-msplit-addresses -mno-split-addresses -mexplicit-relocs
-mno-explicit-relocs -mcheck-zero-division
-mno-check-zero-division -mdivide-traps -mdivide-breaks -mmemcpy
-mno-memcpy -mlong-calls -mno-long-calls -mmad -mno-mad -mimadd
-mno-imadd -mfused-madd -mno-fused-madd -nocpp -mfix-24k
-mno-fix-24k -mfix-r4000 -mno-fix-r4000 -mfix-r4400
-mno-fix-r4400 -mfix-r10000 -mno-fix-r10000 -mfix-rm7000
-mno-fix-rm7000 -mfix-vr4120 -mno-fix-vr4120 -mfix-vr4130
-mno-fix-vr4130 -mfix-sb1 -mno-fix-sb1 -mflush-func=func
-mno-flush-func -mbranch-cost=num -mbranch-likely
-mno-branch-likely -mfp-exceptions -mno-fp-exceptions
-mvr4130-align -mno-vr4130-align -msynci -mno-synci
-mrelax-pic-calls -mno-relax-pic-calls -mmcount-ra-address

MMIX Options -mlibfuncs -mno-libfuncs -mepsilon -mno-epsilon
-mabi=gnu -mabi=mmixware -mzero-extend -mknuthdiv
-mtoplevel-symbols -melf -mbranch-predict -mno-branch-predict
-mbase-addresses -mno-base-addresses -msingle-exit
-mno-single-exit

MN10300 Options -mmult-bug -mno-mult-bug -mno-am33 -mam33 -mam33-2
-mam34 -mtune=cpu-type -mreturn-pointer-on-d0 -mno-crt0 -mrelax
-mliw -msetlb

Moxie Options -meb -mel -mmul.x -mno-crt0

MSP430 Options -msim -masm-hex -mmcu= -mcpu= -mlarge -msmall
-mrelax -mhwmult= -minrt

NDS32 Options -mbig-endian -mlittle-endian -mreduced-regs
-mfull-regs -mcmov -mno-cmov -mperf-ext -mno-perf-ext -mv3push
-mno-v3push -m16bit -mno-16bit -misr-vector-size=num
-mcache-block-size=num -march=arch -mcmodel=code-model -mctor-dtor
-mrelax

Nios II Options -G num -mgpopt=option -mgpopt -mno-gpopt -mel -meb
-mno-bypass-cache -mbypass-cache -mno-cache-volatile
-mcache-volatile -mno-fast-sw-div -mfast-sw-div -mhw-mul
-mno-hw-mul -mhw-mulx -mno-hw-mulx -mno-hw-div -mhw-div
-mcustom-insn=N -mno-custom-insn -mcustom-fpu-cfg=name -mhal
-msmallc -msys-crt0=name -msys-lib=name

Nvidia PTX Options -m32 -m64 -mmainkernel

PDP-11 Options -mfpu -msoft-float -mac0 -mno-ac0 -m40 -m45
-m10 -mbcopy -mbcopy-builtin -mint32 -mno-int16 -mint16
-mno-int32 -mfloat32 -mno-float64 -mfloat64 -mno-float32
-mabshi -mno-abshi -mbranch-expensive -mbranch-cheap -munix-asm
-mdec-asm

picoChip Options -mae=ae_type -mvliw-lookahead=N
-msymbol-as-address -mno-inefficient-warnings

PowerPC Options See RS/6000 and PowerPC Options.

RL78 Options -msim -mmul=none -mmul=g13 -mmul=rl78 -m64bit-doubles
-m32bit-doubles

RS/6000 and PowerPC Options -mcpu=cpu-type -mtune=cpu-type
-mcmodel=code-model -mpowerpc64 -maltivec -mno-altivec
-mpowerpc-gpopt -mno-powerpc-gpopt -mpowerpc-gfxopt
-mno-powerpc-gfxopt -mmfcrf -mno-mfcrf -mpopcntb -mno-popcntb
-mpopcntd -mno-popcntd -mfprnd -mno-fprnd -mcmpb -mno-cmpb
-mmfpgpr -mno-mfpgpr -mhard-dfp -mno-hard-dfp -mfull-toc
-mminimal-toc -mno-fp-in-toc -mno-sum-in-toc -m64 -m32
-mxl-compat -mno-xl-compat -mpe -malign-power -malign-natural
-msoft-float -mhard-float -mmultiple -mno-multiple
-msingle-float -mdouble-float -msimple-fpu -mstring -mno-string
-mupdate -mno-update -mavoid-indexed-addresses
-mno-avoid-indexed-addresses -mfused-madd -mno-fused-madd
-mbit-align -mno-bit-align -mstrict-align -mno-strict-align
-mrelocatable -mno-relocatable -mrelocatable-lib
-mno-relocatable-lib -mtoc -mno-toc -mlittle -mlittle-endian
-mbig -mbig-endian -mdynamic-no-pic -maltivec -mswdiv
-msingle-pic-base -mprioritize-restricted-insns=priority
-msched-costly-dep=dependence_type -minsert-sched-nops=scheme
-mcall-sysv -mcall-netbsd -maix-struct-return
-msvr4-struct-return -mabi=abi-type -msecure-plt -mbss-plt
-mblock-move-inline-limit=num -misel -mno-isel -misel=yes
-misel=no -mspe -mno-spe -mspe=yes -mspe=no -mpaired
-mgen-cell-microcode -mwarn-cell-microcode -mvrsave -mno-vrsave
-mmulhw -mno-mulhw -mdlmzb -mno-dlmzb -mfloat-gprs=yes
-mfloat-gprs=no -mfloat-gprs=single -mfloat-gprs=double -mprototype
-mno-prototype -msim -mmvme -mads -myellowknife -memb -msdata
-msdata=opt -mvxworks -G num -pthread -mrecip -mrecip=opt
-mno-recip -mrecip-precision -mno-recip-precision -mveclibabi=type
-mfriz -mno-friz -mpointers-to-nested-functions
-mno-pointers-to-nested-functions -msave-toc-indirect
-mno-save-toc-indirect -mpower8-fusion -mno-mpower8-fusion
-mpower8-vector -mno-power8-vector -mcrypto -mno-crypto
-mdirect-move -mno-direct-move -mquad-memory -mno-quad-memory
-mquad-memory-atomic -mno-quad-memory-atomic -mcompat-align-parm
-mno-compat-align-parm -mupper-regs-df -mno-upper-regs-df
-mupper-regs-sf -mno-upper-regs-sf -mupper-regs -mno-upper-regs

RX Options -m64bit-doubles -m32bit-doubles -fpu -nofpu -mcpu=
-mbig-endian-data -mlittle-endian-data -msmall-data -msim -mno-sim
-mas100-syntax -mno-as100-syntax -mrelax -mmax-constant-size=
-mint-register= -mpid -mno-warn-multiple-fast-interrupts
-msave-acc-in-interrupts

S/390 and zSeries Options -mtune=cpu-type -march=cpu-type
-mhard-float -msoft-float -mhard-dfp -mno-hard-dfp
-mlong-double-64 -mlong-double-128 -mbackchain -mno-backchain
-mpacked-stack -mno-packed-stack -msmall-exec -mno-small-exec
-mmvcle -mno-mvcle -m64 -m31 -mdebug -mno-debug -mesa -mzarch
-mtpf-trace -mno-tpf-trace -mfused-madd -mno-fused-madd
-mwarn-framesize -mwarn-dynamicstack -mstack-size -mstack-guard
-mhotpatch=halfwords,halfwords

Score Options -meb -mel -mnhwloop -muls -mmac -mscore5 -mscore5u
-mscore7 -mscore7d

SH Options -m1 -m2 -m2e -m2a-nofpu -m2a-single-only -m2a-single
-m2a -m3 -m3e -m4-nofpu -m4-single-only -m4-single -m4
-m4a-nofpu -m4a-single-only -m4a-single -m4a -m4al -m5-64media
-m5-64media-nofpu -m5-32media -m5-32media-nofpu -m5-compact
-m5-compact-nofpu -mb -ml -mdalign -mrelax -mbigtable -mfmovd
-mhitachi -mrenesas -mno-renesas -mnomacsave -mieee -mno-ieee
-mbitops -misize -minline-ic_invalidate -mpadstruct -mspace
-mprefergot -musermode -multcost=number -mdiv=strategy
-mdivsi3_libfunc=name -mfixed-range=register-range
-mindexed-addressing -mgettrcost=number -mpt-fixed
-maccumulate-outgoing-args -minvalid-symbols -matomic-model=atomic-
model -mbranch-cost=num -mzdcbranch -mno-zdcbranch
-mcbranch-force-delay-slot -mfused-madd -mno-fused-madd -mfsca
-mno-fsca -mfsrra -mno-fsrra -mpretend-cmove -mtas

Solaris 2 Options -mclear-hwcap -mno-clear-hwcap -mimpure-text
-mno-impure-text -pthreads -pthread

SPARC Options -mcpu=cpu-type -mtune=cpu-type -mcmodel=code-model
-mmemory-model=mem-model -m32 -m64 -mapp-regs -mno-app-regs
-mfaster-structs -mno-faster-structs -mflat -mno-flat -mfpu
-mno-fpu -mhard-float -msoft-float -mhard-quad-float
-msoft-quad-float -mstack-bias -mno-stack-bias -munaligned-doubles
-mno-unaligned-doubles -muser-mode -mno-user-mode -mv8plus
-mno-v8plus -mvis -mno-vis -mvis2 -mno-vis2 -mvis3 -mno-vis3
-mcbcond -mno-cbcond -mfmaf -mno-fmaf -mpopc -mno-popc
-mfix-at697f -mfix-ut699

SPU Options -mwarn-reloc -merror-reloc -msafe-dma -munsafe-dma
-mbranch-hints -msmall-mem -mlarge-mem -mstdmain
-mfixed-range=register-range -mea32 -mea64
-maddress-space-conversion -mno-address-space-conversion
-mcache-size=cache-size -matomic-updates -mno-atomic-updates

System V Options -Qy -Qn -YP,paths -Ym,dir

TILE-Gx Options -mcpu=CPU -m32 -m64 -mbig-endian -mlittle-endian
-mcmodel=code-model

TILEPro Options -mcpu=cpu -m32

V850 Options -mlong-calls -mno-long-calls -mep -mno-ep
-mprolog-function -mno-prolog-function -mspace -mtda=n -msda=n
-mzda=n -mapp-regs -mno-app-regs -mdisable-callt
-mno-disable-callt -mv850e2v3 -mv850e2 -mv850e1 -mv850es -mv850e
-mv850 -mv850e3v5 -mloop -mrelax -mlong-jumps -msoft-float
-mhard-float -mgcc-abi -mrh850-abi -mbig-switch

VAX Options -mg -mgnu -munix

Visium Options -mdebug -msim -mfpu -mno-fpu -mhard-float
-msoft-float -mcpu=cpu-type -mtune=cpu-type -msv-mode -muser-mode

VMS Options -mvms-return-codes -mdebug-main=prefix -mmalloc64
-mpointer-size=size

VxWorks Options -mrtp -non-static -Bstatic -Bdynamic -Xbind-lazy
-Xbind-now

x86 Options -mtune=cpu-type -march=cpu-type -mtune-ctrl=feature-
list -mdump-tune-features -mno-default -mfpmath=unit -masm=dialect
-mno-fancy-math-387 -mno-fp-ret-in-387 -msoft-float
-mno-wide-multiply -mrtd -malign-double
-mpreferred-stack-boundary=num -mincoming-stack-boundary=num -mcld
-mcx16 -msahf -mmovbe -mcrc32 -mrecip -mrecip=opt -mvzeroupper
-mprefer-avx128 -mmmx -msse -msse2 -msse3 -mssse3 -msse4.1
-msse4.2 -msse4 -mavx -mavx2 -mavx512f -mavx512pf -mavx512er
-mavx512cd -msha -maes -mpclmul -mfsgsbase -mrdrnd -mf16c -mfma
-mprefetchwt1 -mclflushopt -mxsavec -mxsaves -msse4a -m3dnow
-mpopcnt -mabm -mbmi -mtbm -mfma4 -mxop -mlzcnt -mbmi2 -mfxsr
-mxsave -mxsaveopt -mrtm -mlwp -mmpx -mmwaitx -mthreads
-mno-align-stringops -minline-all-stringops
-minline-stringops-dynamically -mstringop-strategy=alg
-mmemcpy-strategy=strategy -mmemset-strategy=strategy -mpush-args
-maccumulate-outgoing-args -m128bit-long-double
-m96bit-long-double -mlong-double-64 -mlong-double-80
-mlong-double-128 -mregparm=num -msseregparm -mveclibabi=type
-mvect8-ret-in-mem -mpc32 -mpc64 -mpc80 -mstackrealign
-momit-leaf-frame-pointer -mno-red-zone -mno-tls-direct-seg-refs
-mcmodel=code-model -mabi=name -maddress-mode=mode -m32 -m64 -mx32
-m16 -mlarge-data-threshold=num -msse2avx -mfentry -mrecord-mcount
-mnop-mcount -m8bit-idiv -mavx256-split-unaligned-load
-mavx256-split-unaligned-store -malign-data=type
-mstack-protector-guard=guard

x86 Windows Options -mconsole -mcygwin -mno-cygwin -mdll
-mnop-fun-dllimport -mthread -municode -mwin32 -mwindows
-fno-set-stack-executable

Xstormy16 Options -msim

Xtensa Options -mconst16 -mno-const16 -mfused-madd -mno-fused-madd
-mforce-no-pic -mserialize-volatile -mno-serialize-volatile
-mtext-section-literals -mno-text-section-literals -mtarget-align
-mno-target-align -mlongcalls -mno-longcalls

zSeries Options See S/390 and zSeries Options.

Code Generation Options
-fcall-saved-reg -fcall-used-reg -ffixed-reg -fexceptions
-fnon-call-exceptions -fdelete-dead-exceptions -funwind-tables
-fasynchronous-unwind-tables -fno-gnu-unique
-finhibit-size-directive -finstrument-functions
-finstrument-functions-exclude-function-list=sym,sym,…
-finstrument-functions-exclude-file-list=file,file,… -fno-common
-fno-ident -fpcc-struct-return -fpic -fPIC -fpie -fPIE
-fno-jump-tables -frecord-gcc-switches -freg-struct-return
-fshort-enums -fshort-double -fshort-wchar -fverbose-asm
-fpack-struct[=n] -fstack-check -fstack-limit-register=reg
-fstack-limit-symbol=sym -fno-stack-limit -fsplit-stack
-fleading-underscore -ftls-model=model -fstack-reuse=reuse_level
-ftrapv -fwrapv -fbounds-check
-fvisibility=[default|internal|hidden|protected] -fstrict-volatile-bitfields -fsync-libcalls

Options Controlling the Kind of Output
Compilation can involve up to four stages: preprocessing, compilation
proper, assembly and linking, always in that order. GCC is capable of
preprocessing and compiling several files either into several assembler
input files, or into one assembler input file; then each assembler
input file produces an object file, and linking combines all the object
files (those newly compiled, and those specified as input) into an
executable file.

For any given input file, the file name suffix determines what kind of
compilation is done:

file.c
C source code that must be preprocessed.

file.i
C source code that should not be preprocessed.

file.ii
C++ source code that should not be preprocessed.

file.m
Objective-C source code. Note that you must link with the libobjc
library to make an Objective-C program work.

file.mi
Objective-C source code that should not be preprocessed.

file.mm
file.M
Objective-C++ source code. Note that you must link with the
libobjc library to make an Objective-C++ program work. Note that
.M refers to a literal capital M.

file.mii
Objective-C++ source code that should not be preprocessed.

file.h
C, C++, Objective-C or Objective-C++ header file to be turned into
a precompiled header (default), or C, C++ header file to be turned
into an Ada spec (via the -fdump-ada-spec switch).

file.cc
file.cp
file.cxx
file.cpp
file.CPP
file.c++
file.C
C++ source code that must be preprocessed. Note that in .cxx, the
last two letters must both be literally x. Likewise, .C refers to
a literal capital C.

file.mm
file.M
Objective-C++ source code that must be preprocessed.

file.mii
Objective-C++ source code that should not be preprocessed.

file.hh
file.H
file.hp
file.hxx
file.hpp
file.HPP
file.h++
file.tcc
C++ header file to be turned into a precompiled header or Ada spec.

file.f
file.for
file.ftn
Fixed form Fortran source code that should not be preprocessed.

file.F
file.FOR
file.fpp
file.FPP
file.FTN
Fixed form Fortran source code that must be preprocessed (with the
traditional preprocessor).

file.f90
file.f95
file.f03
file.f08
Free form Fortran source code that should not be preprocessed.

file.F90
file.F95
file.F03
file.F08
Free form Fortran source code that must be preprocessed (with the
traditional preprocessor).

file.go
Go source code.

file.ads
Ada source code file that contains a library unit declaration (a
declaration of a package, subprogram, or generic, or a generic
instantiation), or a library unit renaming declaration (a package,
generic, or subprogram renaming declaration). Such files are also
called specs.

file.adb
Ada source code file containing a library unit body (a subprogram
or package body). Such files are also called bodies.

file.s
Assembler code.

file.S
file.sx
Assembler code that must be preprocessed.

other
An object file to be fed straight into linking. Any file name with
no recognized suffix is treated this way.

You can specify the input language explicitly with the -x option:

-x language
Specify explicitly the language for the following input files
(rather than letting the compiler choose a default based on the
file name suffix). This option applies to all following input
files until the next -x option. Possible values for language are:

c c-header cpp-output
c++ c++-header c++-cpp-output
objective-c objective-c-header objective-c-cpp-output
objective-c++ objective-c++-header objective-c++-cpp-output
assembler assembler-with-cpp
ada
f77 f77-cpp-input f95 f95-cpp-input
go
java

-x none
Turn off any specification of a language, so that subsequent files
are handled according to their file name suffixes (as they are if
-x has not been used at all).

-pass-exit-codes
Normally the gcc program exits with the code of 1 if any phase of
the compiler returns a non-success return code. If you specify
-pass-exit-codes, the gcc program instead returns with the
numerically highest error produced by any phase returning an error
indication. The C, C++, and Fortran front ends return 4 if an
internal compiler error is encountered.

If you only want some of the stages of compilation, you can use -x (or
filename suffixes) to tell gcc where to start, and one of the options
-c, -S, or -E to say where gcc is to stop. Note that some combinations
(for example, -x cpp-output -E) instruct gcc to do nothing at all.

-c Compile or assemble the source files, but do not link. The linking
stage simply is not done. The ultimate output is in the form of an
object file for each source file.

By default, the object file name for a source file is made by
replacing the suffix .c, .i, .s, etc., with .o.

Unrecognized input files, not requiring compilation or assembly,
are ignored.

-S Stop after the stage of compilation proper; do not assemble. The
output is in the form of an assembler code file for each non-
assembler input file specified.

By default, the assembler file name for a source file is made by
replacing the suffix .c, .i, etc., with .s.

Input files that don’t require compilation are ignored.

-E Stop after the preprocessing stage; do not run the compiler proper.
The output is in the form of preprocessed source code, which is
sent to the standard output.

Input files that don’t require preprocessing are ignored.

-o file
Place output in file file. This applies to whatever sort of output
is being produced, whether it be an executable file, an object
file, an assembler file or preprocessed C code.

If -o is not specified, the default is to put an executable file in
a.out, the object file for source.suffix in source.o, its assembler
file in source.s, a precompiled header file in source.suffix.gch,
and all preprocessed C source on standard output.

-v Print (on standard error output) the commands executed to run the
stages of compilation. Also print the version number of the
compiler driver program and of the preprocessor and the compiler
proper.

-###
Like -v except the commands are not executed and arguments are
quoted unless they contain only alphanumeric characters or “./-_”.
This is useful for shell scripts to capture the driver-generated
command lines.

-pipe
Use pipes rather than temporary files for communication between the
various stages of compilation. This fails to work on some systems
where the assembler is unable to read from a pipe; but the GNU
assembler has no trouble.

–help
Print (on the standard output) a description of the command-line
options understood by gcc. If the -v option is also specified then
–help is also passed on to the various processes invoked by gcc,
so that they can display the command-line options they accept. If
the -Wextra option has also been specified (prior to the –help
option), then command-line options that have no documentation
associated with them are also displayed.

–target-help
Print (on the standard output) a description of target-specific
command-line options for each tool. For some targets extra target-
specific information may also be printed.

–help={class|[^]qualifier}[,…] Print (on the standard output) a description of the command-line
options understood by the compiler that fit into all specified
classes and qualifiers. These are the supported classes:

optimizers
Display all of the optimization options supported by the
compiler.

warnings
Display all of the options controlling warning messages
produced by the compiler.

target
Display target-specific options. Unlike the –target-help
option however, target-specific options of the linker and
assembler are not displayed. This is because those tools do
not currently support the extended –help= syntax.

params
Display the values recognized by the –param option.

language
Display the options supported for language, where language is
the name of one of the languages supported in this version of
GCC.

common
Display the options that are common to all languages.

These are the supported qualifiers:

undocumented
Display only those options that are undocumented.

joined
Display options taking an argument that appears after an equal
sign in the same continuous piece of text, such as:
–help=target.

separate
Display options taking an argument that appears as a separate
word following the original option, such as: -o output-file.

Thus for example to display all the undocumented target-specific
switches supported by the compiler, use:

–help=target,undocumented

The sense of a qualifier can be inverted by prefixing it with the ^
character, so for example to display all binary warning options
(i.e., ones that are either on or off and that do not take an
argument) that have a description, use:

–help=warnings,^joined,^undocumented

The argument to –help= should not consist solely of inverted
qualifiers.

Combining several classes is possible, although this usually
restricts the output so much that there is nothing to display. One
case where it does work, however, is when one of the classes is
target. For example, to display all the target-specific
optimization options, use:

–help=target,optimizers

The –help= option can be repeated on the command line. Each
successive use displays its requested class of options, skipping
those that have already been displayed.

If the -Q option appears on the command line before the –help=
option, then the descriptive text displayed by –help= is changed.
Instead of describing the displayed options, an indication is given
as to whether the option is enabled, disabled or set to a specific
value (assuming that the compiler knows this at the point where the
–help= option is used).

Here is a truncated example from the ARM port of gcc:

% gcc -Q -mabi=2 –help=target -c
The following options are target specific:
-mabi= 2
-mabort-on-noreturn [disabled] -mapcs [disabled]

The output is sensitive to the effects of previous command-line
options, so for example it is possible to find out which
optimizations are enabled at -O2 by using:

-Q -O2 –help=optimizers

Alternatively you can discover which binary optimizations are
enabled by -O3 by using:

gcc -c -Q -O3 –help=optimizers > /tmp/O3-opts
gcc -c -Q -O2 –help=optimizers > /tmp/O2-opts
diff /tmp/O2-opts /tmp/O3-opts | grep enabled

-no-canonical-prefixes
Do not expand any symbolic links, resolve references to /../ or
/./, or make the path absolute when generating a relative prefix.

–version
Display the version number and copyrights of the invoked GCC.

-wrapper
Invoke all subcommands under a wrapper program. The name of the
wrapper program and its parameters are passed as a comma separated
list.

gcc -c t.c -wrapper gdb,–args

This invokes all subprograms of gcc under gdb –args, thus the
invocation of cc1 is gdb –args cc1 ….

-fplugin=name.so
Load the plugin code in file name.so, assumed to be a shared object
to be dlopen’d by the compiler. The base name of the shared object
file is used to identify the plugin for the purposes of argument
parsing (See -fplugin-arg-name-key=value below). Each plugin
should define the callback functions specified in the Plugins API.

-fplugin-arg-name-key=value
Define an argument called key with a value of value for the plugin
called name.

-fdump-ada-spec[-slim] For C and C++ source and include files, generate corresponding Ada
specs.

-fada-spec-parent=unit
In conjunction with -fdump-ada-spec[-slim] above, generate Ada
specs as child units of parent unit.

-fdump-go-spec=file
For input files in any language, generate corresponding Go
declarations in file. This generates Go “const”, “type”, “var”,
and “func” declarations which may be a useful way to start writing
a Go interface to code written in some other language.

@file
Read command-line options from file. The options read are inserted
in place of the original @file option. If file does not exist, or
cannot be read, then the option will be treated literally, and not
removed.

Options in file are separated by whitespace. A whitespace
character may be included in an option by surrounding the entire
option in either single or double quotes. Any character (including
a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character to be
included with a backslash. The file may itself contain additional
@file options; any such options will be processed recursively.

Compiling C++ Programs
C++ source files conventionally use one of the suffixes .C, .cc, .cpp,
.CPP, .c++, .cp, or .cxx; C++ header files often use .hh, .hpp, .H, or
(for shared template code) .tcc; and preprocessed C++ files use the
suffix .ii. GCC recognizes files with these names and compiles them as
C++ programs even if you call the compiler the same way as for
compiling C programs (usually with the name gcc).

However, the use of gcc does not add the C++ library. g++ is a program
that calls GCC and automatically specifies linking against the C++
library. It treats .c, .h and .i files as C++ source files instead of
C source files unless -x is used. This program is also useful when
precompiling a C header file with a .h extension for use in C++
compilations. On many systems, g++ is also installed with the name
c++.

When you compile C++ programs, you may specify many of the same
command-line options that you use for compiling programs in any
language; or command-line options meaningful for C and related
languages; or options that are meaningful only for C++ programs.

Options Controlling C Dialect
The following options control the dialect of C (or languages derived
from C, such as C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++) that the compiler
accepts:

-ansi
In C mode, this is equivalent to -std=c90. In C++ mode, it is
equivalent to -std=c++98.

This turns off certain features of GCC that are incompatible with
ISO C90 (when compiling C code), or of standard C++ (when compiling
C++ code), such as the “asm” and “typeof” keywords, and predefined
macros such as “unix” and “vax” that identify the type of system
you are using. It also enables the undesirable and rarely used ISO
trigraph feature. For the C compiler, it disables recognition of
C++ style // comments as well as the “inline” keyword.

The alternate keywords “__asm__”, “__extension__”, “__inline__” and
“__typeof__” continue to work despite -ansi. You would not want to
use them in an ISO C program, of course, but it is useful to put
them in header files that might be included in compilations done
with -ansi. Alternate predefined macros such as “__unix__” and
“__vax__” are also available, with or without -ansi.

The -ansi option does not cause non-ISO programs to be rejected
gratuitously. For that, -Wpedantic is required in addition to
-ansi.

The macro “__STRICT_ANSI__” is predefined when the -ansi option is
used. Some header files may notice this macro and refrain from
declaring certain functions or defining certain macros that the ISO
standard doesn’t call for; this is to avoid interfering with any
programs that might use these names for other things.

Functions that are normally built in but do not have semantics
defined by ISO C (such as “alloca” and “ffs”) are not built-in
functions when -ansi is used.

-std=
Determine the language standard. This option is currently only
supported when compiling C or C++.

The compiler can accept several base standards, such as c90 or
c++98, and GNU dialects of those standards, such as gnu90 or
gnu++98. When a base standard is specified, the compiler accepts
all programs following that standard plus those using GNU
extensions that do not contradict it. For example, -std=c90 turns
off certain features of GCC that are incompatible with ISO C90,
such as the “asm” and “typeof” keywords, but not other GNU
extensions that do not have a meaning in ISO C90, such as omitting
the middle term of a “?:” expression. On the other hand, when a GNU
dialect of a standard is specified, all features supported by the
compiler are enabled, even when those features change the meaning
of the base standard. As a result, some strict-conforming programs
may be rejected. The particular standard is used by -Wpedantic to
identify which features are GNU extensions given that version of
the standard. For example -std=gnu90 -Wpedantic warns about C++
style // comments, while -std=gnu99 -Wpedantic does not.

A value for this option must be provided; possible values are

c90
c89
iso9899:1990
Support all ISO C90 programs (certain GNU extensions that
conflict with ISO C90 are disabled). Same as -ansi for C code.

iso9899:199409
ISO C90 as modified in amendment 1.

c99
c9x
iso9899:1999
iso9899:199x
ISO C99. This standard is substantially completely supported,
modulo bugs and floating-point issues (mainly but not entirely
relating to optional C99 features from Annexes F and G). See
for more information. The
names c9x and iso9899:199x are deprecated.

c11
c1x
iso9899:2011
ISO C11, the 2011 revision of the ISO C standard. This
standard is substantially completely supported, modulo bugs,
floating-point issues (mainly but not entirely relating to
optional C11 features from Annexes F and G) and the optional
Annexes K (Bounds-checking interfaces) and L (Analyzability).
The name c1x is deprecated.

gnu90
gnu89
GNU dialect of ISO C90 (including some C99 features).

gnu99
gnu9x
GNU dialect of ISO C99. The name gnu9x is deprecated.

gnu11
gnu1x
GNU dialect of ISO C11. This is the default for C code. The
name gnu1x is deprecated.

c++98
c++03
The 1998 ISO C++ standard plus the 2003 technical corrigendum
and some additional defect reports. Same as -ansi for C++ code.

gnu++98
gnu++03
GNU dialect of -std=c++98. This is the default for C++ code.

c++11
c++0x
The 2011 ISO C++ standard plus amendments. The name c++0x is
deprecated.

gnu++11
gnu++0x
GNU dialect of -std=c++11. The name gnu++0x is deprecated.

c++14
c++1y
The 2014 ISO C++ standard plus amendments. The name c++1y is
deprecated.

gnu++14
gnu++1y
GNU dialect of -std=c++14. The name gnu++1y is deprecated.

c++1z
The next revision of the ISO C++ standard, tentatively planned
for 2017. Support is highly experimental, and will almost
certainly change in incompatible ways in future releases.

gnu++1z
GNU dialect of -std=c++1z. Support is highly experimental, and
will almost certainly change in incompatible ways in future
releases.

-fgnu89-inline
The option -fgnu89-inline tells GCC to use the traditional GNU
semantics for “inline” functions when in C99 mode.

Using this option is roughly equivalent to adding the “gnu_inline”
function attribute to all inline functions.

The option -fno-gnu89-inline explicitly tells GCC to use the C99
semantics for “inline” when in C99 or gnu99 mode (i.e., it
specifies the default behavior). This option is not supported in
-std=c90 or -std=gnu90 mode.

The preprocessor macros “__GNUC_GNU_INLINE__” and
“__GNUC_STDC_INLINE__” may be used to check which semantics are in
effect for “inline” functions.

-aux-info filename
Output to the given filename prototyped declarations for all
functions declared and/or defined in a translation unit, including
those in header files. This option is silently ignored in any
language other than C.

Besides declarations, the file indicates, in comments, the origin
of each declaration (source file and line), whether the declaration
was implicit, prototyped or unprototyped (I, N for new or O for
old, respectively, in the first character after the line number and
the colon), and whether it came from a declaration or a definition
(C or F, respectively, in the following character). In the case of
function definitions, a K&R-style list of arguments followed by
their declarations is also provided, inside comments, after the
declaration.

-fallow-parameterless-variadic-functions
Accept variadic functions without named parameters.

Although it is possible to define such a function, this is not very
useful as it is not possible to read the arguments. This is only
supported for C as this construct is allowed by C++.

-fno-asm
Do not recognize “asm”, “inline” or “typeof” as a keyword, so that
code can use these words as identifiers. You can use the keywords
“__asm__”, “__inline__” and “__typeof__” instead. -ansi implies
-fno-asm.

In C++, this switch only affects the “typeof” keyword, since “asm”
and “inline” are standard keywords. You may want to use the
-fno-gnu-keywords flag instead, which has the same effect. In C99
mode (-std=c99 or -std=gnu99), this switch only affects the “asm”
and “typeof” keywords, since “inline” is a standard keyword in ISO
C99.

-fno-builtin
-fno-builtin-function
Don’t recognize built-in functions that do not begin with
__builtin_ as prefix.

GCC normally generates special code to handle certain built-in
functions more efficiently; for instance, calls to “alloca” may
become single instructions which adjust the stack directly, and
calls to “memcpy” may become inline copy loops. The resulting code
is often both smaller and faster, but since the function calls no
longer appear as such, you cannot set a breakpoint on those calls,
nor can you change the behavior of the functions by linking with a
different library. In addition, when a function is recognized as a
built-in function, GCC may use information about that function to
warn about problems with calls to that function, or to generate
more efficient code, even if the resulting code still contains
calls to that function. For example, warnings are given with
-Wformat for bad calls to “printf” when “printf” is built in and
“strlen” is known not to modify global memory.

With the -fno-builtin-function option only the built-in function
function is disabled. function must not begin with __builtin_. If
a function is named that is not built-in in this version of GCC,
this option is ignored. There is no corresponding
-fbuiltin-function option; if you wish to enable built-in functions
selectively when using -fno-builtin or -ffreestanding, you may
define macros such as:

#define abs(n) __builtin_abs ((n))
#define strcpy(d, s) __builtin_strcpy ((d), (s))

-fhosted
Assert that compilation targets a hosted environment. This implies
-fbuiltin. A hosted environment is one in which the entire
standard library is available, and in which “main” has a return
type of “int”. Examples are nearly everything except a kernel.
This is equivalent to -fno-freestanding.

-ffreestanding
Assert that compilation targets a freestanding environment. This
implies -fno-builtin. A freestanding environment is one in which
the standard library may not exist, and program startup may not
necessarily be at “main”. The most obvious example is an OS
kernel. This is equivalent to -fno-hosted.

-fopenacc
Enable handling of OpenACC directives “#pragma acc” in C/C++ and
“!$acc” in Fortran. When -fopenacc is specified, the compiler
generates accelerated code according to the OpenACC Application
Programming Interface v2.0 . This option
implies -pthread, and thus is only supported on targets that have
support for -pthread.

Note that this is an experimental feature, incomplete, and subject
to change in future versions of GCC. See
for more information.

-fopenmp
Enable handling of OpenMP directives “#pragma omp” in C/C++ and
“!$omp” in Fortran. When -fopenmp is specified, the compiler
generates parallel code according to the OpenMP Application Program
Interface v4.0 . This option implies
-pthread, and thus is only supported on targets that have support
for -pthread. -fopenmp implies -fopenmp-simd.

-fopenmp-simd
Enable handling of OpenMP’s SIMD directives with “#pragma omp” in
C/C++ and “!$omp” in Fortran. Other OpenMP directives are ignored.

-fcilkplus
Enable the usage of Cilk Plus language extension features for
C/C++. When the option -fcilkplus is specified, enable the usage
of the Cilk Plus Language extension features for C/C++. The
present implementation follows ABI version 1.2. This is an
experimental feature that is only partially complete, and whose
interface may change in future versions of GCC as the official
specification changes. Currently, all features but “_Cilk_for”
have been implemented.

-fgnu-tm
When the option -fgnu-tm is specified, the compiler generates code
for the Linux variant of Intel’s current Transactional Memory ABI
specification document (Revision 1.1, May 6 2009). This is an
experimental feature whose interface may change in future versions
of GCC, as the official specification changes. Please note that
not all architectures are supported for this feature.

For more information on GCC’s support for transactional memory,

Note that the transactional memory feature is not supported with
non-call exceptions (-fnon-call-exceptions).

-fms-extensions
Accept some non-standard constructs used in Microsoft header files.

In C++ code, this allows member names in structures to be similar
to previous types declarations.

typedef int UOW;
struct ABC {
UOW UOW;
};

Some cases of unnamed fields in structures and unions are only
accepted with this option.

Note that this option is off for all targets but x86 targets using
ms-abi.

-fplan9-extensions
Accept some non-standard constructs used in Plan 9 code.

This enables -fms-extensions, permits passing pointers to
structures with anonymous fields to functions that expect pointers
to elements of the type of the field, and permits referring to
anonymous fields declared using a typedef. This is only
supported for C, not C++.

-trigraphs
Support ISO C trigraphs. The -ansi option (and -std options for
strict ISO C conformance) implies -trigraphs.

-traditional
-traditional-cpp
Formerly, these options caused GCC to attempt to emulate a pre-
standard C compiler. They are now only supported with the -E
switch. The preprocessor continues to support a pre-standard mode.
See the GNU CPP manual for details.

-fcond-mismatch
Allow conditional expressions with mismatched types in the second
and third arguments. The value of such an expression is void.
This option is not supported for C++.

-flax-vector-conversions
Allow implicit conversions between vectors with differing numbers
of elements and/or incompatible element types. This option should
not be used for new code.

-funsigned-char
Let the type “char” be unsigned, like “unsigned char”.

Each kind of machine has a default for what “char” should be. It
is either like “unsigned char” by default or like “signed char” by
default.

Ideally, a portable program should always use “signed char” or
“unsigned char” when it depends on the signedness of an object.
But many programs have been written to use plain “char” and expect
it to be signed, or expect it to be unsigned, depending on the
machines they were written for. This option, and its inverse, let
you make such a program work with the opposite default.

The type “char” is always a distinct type from each of “signed
char” or “unsigned char”, even though its behavior is always just
like one of those two.

-fsigned-char
Let the type “char” be signed, like “signed char”.

Note that this is equivalent to -fno-unsigned-char, which is the
negative form of -funsigned-char. Likewise, the option
-fno-signed-char is equivalent to -funsigned-char.

-fsigned-bitfields
-funsigned-bitfields
-fno-signed-bitfields
-fno-unsigned-bitfields
These options control whether a bit-field is signed or unsigned,
when the declaration does not use either “signed” or “unsigned”.
By default, such a bit-field is signed, because this is consistent:
the basic integer types such as “int” are signed types.

Options Controlling C++ Dialect
This section describes the command-line options that are only
meaningful for C++ programs. You can also use most of the GNU compiler
options regardless of what language your program is in. For example,
you might compile a file firstClass.C like this:

g++ -g -frepo -O -c firstClass.C

In this example, only -frepo is an option meant only for C++ programs;
you can use the other options with any language supported by GCC.

Here is a list of options that are only for compiling C++ programs:

-fabi-version=n
Use version n of the C++ ABI. The default is version 0.

Version 0 refers to the version conforming most closely to the C++
ABI specification. Therefore, the ABI obtained using version 0
will change in different versions of G++ as ABI bugs are fixed.

Version 1 is the version of the C++ ABI that first appeared in G++
3.2.

Version 2 is the version of the C++ ABI that first appeared in G++
3.4, and was the default through G++ 4.9.

Version 3 corrects an error in mangling a constant address as a
template argument.

Version 4, which first appeared in G++ 4.5, implements a standard
mangling for vector types.

Version 5, which first appeared in G++ 4.6, corrects the mangling
of attribute const/volatile on function pointer types, decltype of
a plain decl, and use of a function parameter in the declaration of
another parameter.

Version 6, which first appeared in G++ 4.7, corrects the promotion
behavior of C++11 scoped enums and the mangling of template
argument packs, const/static_cast, prefix ++ and –, and a class
scope function used as a template argument.

Version 7, which first appeared in G++ 4.8, that treats nullptr_t
as a builtin type and corrects the mangling of lambdas in default
argument scope.

Version 8, which first appeared in G++ 4.9, corrects the
substitution behavior of function types with function-cv-
qualifiers.

Version 9, which first appeared in G++ 5.2, corrects the alignment
of “nullptr_t”.

See also -Wabi.

-fabi-compat-version=n
On targets that support strong aliases, G++ works around mangling
changes by creating an alias with the correct mangled name when
defining a symbol with an incorrect mangled name. This switch
specifies which ABI version to use for the alias.

With -fabi-version=0 (the default), this defaults to 2. If another
ABI version is explicitly selected, this defaults to 0.

The compatibility version is also set by -Wabi=n.

-fno-access-control
Turn off all access checking. This switch is mainly useful for
working around bugs in the access control code.

-fcheck-new
Check that the pointer returned by “operator new” is non-null
before attempting to modify the storage allocated. This check is
normally unnecessary because the C++ standard specifies that
“operator new” only returns 0 if it is declared “throw()”, in which
case the compiler always checks the return value even without this
option. In all other cases, when “operator new” has a non-empty
exception specification, memory exhaustion is signalled by throwing
“std::bad_alloc”. See also new (nothrow).

-fconstexpr-depth=n
Set the maximum nested evaluation depth for C++11 constexpr
functions to n. A limit is needed to detect endless recursion
during constant expression evaluation. The minimum specified by
the standard is 512.

-fdeduce-init-list
Enable deduction of a template type parameter as
“std::initializer_list” from a brace-enclosed initializer list,
i.e.

template auto forward(T t) -> decltype (realfn (t))
{
return realfn (t);
}

void f()
{
forward({1,2}); // call forward>
}

This deduction was implemented as a possible extension to the
originally proposed semantics for the C++11 standard, but was not
part of the final standard, so it is disabled by default. This
option is deprecated, and may be removed in a future version of
G++.

-ffriend-injection
Inject friend functions into the enclosing namespace, so that they
are visible outside the scope of the class in which they are
declared. Friend functions were documented to work this way in the
old Annotated C++ Reference Manual. However, in ISO C++ a friend
function that is not declared in an enclosing scope can only be
found using argument dependent lookup. GCC defaults to the
standard behavior.

This option is for compatibility, and may be removed in a future
release of G++.

-fno-elide-constructors
The C++ standard allows an implementation to omit creating a
temporary that is only used to initialize another object of the
same type. Specifying this option disables that optimization, and
forces G++ to call the copy constructor in all cases.

-fno-enforce-eh-specs
Don’t generate code to check for violation of exception
specifications at run time. This option violates the C++ standard,
but may be useful for reducing code size in production builds, much
like defining “NDEBUG”. This does not give user code permission to
throw exceptions in violation of the exception specifications; the
compiler still optimizes based on the specifications, so throwing
an unexpected exception results in undefined behavior at run time.

-fextern-tls-init
-fno-extern-tls-init
The C++11 and OpenMP standards allow “thread_local” and
“threadprivate” variables to have dynamic (runtime) initialization.
To support this, any use of such a variable goes through a wrapper
function that performs any necessary initialization. When the use
and definition of the variable are in the same translation unit,
this overhead can be optimized away, but when the use is in a
different translation unit there is significant overhead even if
the variable doesn’t actually need dynamic initialization. If the
programmer can be sure that no use of the variable in a non-
defining TU needs to trigger dynamic initialization (either because
the variable is statically initialized, or a use of the variable in
the defining TU will be executed before any uses in another TU),
they can avoid this overhead with the -fno-extern-tls-init option.

On targets that support symbol aliases, the default is
-fextern-tls-init. On targets that do not support symbol aliases,
the default is -fno-extern-tls-init.

-ffor-scope
-fno-for-scope
If -ffor-scope is specified, the scope of variables declared in a
for-init-statement is limited to the “for” loop itself, as
specified by the C++ standard. If -fno-for-scope is specified, the
scope of variables declared in a for-init-statement extends to the
end of the enclosing scope, as was the case in old versions of G++,
and other (traditional) implementations of C++.

If neither flag is given, the default is to follow the standard,
but to allow and give a warning for old-style code that would
otherwise be invalid, or have different behavior.

-fno-gnu-keywords
Do not recognize “typeof” as a keyword, so that code can use this
word as an identifier. You can use the keyword “__typeof__”
instead. -ansi implies -fno-gnu-keywords.

-fno-implicit-templates
Never emit code for non-inline templates that are instantiated
implicitly (i.e. by use); only emit code for explicit
instantiations.

-fno-implicit-inline-templates
Don’t emit code for implicit instantiations of inline templates,
either. The default is to handle inlines differently so that
compiles with and without optimization need the same set of
explicit instantiations.

-fno-implement-inlines
To save space, do not emit out-of-line copies of inline functions
controlled by “#pragma implementation”. This causes linker errors
if these functions are not inlined everywhere they are called.

-fms-extensions
Disable Wpedantic warnings about constructs used in MFC, such as
implicit int and getting a pointer to member function via non-
standard syntax.

-fno-nonansi-builtins
Disable built-in declarations of functions that are not mandated by
ANSI/ISO C. These include “ffs”, “alloca”, “_exit”, “index”,
“bzero”, “conjf”, and other related functions.

-fnothrow-opt
Treat a “throw()” exception specification as if it were a
“noexcept” specification to reduce or eliminate the text size
overhead relative to a function with no exception specification.
If the function has local variables of types with non-trivial
destructors, the exception specification actually makes the
function smaller because the EH cleanups for those variables can be
optimized away. The semantic effect is that an exception thrown
out of a function with such an exception specification results in a
call to “terminate” rather than “unexpected”.

-fno-operator-names
Do not treat the operator name keywords “and”, “bitand”, “bitor”,
“compl”, “not”, “or” and “xor” as synonyms as keywords.

-fno-optional-diags
Disable diagnostics that the standard says a compiler does not need
to issue. Currently, the only such diagnostic issued by G++ is the
one for a name having multiple meanings within a class.

-fpermissive
Downgrade some diagnostics about nonconformant code from errors to
warnings. Thus, using -fpermissive allows some nonconforming code
to compile.

-fno-pretty-templates
When an error message refers to a specialization of a function
template, the compiler normally prints the signature of the
template followed by the template arguments and any typedefs or
typenames in the signature (e.g. “void f(T) [with T = int]” rather
than “void f(int)”) so that it’s clear which template is involved.
When an error message refers to a specialization of a class
template, the compiler omits any template arguments that match the
default template arguments for that template. If either of these
behaviors make it harder to understand the error message rather
than easier, you can use -fno-pretty-templates to disable them.

-frepo
Enable automatic template instantiation at link time. This option
also implies -fno-implicit-templates.

-fno-rtti
Disable generation of information about every class with virtual
functions for use by the C++ run-time type identification features
(“dynamic_cast” and “typeid”). If you don’t use those parts of the
language, you can save some space by using this flag. Note that
exception handling uses the same information, but G++ generates it
as needed. The “dynamic_cast” operator can still be used for casts
that do not require run-time type information, i.e. casts to “void
*” or to unambiguous base classes.

-fsized-deallocation
Enable the built-in global declarations

void operator delete (void *, std::size_t) noexcept;
void operator delete[] (void *, std::size_t) noexcept;

as introduced in C++14. This is useful for user-defined
replacement deallocation functions that, for example, use the size
of the object to make deallocation faster. Enabled by default
under -std=c++14 and above. The flag -Wsized-deallocation warns
about places that might want to add a definition.

-fstats
Emit statistics about front-end processing at the end of the
compilation. This information is generally only useful to the G++
development team.

-fstrict-enums
Allow the compiler to optimize using the assumption that a value of
enumerated type can only be one of the values of the enumeration
(as defined in the C++ standard; basically, a value that can be
represented in the minimum number of bits needed to represent all
the enumerators). This assumption may not be valid if the program
uses a cast to convert an arbitrary integer value to the enumerated
type.

-ftemplate-backtrace-limit=n
Set the maximum number of template instantiation notes for a single
warning or error to n. The default value is 10.

-ftemplate-depth=n
Set the maximum instantiation depth for template classes to n. A
limit on the template instantiation depth is needed to detect
endless recursions during template class instantiation. ANSI/ISO
C++ conforming programs must not rely on a maximum depth greater
than 17 (changed to 1024 in C++11). The default value is 900, as
the compiler can run out of stack space before hitting 1024 in some
situations.

-fno-threadsafe-statics
Do not emit the extra code to use the routines specified in the C++
ABI for thread-safe initialization of local statics. You can use
this option to reduce code size slightly in code that doesn’t need
to be thread-safe.

-fuse-cxa-atexit
Register destructors for objects with static storage duration with
the “__cxa_atexit” function rather than the “atexit” function.
This option is required for fully standards-compliant handling of
static destructors, but only works if your C library supports
“__cxa_atexit”.

-fno-use-cxa-get-exception-ptr
Don’t use the “__cxa_get_exception_ptr” runtime routine. This
causes “std::uncaught_exception” to be incorrect, but is necessary
if the runtime routine is not available.

-fvisibility-inlines-hidden
This switch declares that the user does not attempt to compare
pointers to inline functions or methods where the addresses of the
two functions are taken in different shared objects.

The effect of this is that GCC may, effectively, mark inline
methods with “__attribute__ ((visibility (“hidden”)))” so that they
do not appear in the export table of a DSO and do not require a PLT
indirection when used within the DSO. Enabling this option can
have a dramatic effect on load and link times of a DSO as it
massively reduces the size of the dynamic export table when the
library makes heavy use of templates.

The behavior of this switch is not quite the same as marking the
methods as hidden directly, because it does not affect static
variables local to the function or cause the compiler to deduce
that the function is defined in only one shared object.

You may mark a method as having a visibility explicitly to negate
the effect of the switch for that method. For example, if you do
want to compare pointers to a particular inline method, you might
mark it as having default visibility. Marking the enclosing class
with explicit visibility has no effect.

Explicitly instantiated inline methods are unaffected by this
option as their linkage might otherwise cross a shared library
boundary.

-fvisibility-ms-compat
This flag attempts to use visibility settings to make GCC’s C++
linkage model compatible with that of Microsoft Visual Studio.

The flag makes these changes to GCC’s linkage model:

1. It sets the default visibility to “hidden”, like
-fvisibility=hidden.

2. Types, but not their members, are not hidden by default.

3. The One Definition Rule is relaxed for types without explicit
visibility specifications that are defined in more than one
shared object: those declarations are permitted if they are
permitted when this option is not used.

In new code it is better to use -fvisibility=hidden and export
those classes that are intended to be externally visible.
Unfortunately it is possible for code to rely, perhaps
accidentally, on the Visual Studio behavior.

Among the consequences of these changes are that static data
members of the same type with the same name but defined in
different shared objects are different, so changing one does not
change the other; and that pointers to function members defined in
different shared objects may not compare equal. When this flag is
given, it is a violation of the ODR to define types with the same
name differently.

-fvtable-verify=[std|preinit|none] Turn on (or off, if using -fvtable-verify=none) the security
feature that verifies at run time, for every virtual call, that the
vtable pointer through which the call is made is valid for the type
of the object, and has not been corrupted or overwritten. If an
invalid vtable pointer is detected at run time, an error is
reported and execution of the program is immediately halted.

This option causes run-time data structures to be built at program
startup, which are used for verifying the vtable pointers. The
options std and preinit control the timing of when these data
structures are built. In both cases the data structures are built
before execution reaches “main”. Using -fvtable-verify=std causes
the data structures to be built after shared libraries have been
loaded and initialized. -fvtable-verify=preinit causes them to be
built before shared libraries have been loaded and initialized.

If this option appears multiple times in the command line with
different values specified, none takes highest priority over both
std and preinit; preinit takes priority over std.

-fvtv-debug
When used in conjunction with -fvtable-verify=std or
-fvtable-verify=preinit, causes debug versions of the runtime
functions for the vtable verification feature to be called. This
flag also causes the compiler to log information about which vtable
pointers it finds for each class. This information is written to a
file named vtv_set_ptr_data.log in the directory named by the
environment variable VTV_LOGS_DIR if that is defined or the current
working directory otherwise.

Note: This feature appends data to the log file. If you want a
fresh log file, be sure to delete any existing one.

-fvtv-counts
This is a debugging flag. When used in conjunction with
-fvtable-verify=std or -fvtable-verify=preinit, this causes the
compiler to keep track of the total number of virtual calls it
encounters and the number of verifications it inserts. It also
counts the number of calls to certain run-time library functions
that it inserts and logs this information for each compilation
unit. The compiler writes this information to a file named
vtv_count_data.log in the directory named by the environment
variable VTV_LOGS_DIR if that is defined or the current working
directory otherwise. It also counts the size of the vtable pointer
sets for each class, and writes this information to
vtv_class_set_sizes.log in the same directory.

Note: This feature appends data to the log files. To get fresh
log files, be sure to delete any existing ones.

-fno-weak
Do not use weak symbol support, even if it is provided by the
linker. By default, G++ uses weak symbols if they are available.
This option exists only for testing, and should not be used by end-
users; it results in inferior code and has no benefits. This
option may be removed in a future release of G++.

-nostdinc++
Do not search for header files in the standard directories specific
to C++, but do still search the other standard directories. (This
option is used when building the C++ library.)

In addition, these optimization, warning, and code generation options
have meanings only for C++ programs:

-Wabi (C, Objective-C, C++ and Objective-C++ only)
When an explicit -fabi-version=n option is used, causes G++ to warn
when it generates code that is probably not compatible with the
vendor-neutral C++ ABI. Since G++ now defaults to -fabi-version=0,
-Wabi has no effect unless either an older ABI version is selected
(with -fabi-version=n) or an older compatibility version is
selected (with -Wabi=n or -fabi-compat-version=n).

Although an effort has been made to warn about all such cases,
there are probably some cases that are not warned about, even
though G++ is generating incompatible code. There may also be
cases where warnings are emitted even though the code that is
generated is compatible.

You should rewrite your code to avoid these warnings if you are
concerned about the fact that code generated by G++ may not be
binary compatible with code generated by other compilers.

-Wabi can also be used with an explicit version number to warn
about compatibility with a particular -fabi-version level, e.g.
-Wabi=2 to warn about changes relative to -fabi-version=2.
Specifying a version number also sets -fabi-compat-version=n.

The known incompatibilities in -fabi-version=2 (which was the
default from GCC 3.4 to 4.9) include:

* A template with a non-type template parameter of reference type
was mangled incorrectly:

extern int N;
template struct S {};
void n (S) {2}

This was fixed in -fabi-version=3.

* SIMD vector types declared using “__attribute ((vector_size))”
were mangled in a non-standard way that does not allow for
overloading of functions taking vectors of different sizes.

The mangling was changed in -fabi-version=4.

* “__attribute ((const))” and “noreturn” were mangled as type
qualifiers, and “decltype” of a plain declaration was folded
away.

These mangling issues were fixed in -fabi-version=5.

* Scoped enumerators passed as arguments to a variadic function
are promoted like unscoped enumerators, causing “va_arg” to
complain. On most targets this does not actually affect the
parameter passing ABI, as there is no way to pass an argument
smaller than “int”.

Also, the ABI changed the mangling of template argument packs,
“const_cast”, “static_cast”, prefix increment/decrement, and a
class scope function used as a template argument.

These issues were corrected in -fabi-version=6.

* Lambdas in default argument scope were mangled incorrectly, and
the ABI changed the mangling of “nullptr_t”.

These issues were corrected in -fabi-version=7.

* When mangling a function type with function-cv-qualifiers, the
un-qualified function type was incorrectly treated as a
substitution candidate.

This was fixed in -fabi-version=8, the default for GCC 5.1.

* “decltype(nullptr)” incorrectly had an alignment of 1, leading
to unaligned accesses. Note that this did not affect the ABI
of a function with a “nullptr_t” parameter, as parameters have
a minimum alignment.

This was fixed in -fabi-version=9, the default for GCC 5.2.

It also warns about psABI-related changes. The known psABI changes
at this point include:

* For SysV/x86-64, unions with “long double” members are passed
in memory as specified in psABI. For example:

union U {
long double ld;
int i;
};

“union U” is always passed in memory.

-Wabi-tag (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a type with an ABI tag is used in a context that does not
have that ABI tag. See C++ Attributes for more information about
ABI tags.

-Wctor-dtor-privacy (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a class seems unusable because all the constructors or
destructors in that class are private, and it has neither friends
nor public static member functions. Also warn if there are no non-
private methods, and there’s at least one private member function
that isn’t a constructor or destructor.

-Wdelete-non-virtual-dtor (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when “delete” is used to destroy an instance of a class that
has virtual functions and non-virtual destructor. It is unsafe to
delete an instance of a derived class through a pointer to a base
class if the base class does not have a virtual destructor. This
warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wliteral-suffix (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a string or character literal is followed by a ud-suffix
which does not begin with an underscore. As a conforming
extension, GCC treats such suffixes as separate preprocessing
tokens in order to maintain backwards compatibility with code that
uses formatting macros from ““. For example:

#define __STDC_FORMAT_MACROS
#include
#include

int main() {
int64_t i64 = 123;
printf(“My int64: %”PRId64″\n”, i64);
}

In this case, “PRId64” is treated as a separate preprocessing
token.

This warning is enabled by default.

-Wnarrowing (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a narrowing conversion prohibited by C++11 occurs within
{ }, e.g.

int i = { 2.2 }; // error: narrowing from double to int

This flag is included in -Wall and -Wc++11-compat.

With -std=c++11, -Wno-narrowing suppresses the diagnostic required
by the standard. Note that this does not affect the meaning of
well-formed code; narrowing conversions are still considered ill-
formed in SFINAE context.

-Wnoexcept (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a noexcept-expression evaluates to false because of a
call to a function that does not have a non-throwing exception
specification (i.e. “throw()” or “noexcept”) but is known by the
compiler to never throw an exception.

-Wnon-virtual-dtor (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a class has virtual functions and an accessible non-
virtual destructor itself or in an accessible polymorphic base
class, in which case it is possible but unsafe to delete an
instance of a derived class through a pointer to the class itself
or base class. This warning is automatically enabled if -Weffc++
is specified.

-Wreorder (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when the order of member initializers given in the code does
not match the order in which they must be executed. For instance:

struct A {
int i;
int j;
A(): j (0), i (1) { }
};

The compiler rearranges the member initializers for “i” and “j” to
match the declaration order of the members, emitting a warning to
that effect. This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-fext-numeric-literals (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Accept imaginary, fixed-point, or machine-defined literal number
suffixes as GNU extensions. When this option is turned off these
suffixes are treated as C++11 user-defined literal numeric
suffixes. This is on by default for all pre-C++11 dialects and all
GNU dialects: -std=c++98, -std=gnu++98, -std=gnu++11, -std=gnu++14.
This option is off by default for ISO C++11 onwards (-std=c++11,
…).

The following -W… options are not affected by -Wall.

-Weffc++ (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about violations of the following style guidelines from Scott
Meyers’ Effective C++ series of books:

* Define a copy constructor and an assignment operator for
classes with dynamically-allocated memory.

* Prefer initialization to assignment in constructors.

* Have “operator=” return a reference to *this.

* Don’t try to return a reference when you must return an object.

* Distinguish between prefix and postfix forms of increment and
decrement operators.

* Never overload “&&”, “||”, or “,”.

This option also enables -Wnon-virtual-dtor, which is also one of
the effective C++ recommendations. However, the check is extended
to warn about the lack of virtual destructor in accessible non-
polymorphic bases classes too.

When selecting this option, be aware that the standard library
headers do not obey all of these guidelines; use grep -v to filter
out those warnings.

-Wstrict-null-sentinel (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about the use of an uncasted “NULL” as sentinel. When
compiling only with GCC this is a valid sentinel, as “NULL” is
defined to “__null”. Although it is a null pointer constant rather
than a null pointer, it is guaranteed to be of the same size as a
pointer. But this use is not portable across different compilers.

-Wno-non-template-friend (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Disable warnings when non-templatized friend functions are declared
within a template. Since the advent of explicit template
specification support in G++, if the name of the friend is an
unqualified-id (i.e., friend foo(int)), the C++ language
specification demands that the friend declare or define an
ordinary, nontemplate function. (Section 14.5.3). Before G++
implemented explicit specification, unqualified-ids could be
interpreted as a particular specialization of a templatized
function. Because this non-conforming behavior is no longer the
default behavior for G++, -Wnon-template-friend allows the compiler
to check existing code for potential trouble spots and is on by
default. This new compiler behavior can be turned off with
-Wno-non-template-friend, which keeps the conformant compiler code
but disables the helpful warning.

-Wold-style-cast (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if an old-style (C-style) cast to a non-void type is used
within a C++ program. The new-style casts (“dynamic_cast”,
“static_cast”, “reinterpret_cast”, and “const_cast”) are less
vulnerable to unintended effects and much easier to search for.

-Woverloaded-virtual (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a function declaration hides virtual functions from a
base class. For example, in:

struct A {
virtual void f();
};

struct B: public A {
void f(int);
};

the “A” class version of “f” is hidden in “B”, and code like:

B* b;
b->f();

fails to compile.

-Wno-pmf-conversions (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Disable the diagnostic for converting a bound pointer to member
function to a plain pointer.

-Wsign-promo (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when overload resolution chooses a promotion from unsigned or
enumerated type to a signed type, over a conversion to an unsigned
type of the same size. Previous versions of G++ tried to preserve
unsignedness, but the standard mandates the current behavior.

Options Controlling Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialects
(NOTE: This manual does not describe the Objective-C and Objective-C++
languages themselves.

This section describes the command-line options that are only
meaningful for Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs. You can also
use most of the language-independent GNU compiler options. For
example, you might compile a file some_class.m like this:

gcc -g -fgnu-runtime -O -c some_class.m

In this example, -fgnu-runtime is an option meant only for Objective-C
and Objective-C++ programs; you can use the other options with any
language supported by GCC.

Note that since Objective-C is an extension of the C language,
Objective-C compilations may also use options specific to the C front-
end (e.g., -Wtraditional). Similarly, Objective-C++ compilations may
use C++-specific options (e.g., -Wabi).

Here is a list of options that are only for compiling Objective-C and
Objective-C++ programs:

-fconstant-string-class=class-name
Use class-name as the name of the class to instantiate for each
literal string specified with the syntax “@”…””. The default
class name is “NXConstantString” if the GNU runtime is being used,
and “NSConstantString” if the NeXT runtime is being used (see
below). The -fconstant-cfstrings option, if also present,
overrides the -fconstant-string-class setting and cause “@”…””
literals to be laid out as constant CoreFoundation strings.

-fgnu-runtime
Generate object code compatible with the standard GNU Objective-C
runtime. This is the default for most types of systems.

-fnext-runtime
Generate output compatible with the NeXT runtime. This is the
default for NeXT-based systems, including Darwin and Mac OS X. The
macro “__NEXT_RUNTIME__” is predefined if (and only if) this option
is used.

-fno-nil-receivers
Assume that all Objective-C message dispatches (“[receiver
message:arg]”) in this translation unit ensure that the receiver is
not “nil”. This allows for more efficient entry points in the
runtime to be used. This option is only available in conjunction
with the NeXT runtime and ABI version 0 or 1.

-fobjc-abi-version=n
Use version n of the Objective-C ABI for the selected runtime.
This option is currently supported only for the NeXT runtime. In
that case, Version 0 is the traditional (32-bit) ABI without
support for properties and other Objective-C 2.0 additions.
Version 1 is the traditional (32-bit) ABI with support for
properties and other Objective-C 2.0 additions. Version 2 is the
modern (64-bit) ABI. If nothing is specified, the default is
Version 0 on 32-bit target machines, and Version 2 on 64-bit target
machines.

-fobjc-call-cxx-cdtors
For each Objective-C class, check if any of its instance variables
is a C++ object with a non-trivial default constructor. If so,
synthesize a special “- (id) .cxx_construct” instance method which
runs non-trivial default constructors on any such instance
variables, in order, and then return “self”. Similarly, check if
any instance variable is a C++ object with a non-trivial
destructor, and if so, synthesize a special “- (void)
.cxx_destruct” method which runs all such default destructors, in
reverse order.

The “- (id) .cxx_construct” and “- (void) .cxx_destruct” methods
thusly generated only operate on instance variables declared in the
current Objective-C class, and not those inherited from
superclasses. It is the responsibility of the Objective-C runtime
to invoke all such methods in an object’s inheritance hierarchy.
The “- (id) .cxx_construct” methods are invoked by the runtime
immediately after a new object instance is allocated; the “- (void)
.cxx_destruct” methods are invoked immediately before the runtime
deallocates an object instance.

As of this writing, only the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.4 and
later has support for invoking the “- (id) .cxx_construct” and “-
(void) .cxx_destruct” methods.

-fobjc-direct-dispatch
Allow fast jumps to the message dispatcher. On Darwin this is
accomplished via the comm page.

-fobjc-exceptions
Enable syntactic support for structured exception handling in
Objective-C, similar to what is offered by C++ and Java. This
option is required to use the Objective-C keywords @try, @throw,
@catch, @finally and @synchronized. This option is available with
both the GNU runtime and the NeXT runtime (but not available in
conjunction with the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.2 and earlier).

-fobjc-gc
Enable garbage collection (GC) in Objective-C and Objective-C++
programs. This option is only available with the NeXT runtime; the
GNU runtime has a different garbage collection implementation that
does not require special compiler flags.

-fobjc-nilcheck
For the NeXT runtime with version 2 of the ABI, check for a nil
receiver in method invocations before doing the actual method call.
This is the default and can be disabled using -fno-objc-nilcheck.
Class methods and super calls are never checked for nil in this way
no matter what this flag is set to. Currently this flag does
nothing when the GNU runtime, or an older version of the NeXT
runtime ABI, is used.

-fobjc-std=objc1
Conform to the language syntax of Objective-C 1.0, the language
recognized by GCC 4.0. This only affects the Objective-C additions
to the C/C++ language; it does not affect conformance to C/C++
standards, which is controlled by the separate C/C++ dialect option
flags. When this option is used with the Objective-C or
Objective-C++ compiler, any Objective-C syntax that is not
recognized by GCC 4.0 is rejected. This is useful if you need to
make sure that your Objective-C code can be compiled with older
versions of GCC.

-freplace-objc-classes
Emit a special marker instructing ld not to statically link in
the resulting object file, and allow dyld to load it in at run
time instead. This is used in conjunction with the Fix-and-
Continue debugging mode, where the object file in question may be
recompiled and dynamically reloaded in the course of program
execution, without the need to restart the program itself.
Currently, Fix-and-Continue functionality is only available in
conjunction with the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.3 and later.

-fzero-link
When compiling for the NeXT runtime, the compiler ordinarily
replaces calls to “objc_getClass(“…”)” (when the name of the
class is known at compile time) with static class references that
get initialized at load time, which improves run-time performance.
Specifying the -fzero-link flag suppresses this behavior and causes
calls to “objc_getClass(“…”)” to be retained. This is useful in
Zero-Link debugging mode, since it allows for individual class
implementations to be modified during program execution. The GNU
runtime currently always retains calls to “objc_get_class(“…”)”
regardless of command-line options.

-fno-local-ivars
By default instance variables in Objective-C can be accessed as if
they were local variables from within the methods of the class
they’re declared in. This can lead to shadowing between instance
variables and other variables declared either locally inside a
class method or globally with the same name. Specifying the
-fno-local-ivars flag disables this behavior thus avoiding variable
shadowing issues.

-fivar-visibility=[public|protected|private|package] Set the default instance variable visibility to the specified
option so that instance variables declared outside the scope of any
access modifier directives default to the specified visibility.

-gen-decls
Dump interface declarations for all classes seen in the source file
to a file named sourcename.decl.

-Wassign-intercept (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn whenever an Objective-C assignment is being intercepted by the
garbage collector.

-Wno-protocol (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
If a class is declared to implement a protocol, a warning is issued
for every method in the protocol that is not implemented by the
class. The default behavior is to issue a warning for every method
not explicitly implemented in the class, even if a method
implementation is inherited from the superclass. If you use the
-Wno-protocol option, then methods inherited from the superclass
are considered to be implemented, and no warning is issued for
them.

-Wselector (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if multiple methods of different types for the same selector
are found during compilation. The check is performed on the list
of methods in the final stage of compilation. Additionally, a
check is performed for each selector appearing in a
“@selector(…)” expression, and a corresponding method for that
selector has been found during compilation. Because these checks
scan the method table only at the end of compilation, these
warnings are not produced if the final stage of compilation is not
reached, for example because an error is found during compilation,
or because the -fsyntax-only option is being used.

-Wstrict-selector-match (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if multiple methods with differing argument and/or return
types are found for a given selector when attempting to send a
message using this selector to a receiver of type “id” or “Class”.
When this flag is off (which is the default behavior), the compiler
omits such warnings if any differences found are confined to types
that share the same size and alignment.

-Wundeclared-selector (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if a “@selector(…)” expression referring to an undeclared
selector is found. A selector is considered undeclared if no
method with that name has been declared before the “@selector(…)”
expression, either explicitly in an @interface or @protocol
declaration, or implicitly in an @implementation section. This
option always performs its checks as soon as a “@selector(…)”
expression is found, while -Wselector only performs its checks in
the final stage of compilation. This also enforces the coding
style convention that methods and selectors must be declared before
being used.

-print-objc-runtime-info
Generate C header describing the largest structure that is passed
by value, if any.

Options to Control Diagnostic Messages Formatting
Traditionally, diagnostic messages have been formatted irrespective of
the output device’s aspect (e.g. its width, …). You can use the
options described below to control the formatting algorithm for
diagnostic messages, e.g. how many characters per line, how often
source location information should be reported. Note that some
language front ends may not honor these options.

-fmessage-length=n
Try to format error messages so that they fit on lines of about n
characters. If n is zero, then no line-wrapping is done; each
error message appears on a single line. This is the default for
all front ends.

-fdiagnostics-show-location=once
Only meaningful in line-wrapping mode. Instructs the diagnostic
messages reporter to emit source location information once; that
is, in case the message is too long to fit on a single physical
line and has to be wrapped, the source location won’t be emitted
(as prefix) again, over and over, in subsequent continuation lines.
This is the default behavior.

-fdiagnostics-show-location=every-line
Only meaningful in line-wrapping mode. Instructs the diagnostic
messages reporter to emit the same source location information (as
prefix) for physical lines that result from the process of breaking
a message which is too long to fit on a single line.

-fdiagnostics-color[=WHEN] -fno-diagnostics-color
Use color in diagnostics. WHEN is never, always, or auto. The
default depends on how the compiler has been configured, it can be
any of the above WHEN options or also never if GCC_COLORS
environment variable isn’t present in the environment, and auto
otherwise. auto means to use color only when the standard error is
a terminal. The forms -fdiagnostics-color and
-fno-diagnostics-color are aliases for -fdiagnostics-color=always
and -fdiagnostics-color=never, respectively.

The colors are defined by the environment variable GCC_COLORS. Its
value is a colon-separated list of capabilities and Select Graphic
Rendition (SGR) substrings. SGR commands are interpreted by the
terminal or terminal emulator. (See the section in the
documentation of your text terminal for permitted values and their
meanings as character attributes.) These substring values are
integers in decimal representation and can be concatenated with
semicolons. Common values to concatenate include 1 for bold, 4 for
underline, 5 for blink, 7 for inverse, 39 for default foreground
color, 30 to 37 for foreground colors, 90 to 97 for 16-color mode
foreground colors, 38;5;0 to 38;5;255 for 88-color and 256-color
modes foreground colors, 49 for default background color, 40 to 47
for background colors, 100 to 107 for 16-color mode background
colors, and 48;5;0 to 48;5;255 for 88-color and 256-color modes
background colors.

The default GCC_COLORS is

error=01;31:warning=01;35:note=01;36:caret=01;32:locus=01:quote=01

where 01;31 is bold red, 01;35 is bold magenta, 01;36 is bold cyan,
01;32 is bold green and 01 is bold. Setting GCC_COLORS to the empty
string disables colors. Supported capabilities are as follows.

“error=”
SGR substring for error: markers.

“warning=”
SGR substring for warning: markers.

“note=”
SGR substring for note: markers.

“caret=”
SGR substring for caret line.

“locus=”
SGR substring for location information, file:line or
file:line:column etc.

“quote=”
SGR substring for information printed within quotes.

-fno-diagnostics-show-option
By default, each diagnostic emitted includes text indicating the
command-line option that directly controls the diagnostic (if such
an option is known to the diagnostic machinery). Specifying the
-fno-diagnostics-show-option flag suppresses that behavior.

-fno-diagnostics-show-caret
By default, each diagnostic emitted includes the original source
line and a caret ‘^’ indicating the column. This option suppresses
this information. The source line is truncated to n characters, if
the -fmessage-length=n option is given. When the output is done to
the terminal, the width is limited to the width given by the
COLUMNS environment variable or, if not set, to the terminal width.

Options to Request or Suppress Warnings
Warnings are diagnostic messages that report constructions that are not
inherently erroneous but that are risky or suggest there may have been
an error.

The following language-independent options do not enable specific
warnings but control the kinds of diagnostics produced by GCC.

-fsyntax-only
Check the code for syntax errors, but don’t do anything beyond
that.

-fmax-errors=n
Limits the maximum number of error messages to n, at which point
GCC bails out rather than attempting to continue processing the
source code. If n is 0 (the default), there is no limit on the
number of error messages produced. If -Wfatal-errors is also
specified, then -Wfatal-errors takes precedence over this option.

-w Inhibit all warning messages.

-Werror
Make all warnings into errors.

-Werror=
Make the specified warning into an error. The specifier for a
warning is appended; for example -Werror=switch turns the warnings
controlled by -Wswitch into errors. This switch takes a negative
form, to be used to negate -Werror for specific warnings; for
example -Wno-error=switch makes -Wswitch warnings not be errors,
even when -Werror is in effect.

The warning message for each controllable warning includes the
option that controls the warning. That option can then be used
with -Werror= and -Wno-error= as described above. (Printing of the
option in the warning message can be disabled using the
-fno-diagnostics-show-option flag.)

Note that specifying -Werror=foo automatically implies -Wfoo.
However, -Wno-error=foo does not imply anything.

-Wfatal-errors
This option causes the compiler to abort compilation on the first
error occurred rather than trying to keep going and printing
further error messages.

You can request many specific warnings with options beginning with -W,
for example -Wimplicit to request warnings on implicit declarations.
Each of these specific warning options also has a negative form
beginning -Wno- to turn off warnings; for example, -Wno-implicit. This
manual lists only one of the two forms, whichever is not the default.
For further language-specific options also refer to C++ Dialect Options
and Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialect Options.

Some options, such as -Wall and -Wextra, turn on other options, such as
-Wunused, which may turn on further options, such as -Wunused-value.
The combined effect of positive and negative forms is that more
specific options have priority over less specific ones, independently
of their position in the command-line. For options of the same
specificity, the last one takes effect. Options enabled or disabled via
pragmas take effect as if they appeared at the end of the command-line.

When an unrecognized warning option is requested (e.g.,
-Wunknown-warning), GCC emits a diagnostic stating that the option is
not recognized. However, if the -Wno- form is used, the behavior is
slightly different: no diagnostic is produced for -Wno-unknown-warning
unless other diagnostics are being produced. This allows the use of
new -Wno- options with old compilers, but if something goes wrong, the
compiler warns that an unrecognized option is present.

-Wpedantic
-pedantic
Issue all the warnings demanded by strict ISO C and ISO C++; reject
all programs that use forbidden extensions, and some other programs
that do not follow ISO C and ISO C++. For ISO C, follows the
version of the ISO C standard specified by any -std option used.

Valid ISO C and ISO C++ programs should compile properly with or
without this option (though a rare few require -ansi or a -std
option specifying the required version of ISO C). However, without
this option, certain GNU extensions and traditional C and C++
features are supported as well. With this option, they are
rejected.

-Wpedantic does not cause warning messages for use of the alternate
keywords whose names begin and end with __. Pedantic warnings are
also disabled in the expression that follows “__extension__”.
However, only system header files should use these escape routes;
application programs should avoid them.

Some users try to use -Wpedantic to check programs for strict ISO C
conformance. They soon find that it does not do quite what they
want: it finds some non-ISO practices, but not all—only those for
which ISO C requires a diagnostic, and some others for which
diagnostics have been added.

A feature to report any failure to conform to ISO C might be useful
in some instances, but would require considerable additional work
and would be quite different from -Wpedantic. We don’t have plans
to support such a feature in the near future.

Where the standard specified with -std represents a GNU extended
dialect of C, such as gnu90 or gnu99, there is a corresponding base
standard, the version of ISO C on which the GNU extended dialect is
based. Warnings from -Wpedantic are given where they are required
by the base standard. (It does not make sense for such warnings to
be given only for features not in the specified GNU C dialect,
since by definition the GNU dialects of C include all features the
compiler supports with the given option, and there would be nothing
to warn about.)

-pedantic-errors
Give an error whenever the base standard (see -Wpedantic) requires
a diagnostic, in some cases where there is undefined behavior at
compile-time and in some other cases that do not prevent
compilation of programs that are valid according to the standard.
This is not equivalent to -Werror=pedantic, since there are errors
enabled by this option and not enabled by the latter and vice
versa.

-Wall
This enables all the warnings about constructions that some users
consider questionable, and that are easy to avoid (or modify to
prevent the warning), even in conjunction with macros. This also
enables some language-specific warnings described in C++ Dialect
Options and Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialect Options.

-Wall turns on the following warning flags:

-Waddress -Warray-bounds=1 (only with -O2) -Wc++11-compat
-Wc++14-compat -Wchar-subscripts -Wenum-compare (in C/ObjC; this is
on by default in C++) -Wimplicit-int (C and Objective-C only)
-Wimplicit-function-declaration (C and Objective-C only) -Wcomment
-Wformat -Wmain (only for C/ObjC and unless -ffreestanding)
-Wmaybe-uninitialized -Wmissing-braces (only for C/ObjC) -Wnonnull
-Wopenmp-simd -Wparentheses -Wpointer-sign -Wreorder -Wreturn-type
-Wsequence-point -Wsign-compare (only in C++) -Wstrict-aliasing
-Wstrict-overflow=1 -Wswitch -Wtrigraphs -Wuninitialized
-Wunknown-pragmas -Wunused-function -Wunused-label -Wunused-value
-Wunused-variable -Wvolatile-register-var

Note that some warning flags are not implied by -Wall. Some of
them warn about constructions that users generally do not consider
questionable, but which occasionally you might wish to check for;
others warn about constructions that are necessary or hard to avoid
in some cases, and there is no simple way to modify the code to
suppress the warning. Some of them are enabled by -Wextra but many
of them must be enabled individually.

-Wextra
This enables some extra warning flags that are not enabled by
-Wall. (This option used to be called -W. The older name is still
supported, but the newer name is more descriptive.)

-Wclobbered -Wempty-body -Wignored-qualifiers
-Wmissing-field-initializers -Wmissing-parameter-type (C only)
-Wold-style-declaration (C only) -Woverride-init -Wsign-compare
-Wtype-limits -Wuninitialized -Wunused-parameter (only with
-Wunused or -Wall) -Wunused-but-set-parameter (only with -Wunused
or -Wall)

The option -Wextra also prints warning messages for the following
cases:

* A pointer is compared against integer zero with “<", "<=", ">“,
or “>=”.

* (C++ only) An enumerator and a non-enumerator both appear in a
conditional expression.

* (C++ only) Ambiguous virtual bases.

* (C++ only) Subscripting an array that has been declared
“register”.

* (C++ only) Taking the address of a variable that has been
declared “register”.

* (C++ only) A base class is not initialized in a derived class’s
copy constructor.

-Wchar-subscripts
Warn if an array subscript has type “char”. This is a common cause
of error, as programmers often forget that this type is signed on
some machines. This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wcomment
Warn whenever a comment-start sequence /* appears in a /* comment,
or whenever a Backslash-Newline appears in a // comment. This
warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wno-coverage-mismatch
Warn if feedback profiles do not match when using the -fprofile-use
option. If a source file is changed between compiling with
-fprofile-gen and with -fprofile-use, the files with the profile
feedback can fail to match the source file and GCC cannot use the
profile feedback information. By default, this warning is enabled
and is treated as an error. -Wno-coverage-mismatch can be used to
disable the warning or -Wno-error=coverage-mismatch can be used to
disable the error. Disabling the error for this warning can result
in poorly optimized code and is useful only in the case of very
minor changes such as bug fixes to an existing code-base.
Completely disabling the warning is not recommended.

-Wno-cpp
(C, Objective-C, C++, Objective-C++ and Fortran only)

Suppress warning messages emitted by “#warning” directives.

-Wdouble-promotion (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Give a warning when a value of type “float” is implicitly promoted
to “double”. CPUs with a 32-bit “single-precision” floating-point
unit implement “float” in hardware, but emulate “double” in
software. On such a machine, doing computations using “double”
values is much more expensive because of the overhead required for
software emulation.

It is easy to accidentally do computations with “double” because
floating-point literals are implicitly of type “double”. For
example, in:

float area(float radius)
{
return 3.14159 * radius * radius;
}

the compiler performs the entire computation with “double” because
the floating-point literal is a “double”.

-Wformat
-Wformat=n
Check calls to “printf” and “scanf”, etc., to make sure that the
arguments supplied have types appropriate to the format string
specified, and that the conversions specified in the format string
make sense. This includes standard functions, and others specified
by format attributes, in the “printf”, “scanf”, “strftime” and
“strfmon” (an X/Open extension, not in the C standard) families (or
other target-specific families). Which functions are checked
without format attributes having been specified depends on the
standard version selected, and such checks of functions without the
attribute specified are disabled by -ffreestanding or -fno-builtin.

The formats are checked against the format features supported by
GNU libc version 2.2. These include all ISO C90 and C99 features,
as well as features from the Single Unix Specification and some BSD
and GNU extensions. Other library implementations may not support
all these features; GCC does not support warning about features
that go beyond a particular library’s limitations. However, if
-Wpedantic is used with -Wformat, warnings are given about format
features not in the selected standard version (but not for
“strfmon” formats, since those are not in any version of the C
standard).

-Wformat=1
-Wformat
Option -Wformat is equivalent to -Wformat=1, and -Wno-format is
equivalent to -Wformat=0. Since -Wformat also checks for null
format arguments for several functions, -Wformat also implies
-Wnonnull. Some aspects of this level of format checking can
be disabled by the options: -Wno-format-contains-nul,
-Wno-format-extra-args, and -Wno-format-zero-length. -Wformat
is enabled by -Wall.

-Wno-format-contains-nul
If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about format strings that
contain NUL bytes.

-Wno-format-extra-args
If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about excess arguments to
a “printf” or “scanf” format function. The C standard
specifies that such arguments are ignored.

Where the unused arguments lie between used arguments that are
specified with $ operand number specifications, normally
warnings are still given, since the implementation could not
know what type to pass to “va_arg” to skip the unused
arguments. However, in the case of “scanf” formats, this
option suppresses the warning if the unused arguments are all
pointers, since the Single Unix Specification says that such
unused arguments are allowed.

-Wno-format-zero-length
If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about zero-length
formats. The C standard specifies that zero-length formats are
allowed.

-Wformat=2
Enable -Wformat plus additional format checks. Currently
equivalent to -Wformat -Wformat-nonliteral -Wformat-security
-Wformat-y2k.

-Wformat-nonliteral
If -Wformat is specified, also warn if the format string is not
a string literal and so cannot be checked, unless the format
function takes its format arguments as a “va_list”.

-Wformat-security
If -Wformat is specified, also warn about uses of format
functions that represent possible security problems. At
present, this warns about calls to “printf” and “scanf”
functions where the format string is not a string literal and
there are no format arguments, as in “printf (foo);”. This may
be a security hole if the format string came from untrusted
input and contains %n. (This is currently a subset of what
-Wformat-nonliteral warns about, but in future warnings may be
added to -Wformat-security that are not included in
-Wformat-nonliteral.)

-Wformat-signedness
If -Wformat is specified, also warn if the format string
requires an unsigned argument and the argument is signed and
vice versa.

NOTE: In Ubuntu 8.10 and later versions this option is enabled
by default for C, C++, ObjC, ObjC++. To disable, use
-Wno-format-security, or disable all format warnings with
-Wformat=0. To make format security warnings fatal, specify
-Werror=format-security.

-Wformat-y2k
If -Wformat is specified, also warn about “strftime” formats
that may yield only a two-digit year.

-Wnonnull
Warn about passing a null pointer for arguments marked as requiring
a non-null value by the “nonnull” function attribute.

-Wnonnull is included in -Wall and -Wformat. It can be disabled
with the -Wno-nonnull option.

-Winit-self (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about uninitialized variables that are initialized with
themselves. Note this option can only be used with the
-Wuninitialized option.

For example, GCC warns about “i” being uninitialized in the
following snippet only when -Winit-self has been specified:

int f()
{
int i = i;
return i;
}

This warning is enabled by -Wall in C++.

-Wimplicit-int (C and Objective-C only)
Warn when a declaration does not specify a type. This warning is
enabled by -Wall.

-Wimplicit-function-declaration (C and Objective-C only)
Give a warning whenever a function is used before being declared.
In C99 mode (-std=c99 or -std=gnu99), this warning is enabled by
default and it is made into an error by -pedantic-errors. This
warning is also enabled by -Wall.

-Wimplicit (C and Objective-C only)
Same as -Wimplicit-int and -Wimplicit-function-declaration. This
warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wignored-qualifiers (C and C++ only)
Warn if the return type of a function has a type qualifier such as
“const”. For ISO C such a type qualifier has no effect, since the
value returned by a function is not an lvalue. For C++, the
warning is only emitted for scalar types or “void”. ISO C
prohibits qualified “void” return types on function definitions, so
such return types always receive a warning even without this
option.

This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.

-Wmain
Warn if the type of “main” is suspicious. “main” should be a
function with external linkage, returning int, taking either zero
arguments, two, or three arguments of appropriate types. This
warning is enabled by default in C++ and is enabled by either -Wall
or -Wpedantic.

-Wmissing-braces
Warn if an aggregate or union initializer is not fully bracketed.
In the following example, the initializer for “a” is not fully
bracketed, but that for “b” is fully bracketed. This warning is
enabled by -Wall in C.

int a[2][2] = { 0, 1, 2, 3 };
int b[2][2] = { { 0, 1 }, { 2, 3 } };

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wmissing-include-dirs (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if a user-supplied include directory does not exist.

-Wparentheses
Warn if parentheses are omitted in certain contexts, such as when
there is an assignment in a context where a truth value is
expected, or when operators are nested whose precedence people
often get confused about.

Also warn if a comparison like “x<=y<=z" appears; this is equivalent to "(x<=y ? 1 : 0) <= z", which is a different interpretation from that of ordinary mathematical notation. Also warn about constructions where there may be confusion to which "if" statement an "else" branch belongs. Here is an example of such a case: { if (a) if (b) foo (); else bar (); } In C/C++, every "else" branch belongs to the innermost possible "if" statement, which in this example is "if (b)". This is often not what the programmer expected, as illustrated in the above example by indentation the programmer chose. When there is the potential for this confusion, GCC issues a warning when this flag is specified. To eliminate the warning, add explicit braces around the innermost "if" statement so there is no way the "else" can belong to the enclosing "if". The resulting code looks like this: { if (a) { if (b) foo (); else bar (); } } Also warn for dangerous uses of the GNU extension to "?:" with omitted middle operand. When the condition in the "?": operator is a boolean expression, the omitted value is always 1. Often programmers expect it to be a value computed inside the conditional expression instead. This warning is enabled by -Wall. -Wsequence-point Warn about code that may have undefined semantics because of violations of sequence point rules in the C and C++ standards. The C and C++ standards define the order in which expressions in a C/C++ program are evaluated in terms of sequence points, which represent a partial ordering between the execution of parts of the program: those executed before the sequence point, and those executed after it. These occur after the evaluation of a full expression (one which is not part of a larger expression), after the evaluation of the first operand of a "&&", "||", "? :" or "," (comma) operator, before a function is called (but after the evaluation of its arguments and the expression denoting the called function), and in certain other places. Other than as expressed by the sequence point rules, the order of evaluation of subexpressions of an expression is not specified. All these rules describe only a partial order rather than a total order, since, for example, if two functions are called within one expression with no sequence point between them, the order in which the functions are called is not specified. However, the standards committee have ruled that function calls do not overlap. It is not specified when between sequence points modifications to the values of objects take effect. Programs whose behavior depends on this have undefined behavior; the C and C++ standards specify that "Between the previous and next sequence point an object shall have its stored value modified at most once by the evaluation of an expression. Furthermore, the prior value shall be read only to determine the value to be stored.". If a program breaks these rules, the results on any particular implementation are entirely unpredictable. Examples of code with undefined behavior are "a = a++;", "a[n] = b[n++]" and "a[i++] = i;". Some more complicated cases are not diagnosed by this option, and it may give an occasional false positive result, but in general it has been found fairly effective at detecting this sort of problem in programs. The standard is worded confusingly, therefore there is some debate over the precise meaning of the sequence point rules in subtle cases. Links to discussions of the problem, including proposed formal definitions, may be found on the GCC readings page, at .

This warning is enabled by -Wall for C and C++.

-Wno-return-local-addr
Do not warn about returning a pointer (or in C++, a reference) to a
variable that goes out of scope after the function returns.

-Wreturn-type
Warn whenever a function is defined with a return type that
defaults to “int”. Also warn about any “return” statement with no
return value in a function whose return type is not “void” (falling
off the end of the function body is considered returning without a
value), and about a “return” statement with an expression in a
function whose return type is “void”.

For C++, a function without return type always produces a
diagnostic message, even when -Wno-return-type is specified. The
only exceptions are “main” and functions defined in system headers.

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wshift-count-negative
Warn if shift count is negative. This warning is enabled by
default.

-Wshift-count-overflow
Warn if shift count >= width of type. This warning is enabled by
default.

-Wswitch
Warn whenever a “switch” statement has an index of enumerated type
and lacks a “case” for one or more of the named codes of that
enumeration. (The presence of a “default” label prevents this
warning.) “case” labels outside the enumeration range also provoke
warnings when this option is used (even if there is a “default”
label). This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wswitch-default
Warn whenever a “switch” statement does not have a “default” case.

-Wswitch-enum
Warn whenever a “switch” statement has an index of enumerated type
and lacks a “case” for one or more of the named codes of that
enumeration. “case” labels outside the enumeration range also
provoke warnings when this option is used. The only difference
between -Wswitch and this option is that this option gives a
warning about an omitted enumeration code even if there is a
“default” label.

-Wswitch-bool
Warn whenever a “switch” statement has an index of boolean type.
It is possible to suppress this warning by casting the controlling
expression to a type other than “bool”. For example:

switch ((int) (a == 4))
{

}

This warning is enabled by default for C and C++ programs.

-Wsync-nand (C and C++ only)
Warn when “__sync_fetch_and_nand” and “__sync_nand_and_fetch”
built-in functions are used. These functions changed semantics in
GCC 4.4.

-Wtrigraphs
Warn if any trigraphs are encountered that might change the meaning
of the program (trigraphs within comments are not warned about).
This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wunused-but-set-parameter
Warn whenever a function parameter is assigned to, but otherwise
unused (aside from its declaration).

To suppress this warning use the “unused” attribute.

This warning is also enabled by -Wunused together with -Wextra.

-Wunused-but-set-variable
Warn whenever a local variable is assigned to, but otherwise unused
(aside from its declaration). This warning is enabled by -Wall.

To suppress this warning use the “unused” attribute.

This warning is also enabled by -Wunused, which is enabled by
-Wall.

-Wunused-function
Warn whenever a static function is declared but not defined or a
non-inline static function is unused. This warning is enabled by
-Wall.

-Wunused-label
Warn whenever a label is declared but not used. This warning is
enabled by -Wall.

To suppress this warning use the “unused” attribute.

-Wunused-local-typedefs (C, Objective-C, C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a typedef locally defined in a function is not used.
This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wunused-parameter
Warn whenever a function parameter is unused aside from its
declaration.

To suppress this warning use the “unused” attribute.

-Wno-unused-result
Do not warn if a caller of a function marked with attribute
“warn_unused_result” does not use its return value. The default is
-Wunused-result.

-Wunused-variable
Warn whenever a local variable or non-constant static variable is
unused aside from its declaration. This warning is enabled by
-Wall.

To suppress this warning use the “unused” attribute.

-Wunused-value
Warn whenever a statement computes a result that is explicitly not
used. To suppress this warning cast the unused expression to
“void”. This includes an expression-statement or the left-hand side
of a comma expression that contains no side effects. For example,
an expression such as “x[i,j]” causes a warning, while
“x[(void)i,j]” does not.

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wunused
All the above -Wunused options combined.

In order to get a warning about an unused function parameter, you
must either specify -Wextra -Wunused (note that -Wall implies
-Wunused), or separately specify -Wunused-parameter.

-Wuninitialized
Warn if an automatic variable is used without first being
initialized or if a variable may be clobbered by a “setjmp” call.
In C++, warn if a non-static reference or non-static “const” member
appears in a class without constructors.

If you want to warn about code that uses the uninitialized value of
the variable in its own initializer, use the -Winit-self option.

These warnings occur for individual uninitialized or clobbered
elements of structure, union or array variables as well as for
variables that are uninitialized or clobbered as a whole. They do
not occur for variables or elements declared “volatile”. Because
these warnings depend on optimization, the exact variables or
elements for which there are warnings depends on the precise
optimization options and version of GCC used.

Note that there may be no warning about a variable that is used
only to compute a value that itself is never used, because such
computations may be deleted by data flow analysis before the
warnings are printed.

-Wmaybe-uninitialized
For an automatic variable, if there exists a path from the function
entry to a use of the variable that is initialized, but there exist
some other paths for which the variable is not initialized, the
compiler emits a warning if it cannot prove the uninitialized paths
are not executed at run time. These warnings are made optional
because GCC is not smart enough to see all the reasons why the code
might be correct in spite of appearing to have an error. Here is
one example of how this can happen:

{
int x;
switch (y)
{
case 1: x = 1;
break;
case 2: x = 4;
break;
case 3: x = 5;
}
foo (x);
}

If the value of “y” is always 1, 2 or 3, then “x” is always
initialized, but GCC doesn’t know this. To suppress the warning,
you need to provide a default case with assert(0) or similar code.

This option also warns when a non-volatile automatic variable might
be changed by a call to “longjmp”. These warnings as well are
possible only in optimizing compilation.

The compiler sees only the calls to “setjmp”. It cannot know where
“longjmp” will be called; in fact, a signal handler could call it
at any point in the code. As a result, you may get a warning even
when there is in fact no problem because “longjmp” cannot in fact
be called at the place that would cause a problem.

Some spurious warnings can be avoided if you declare all the
functions you use that never return as “noreturn”.

This warning is enabled by -Wall or -Wextra.

-Wunknown-pragmas
Warn when a “#pragma” directive is encountered that is not
understood by GCC. If this command-line option is used, warnings
are even issued for unknown pragmas in system header files. This
is not the case if the warnings are only enabled by the -Wall
command-line option.

-Wno-pragmas
Do not warn about misuses of pragmas, such as incorrect parameters,
invalid syntax, or conflicts between pragmas. See also
-Wunknown-pragmas.

-Wstrict-aliasing
This option is only active when -fstrict-aliasing is active. It
warns about code that might break the strict aliasing rules that
the compiler is using for optimization. The warning does not catch
all cases, but does attempt to catch the more common pitfalls. It
is included in -Wall. It is equivalent to -Wstrict-aliasing=3

-Wstrict-aliasing=n
This option is only active when -fstrict-aliasing is active. It
warns about code that might break the strict aliasing rules that
the compiler is using for optimization. Higher levels correspond
to higher accuracy (fewer false positives). Higher levels also
correspond to more effort, similar to the way -O works.
-Wstrict-aliasing is equivalent to -Wstrict-aliasing=3.

Level 1: Most aggressive, quick, least accurate. Possibly useful
when higher levels do not warn but -fstrict-aliasing still breaks
the code, as it has very few false negatives. However, it has many
false positives. Warns for all pointer conversions between
possibly incompatible types, even if never dereferenced. Runs in
the front end only.

Level 2: Aggressive, quick, not too precise. May still have many
false positives (not as many as level 1 though), and few false
negatives (but possibly more than level 1). Unlike level 1, it
only warns when an address is taken. Warns about incomplete types.
Runs in the front end only.

Level 3 (default for -Wstrict-aliasing): Should have very few false
positives and few false negatives. Slightly slower than levels 1
or 2 when optimization is enabled. Takes care of the common
pun+dereference pattern in the front end: “*(int*)&some_float”. If
optimization is enabled, it also runs in the back end, where it
deals with multiple statement cases using flow-sensitive points-to
information. Only warns when the converted pointer is
dereferenced. Does not warn about incomplete types.

-Wstrict-overflow
-Wstrict-overflow=n
This option is only active when -fstrict-overflow is active. It
warns about cases where the compiler optimizes based on the
assumption that signed overflow does not occur. Note that it does
not warn about all cases where the code might overflow: it only
warns about cases where the compiler implements some optimization.
Thus this warning depends on the optimization level.

An optimization that assumes that signed overflow does not occur is
perfectly safe if the values of the variables involved are such
that overflow never does, in fact, occur. Therefore this warning
can easily give a false positive: a warning about code that is not
actually a problem. To help focus on important issues, several
warning levels are defined. No warnings are issued for the use of
undefined signed overflow when estimating how many iterations a
loop requires, in particular when determining whether a loop will
be executed at all.

-Wstrict-overflow=1
Warn about cases that are both questionable and easy to avoid.
For example, with -fstrict-overflow, the compiler simplifies
“x + 1 > x” to 1. This level of -Wstrict-overflow is enabled
by -Wall; higher levels are not, and must be explicitly
requested.

-Wstrict-overflow=2
Also warn about other cases where a comparison is simplified to
a constant. For example: “abs (x) >= 0”. This can only be
simplified when -fstrict-overflow is in effect, because “abs
(INT_MIN)” overflows to “INT_MIN”, which is less than zero.
-Wstrict-overflow (with no level) is the same as
-Wstrict-overflow=2.

-Wstrict-overflow=3
Also warn about other cases where a comparison is simplified.
For example: “x + 1 > 1” is simplified to “x > 0”.

-Wstrict-overflow=4
Also warn about other simplifications not covered by the above
cases. For example: “(x * 10) / 5” is simplified to “x * 2”.

-Wstrict-overflow=5
Also warn about cases where the compiler reduces the magnitude
of a constant involved in a comparison. For example: “x + 2 >
y” is simplified to “x + 1 >= y”. This is reported only at the
highest warning level because this simplification applies to
many comparisons, so this warning level gives a very large
number of false positives.

-Wsuggest-attribute=[pure|const|noreturn|format] Warn for cases where adding an attribute may be beneficial. The
attributes currently supported are listed below.

-Wsuggest-attribute=pure
-Wsuggest-attribute=const
-Wsuggest-attribute=noreturn
Warn about functions that might be candidates for attributes
“pure”, “const” or “noreturn”. The compiler only warns for
functions visible in other compilation units or (in the case of
“pure” and “const”) if it cannot prove that the function
returns normally. A function returns normally if it doesn’t
contain an infinite loop or return abnormally by throwing,
calling “abort” or trapping. This analysis requires option
-fipa-pure-const, which is enabled by default at -O and higher.
Higher optimization levels improve the accuracy of the
analysis.

-Wsuggest-attribute=format
-Wmissing-format-attribute
Warn about function pointers that might be candidates for
“format” attributes. Note these are only possible candidates,
not absolute ones. GCC guesses that function pointers with
“format” attributes that are used in assignment,
initialization, parameter passing or return statements should
have a corresponding “format” attribute in the resulting type.
I.e. the left-hand side of the assignment or initialization,
the type of the parameter variable, or the return type of the
containing function respectively should also have a “format”
attribute to avoid the warning.

GCC also warns about function definitions that might be
candidates for “format” attributes. Again, these are only
possible candidates. GCC guesses that “format” attributes
might be appropriate for any function that calls a function
like “vprintf” or “vscanf”, but this might not always be the
case, and some functions for which “format” attributes are
appropriate may not be detected.

-Wsuggest-final-types
Warn about types with virtual methods where code quality would be
improved if the type were declared with the C++11 “final”
specifier, or, if possible, declared in an anonymous namespace.
This allows GCC to more aggressively devirtualize the polymorphic
calls. This warning is more effective with link time optimization,
where the information about the class hierarchy graph is more
complete.

-Wsuggest-final-methods
Warn about virtual methods where code quality would be improved if
the method were declared with the C++11 “final” specifier, or, if
possible, its type were declared in an anonymous namespace or with
the “final” specifier. This warning is more effective with link
time optimization, where the information about the class hierarchy
graph is more complete. It is recommended to first consider
suggestions of -Wsuggest-final-types and then rebuild with new
annotations.

-Wsuggest-override
Warn about overriding virtual functions that are not marked with
the override keyword.

-Warray-bounds
-Warray-bounds=n
This option is only active when -ftree-vrp is active (default for
-O2 and above). It warns about subscripts to arrays that are always
out of bounds. This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Warray-bounds=1
This is the warning level of -Warray-bounds and is enabled by
-Wall; higher levels are not, and must be explicitly requested.

-Warray-bounds=2
This warning level also warns about out of bounds access for
arrays at the end of a struct and for arrays accessed through
pointers. This warning level may give a larger number of false
positives and is deactivated by default.

-Wbool-compare
Warn about boolean expression compared with an integer value
different from “true”/”false”. For instance, the following
comparison is always false:

int n = 5;

if ((n > 1) == 2) { … }

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wno-discarded-qualifiers (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn if type qualifiers on pointers are being discarded.
Typically, the compiler warns if a “const char *” variable is
passed to a function that takes a “char *” parameter. This option
can be used to suppress such a warning.

-Wno-discarded-array-qualifiers (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn if type qualifiers on arrays which are pointer targets
are being discarded. Typically, the compiler warns if a “const int
(*)[]” variable is passed to a function that takes a “int (*)[]”
parameter. This option can be used to suppress such a warning.

-Wno-incompatible-pointer-types (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn when there is a conversion between pointers that have
incompatible types. This warning is for cases not covered by
-Wno-pointer-sign, which warns for pointer argument passing or
assignment with different signedness.

-Wno-int-conversion (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn about incompatible integer to pointer and pointer to
integer conversions. This warning is about implicit conversions;
for explicit conversions the warnings -Wno-int-to-pointer-cast and
-Wno-pointer-to-int-cast may be used.

-Wno-div-by-zero
Do not warn about compile-time integer division by zero. Floating-
point division by zero is not warned about, as it can be a
legitimate way of obtaining infinities and NaNs.

-Wsystem-headers
Print warning messages for constructs found in system header files.
Warnings from system headers are normally suppressed, on the
assumption that they usually do not indicate real problems and
would only make the compiler output harder to read. Using this
command-line option tells GCC to emit warnings from system headers
as if they occurred in user code. However, note that using -Wall
in conjunction with this option does not warn about unknown pragmas
in system headers—for that, -Wunknown-pragmas must also be used.

-Wtrampolines
Warn about trampolines generated for pointers to nested functions.
A trampoline is a small piece of data or code that is created at
run time on the stack when the address of a nested function is
taken, and is used to call the nested function indirectly. For
some targets, it is made up of data only and thus requires no
special treatment. But, for most targets, it is made up of code
and thus requires the stack to be made executable in order for the
program to work properly.

-Wfloat-equal
Warn if floating-point values are used in equality comparisons.

The idea behind this is that sometimes it is convenient (for the
programmer) to consider floating-point values as approximations to
infinitely precise real numbers. If you are doing this, then you
need to compute (by analyzing the code, or in some other way) the
maximum or likely maximum error that the computation introduces,
and allow for it when performing comparisons (and when producing
output, but that’s a different problem). In particular, instead of
testing for equality, you should check to see whether the two
values have ranges that overlap; and this is done with the
relational operators, so equality comparisons are probably
mistaken.

-Wtraditional (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about certain constructs that behave differently in
traditional and ISO C. Also warn about ISO C constructs that have
no traditional C equivalent, and/or problematic constructs that
should be avoided.

* Macro parameters that appear within string literals in the
macro body. In traditional C macro replacement takes place
within string literals, but in ISO C it does not.

* In traditional C, some preprocessor directives did not exist.
Traditional preprocessors only considered a line to be a
directive if the # appeared in column 1 on the line. Therefore
-Wtraditional warns about directives that traditional C
understands but ignores because the # does not appear as the
first character on the line. It also suggests you hide
directives like “#pragma” not understood by traditional C by
indenting them. Some traditional implementations do not
recognize “#elif”, so this option suggests avoiding it
altogether.

* A function-like macro that appears without arguments.

* The unary plus operator.

* The U integer constant suffix, or the F or L floating-point
constant suffixes. (Traditional C does support the L suffix on
integer constants.) Note, these suffixes appear in macros
defined in the system headers of most modern systems, e.g. the
_MIN/_MAX macros in ““. Use of these macros in user
code might normally lead to spurious warnings, however GCC’s
integrated preprocessor has enough context to avoid warning in
these cases.

* A function declared external in one block and then used after
the end of the block.

* A “switch” statement has an operand of type “long”.

* A non-“static” function declaration follows a “static” one.
This construct is not accepted by some traditional C compilers.

* The ISO type of an integer constant has a different width or
signedness from its traditional type. This warning is only
issued if the base of the constant is ten. I.e. hexadecimal or
octal values, which typically represent bit patterns, are not
warned about.

* Usage of ISO string concatenation is detected.

* Initialization of automatic aggregates.

* Identifier conflicts with labels. Traditional C lacks a
separate namespace for labels.

* Initialization of unions. If the initializer is zero, the
warning is omitted. This is done under the assumption that the
zero initializer in user code appears conditioned on e.g.
“__STDC__” to avoid missing initializer warnings and relies on
default initialization to zero in the traditional C case.

* Conversions by prototypes between fixed/floating-point values
and vice versa. The absence of these prototypes when compiling
with traditional C causes serious problems. This is a subset
of the possible conversion warnings; for the full set use
-Wtraditional-conversion.

* Use of ISO C style function definitions. This warning
intentionally is not issued for prototype declarations or
variadic functions because these ISO C features appear in your
code when using libiberty’s traditional C compatibility macros,
“PARAMS” and “VPARAMS”. This warning is also bypassed for
nested functions because that feature is already a GCC
extension and thus not relevant to traditional C compatibility.

-Wtraditional-conversion (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a prototype causes a type conversion that is different from
what would happen to the same argument in the absence of a
prototype. This includes conversions of fixed point to floating
and vice versa, and conversions changing the width or signedness of
a fixed-point argument except when the same as the default
promotion.

-Wdeclaration-after-statement (C and Objective-C only)
Warn when a declaration is found after a statement in a block.
This construct, known from C++, was introduced with ISO C99 and is
by default allowed in GCC. It is not supported by ISO C90.

-Wundef
Warn if an undefined identifier is evaluated in an “#if” directive.

-Wno-endif-labels
Do not warn whenever an “#else” or an “#endif” are followed by
text.

-Wshadow
Warn whenever a local variable or type declaration shadows another
variable, parameter, type, class member (in C++), or instance
variable (in Objective-C) or whenever a built-in function is
shadowed. Note that in C++, the compiler warns if a local variable
shadows an explicit typedef, but not if it shadows a
struct/class/enum.

-Wno-shadow-ivar (Objective-C only)
Do not warn whenever a local variable shadows an instance variable
in an Objective-C method.

-Wlarger-than=len
Warn whenever an object of larger than len bytes is defined.

-Wframe-larger-than=len
Warn if the size of a function frame is larger than len bytes. The
computation done to determine the stack frame size is approximate
and not conservative. The actual requirements may be somewhat
greater than len even if you do not get a warning. In addition,
any space allocated via “alloca”, variable-length arrays, or
related constructs is not included by the compiler when determining
whether or not to issue a warning.

-Wno-free-nonheap-object
Do not warn when attempting to free an object that was not
allocated on the heap.

-Wstack-usage=len
Warn if the stack usage of a function might be larger than len
bytes. The computation done to determine the stack usage is
conservative. Any space allocated via “alloca”, variable-length
arrays, or related constructs is included by the compiler when
determining whether or not to issue a warning.

The message is in keeping with the output of -fstack-usage.

* If the stack usage is fully static but exceeds the specified
amount, it’s:

warning: stack usage is 1120 bytes

* If the stack usage is (partly) dynamic but bounded, it’s:

warning: stack usage might be 1648 bytes

* If the stack usage is (partly) dynamic and not bounded, it’s:

warning: stack usage might be unbounded

-Wunsafe-loop-optimizations
Warn if the loop cannot be optimized because the compiler cannot
assume anything on the bounds of the loop indices. With
-funsafe-loop-optimizations warn if the compiler makes such
assumptions.

-Wno-pedantic-ms-format (MinGW targets only)
When used in combination with -Wformat and -pedantic without GNU
extensions, this option disables the warnings about non-ISO
“printf” / “scanf” format width specifiers “I32”, “I64”, and “I”
used on Windows targets, which depend on the MS runtime.

-Wpointer-arith
Warn about anything that depends on the “size of” a function type
or of “void”. GNU C assigns these types a size of 1, for
convenience in calculations with “void *” pointers and pointers to
functions. In C++, warn also when an arithmetic operation involves
“NULL”. This warning is also enabled by -Wpedantic.

-Wtype-limits
Warn if a comparison is always true or always false due to the
limited range of the data type, but do not warn for constant
expressions. For example, warn if an unsigned variable is compared
against zero with “<" or ">=”. This warning is also enabled by
-Wextra.

-Wbad-function-cast (C and Objective-C only)
Warn when a function call is cast to a non-matching type. For
example, warn if a call to a function returning an integer type is
cast to a pointer type.

-Wc90-c99-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about features not present in ISO C90, but present in ISO C99.
For instance, warn about use of variable length arrays, “long long”
type, “bool” type, compound literals, designated initializers, and
so on. This option is independent of the standards mode. Warnings
are disabled in the expression that follows “__extension__”.

-Wc99-c11-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about features not present in ISO C99, but present in ISO C11.
For instance, warn about use of anonymous structures and unions,
“_Atomic” type qualifier, “_Thread_local” storage-class specifier,
“_Alignas” specifier, “Alignof” operator, “_Generic” keyword, and
so on. This option is independent of the standards mode. Warnings
are disabled in the expression that follows “__extension__”.

-Wc++-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about ISO C constructs that are outside of the common subset
of ISO C and ISO C++, e.g. request for implicit conversion from
“void *” to a pointer to non-“void” type.

-Wc++11-compat (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about C++ constructs whose meaning differs between ISO C++
1998 and ISO C++ 2011, e.g., identifiers in ISO C++ 1998 that are
keywords in ISO C++ 2011. This warning turns on -Wnarrowing and is
enabled by -Wall.

-Wc++14-compat (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about C++ constructs whose meaning differs between ISO C++
2011 and ISO C++ 2014. This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wcast-qual
Warn whenever a pointer is cast so as to remove a type qualifier
from the target type. For example, warn if a “const char *” is
cast to an ordinary “char *”.

Also warn when making a cast that introduces a type qualifier in an
unsafe way. For example, casting “char **” to “const char **” is
unsafe, as in this example:

/* p is char ** value. */
const char **q = (const char **) p;
/* Assignment of readonly string to const char * is OK. */
*q = “string”;
/* Now char** pointer points to read-only memory. */
**p = ‘b’;

-Wcast-align
Warn whenever a pointer is cast such that the required alignment of
the target is increased. For example, warn if a “char *” is cast
to an “int *” on machines where integers can only be accessed at
two- or four-byte boundaries.

-Wwrite-strings
When compiling C, give string constants the type “const
char[length]” so that copying the address of one into a non-“const”
“char *” pointer produces a warning. These warnings help you find
at compile time code that can try to write into a string constant,
but only if you have been very careful about using “const” in
declarations and prototypes. Otherwise, it is just a nuisance.
This is why we did not make -Wall request these warnings.

When compiling C++, warn about the deprecated conversion from
string literals to “char *”. This warning is enabled by default
for C++ programs.

-Wclobbered
Warn for variables that might be changed by “longjmp” or “vfork”.
This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.

-Wconditionally-supported (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn for conditionally-supported (C++11 [intro.defs]) constructs.

-Wconversion
Warn for implicit conversions that may alter a value. This includes
conversions between real and integer, like “abs (x)” when “x” is
“double”; conversions between signed and unsigned, like “unsigned
ui = -1”; and conversions to smaller types, like “sqrtf (M_PI)”. Do
not warn for explicit casts like “abs ((int) x)” and “ui =
(unsigned) -1”, or if the value is not changed by the conversion
like in “abs (2.0)”. Warnings about conversions between signed and
unsigned integers can be disabled by using -Wno-sign-conversion.

For C++, also warn for confusing overload resolution for user-
defined conversions; and conversions that never use a type
conversion operator: conversions to “void”, the same type, a base
class or a reference to them. Warnings about conversions between
signed and unsigned integers are disabled by default in C++ unless
-Wsign-conversion is explicitly enabled.

-Wno-conversion-null (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Do not warn for conversions between “NULL” and non-pointer types.
-Wconversion-null is enabled by default.

-Wzero-as-null-pointer-constant (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a literal ‘0’ is used as null pointer constant. This can
be useful to facilitate the conversion to “nullptr” in C++11.

-Wdate-time
Warn when macros “__TIME__”, “__DATE__” or “__TIMESTAMP__” are
encountered as they might prevent bit-wise-identical reproducible
compilations.

-Wdelete-incomplete (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when deleting a pointer to incomplete type, which may cause
undefined behavior at runtime. This warning is enabled by default.

-Wuseless-cast (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when an expression is casted to its own type.

-Wempty-body
Warn if an empty body occurs in an “if”, “else” or “do while”
statement. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.

-Wenum-compare
Warn about a comparison between values of different enumerated
types. In C++ enumeral mismatches in conditional expressions are
also diagnosed and the warning is enabled by default. In C this
warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wjump-misses-init (C, Objective-C only)
Warn if a “goto” statement or a “switch” statement jumps forward
across the initialization of a variable, or jumps backward to a
label after the variable has been initialized. This only warns
about variables that are initialized when they are declared. This
warning is only supported for C and Objective-C; in C++ this sort
of branch is an error in any case.

-Wjump-misses-init is included in -Wc++-compat. It can be disabled
with the -Wno-jump-misses-init option.

-Wsign-compare
Warn when a comparison between signed and unsigned values could
produce an incorrect result when the signed value is converted to
unsigned. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra; to get the
other warnings of -Wextra without this warning, use -Wextra
-Wno-sign-compare.

-Wsign-conversion
Warn for implicit conversions that may change the sign of an
integer value, like assigning a signed integer expression to an
unsigned integer variable. An explicit cast silences the warning.
In C, this option is enabled also by -Wconversion.

-Wfloat-conversion
Warn for implicit conversions that reduce the precision of a real
value. This includes conversions from real to integer, and from
higher precision real to lower precision real values. This option
is also enabled by -Wconversion.

-Wsized-deallocation (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about a definition of an unsized deallocation function

void operator delete (void *) noexcept;
void operator delete[] (void *) noexcept;

without a definition of the corresponding sized deallocation
function

void operator delete (void *, std::size_t) noexcept;
void operator delete[] (void *, std::size_t) noexcept;

or vice versa. Enabled by -Wextra along with -fsized-deallocation.

-Wsizeof-pointer-memaccess
Warn for suspicious length parameters to certain string and memory
built-in functions if the argument uses “sizeof”. This warning
warns e.g. about “memset (ptr, 0, sizeof (ptr));” if “ptr” is not
an array, but a pointer, and suggests a possible fix, or about
“memcpy (&foo, ptr, sizeof (&foo));”. This warning is enabled by
-Wall.

-Wsizeof-array-argument
Warn when the “sizeof” operator is applied to a parameter that is
declared as an array in a function definition. This warning is
enabled by default for C and C++ programs.

-Wmemset-transposed-args
Warn for suspicious calls to the “memset” built-in function, if the
second argument is not zero and the third argument is zero. This
warns e.g.@ about “memset (buf, sizeof buf, 0)” where most probably
“memset (buf, 0, sizeof buf)” was meant instead. The diagnostics
is only emitted if the third argument is literal zero. If it is
some expression that is folded to zero, a cast of zero to some
type, etc., it is far less likely that the user has mistakenly
exchanged the arguments and no warning is emitted. This warning is
enabled by -Wall.

-Waddress
Warn about suspicious uses of memory addresses. These include using
the address of a function in a conditional expression, such as
“void func(void); if (func)”, and comparisons against the memory
address of a string literal, such as “if (x == “abc”)”. Such uses
typically indicate a programmer error: the address of a function
always evaluates to true, so their use in a conditional usually
indicate that the programmer forgot the parentheses in a function
call; and comparisons against string literals result in unspecified
behavior and are not portable in C, so they usually indicate that
the programmer intended to use “strcmp”. This warning is enabled
by -Wall.

-Wlogical-op
Warn about suspicious uses of logical operators in expressions.
This includes using logical operators in contexts where a bit-wise
operator is likely to be expected.

-Wlogical-not-parentheses
Warn about logical not used on the left hand side operand of a
comparison. This option does not warn if the RHS operand is of a
boolean type. Its purpose is to detect suspicious code like the
following:

int a;

if (!a > 1) { … }

It is possible to suppress the warning by wrapping the LHS into
parentheses:

if ((!a) > 1) { … }

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Waggregate-return
Warn if any functions that return structures or unions are defined
or called. (In languages where you can return an array, this also
elicits a warning.)

-Wno-aggressive-loop-optimizations
Warn if in a loop with constant number of iterations the compiler
detects undefined behavior in some statement during one or more of
the iterations.

-Wno-attributes
Do not warn if an unexpected “__attribute__” is used, such as
unrecognized attributes, function attributes applied to variables,
etc. This does not stop errors for incorrect use of supported
attributes.

-Wno-builtin-macro-redefined
Do not warn if certain built-in macros are redefined. This
suppresses warnings for redefinition of “__TIMESTAMP__”,
“__TIME__”, “__DATE__”, “__FILE__”, and “__BASE_FILE__”.

-Wstrict-prototypes (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a function is declared or defined without specifying the
argument types. (An old-style function definition is permitted
without a warning if preceded by a declaration that specifies the
argument types.)

-Wold-style-declaration (C and Objective-C only)
Warn for obsolescent usages, according to the C Standard, in a
declaration. For example, warn if storage-class specifiers like
“static” are not the first things in a declaration. This warning
is also enabled by -Wextra.

-Wold-style-definition (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an old-style function definition is used. A warning is
given even if there is a previous prototype.

-Wmissing-parameter-type (C and Objective-C only)
A function parameter is declared without a type specifier in
K&R-style functions:

void foo(bar) { }

This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.

-Wmissing-prototypes (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a global function is defined without a previous prototype
declaration. This warning is issued even if the definition itself
provides a prototype. Use this option to detect global functions
that do not have a matching prototype declaration in a header file.
This option is not valid for C++ because all function declarations
provide prototypes and a non-matching declaration declares an
overload rather than conflict with an earlier declaration. Use
-Wmissing-declarations to detect missing declarations in C++.

-Wmissing-declarations
Warn if a global function is defined without a previous
declaration. Do so even if the definition itself provides a
prototype. Use this option to detect global functions that are not
declared in header files. In C, no warnings are issued for
functions with previous non-prototype declarations; use
-Wmissing-prototypes to detect missing prototypes. In C++, no
warnings are issued for function templates, or for inline
functions, or for functions in anonymous namespaces.

-Wmissing-field-initializers
Warn if a structure’s initializer has some fields missing. For
example, the following code causes such a warning, because “x.h” is
implicitly zero:

struct s { int f, g, h; };
struct s x = { 3, 4 };

This option does not warn about designated initializers, so the
following modification does not trigger a warning:

struct s { int f, g, h; };
struct s x = { .f = 3, .g = 4 };

In C++ this option does not warn either about the empty { }
initializer, for example:

struct s { int f, g, h; };
s x = { };

This warning is included in -Wextra. To get other -Wextra warnings
without this one, use -Wextra -Wno-missing-field-initializers.

-Wno-multichar
Do not warn if a multicharacter constant (‘FOOF’) is used. Usually
they indicate a typo in the user’s code, as they have
implementation-defined values, and should not be used in portable
code.

-Wnormalized[=] In ISO C and ISO C++, two identifiers are different if they are
different sequences of characters. However, sometimes when
characters outside the basic ASCII character set are used, you can
have two different character sequences that look the same. To
avoid confusion, the ISO 10646 standard sets out some normalization
rules which when applied ensure that two sequences that look the
same are turned into the same sequence. GCC can warn you if you
are using identifiers that have not been normalized; this option
controls that warning.

There are four levels of warning supported by GCC. The default is
-Wnormalized=nfc, which warns about any identifier that is not in
the ISO 10646 “C” normalized form, NFC. NFC is the recommended
form for most uses. It is equivalent to -Wnormalized.

Unfortunately, there are some characters allowed in identifiers by
ISO C and ISO C++ that, when turned into NFC, are not allowed in
identifiers. That is, there’s no way to use these symbols in
portable ISO C or C++ and have all your identifiers in NFC.
-Wnormalized=id suppresses the warning for these characters. It is
hoped that future versions of the standards involved will correct
this, which is why this option is not the default.

You can switch the warning off for all characters by writing
-Wnormalized=none or -Wno-normalized. You should only do this if
you are using some other normalization scheme (like “D”), because
otherwise you can easily create bugs that are literally impossible
to see.

Some characters in ISO 10646 have distinct meanings but look
identical in some fonts or display methodologies, especially once
formatting has been applied. For instance “\u207F”, “SUPERSCRIPT
LATIN SMALL LETTER N”, displays just like a regular “n” that has
been placed in a superscript. ISO 10646 defines the NFKC
normalization scheme to convert all these into a standard form as
well, and GCC warns if your code is not in NFKC if you use
-Wnormalized=nfkc. This warning is comparable to warning about
every identifier that contains the letter O because it might be
confused with the digit 0, and so is not the default, but may be
useful as a local coding convention if the programming environment
cannot be fixed to display these characters distinctly.

-Wno-deprecated
Do not warn about usage of deprecated features.

-Wno-deprecated-declarations
Do not warn about uses of functions, variables, and types marked as
deprecated by using the “deprecated” attribute.

-Wno-overflow
Do not warn about compile-time overflow in constant expressions.

-Wno-odr
Warn about One Definition Rule violations during link-time
optimization. Requires -flto-odr-type-merging to be enabled.
Enabled by default.

-Wopenmp-simd
Warn if the vectorizer cost model overrides the OpenMP or the Cilk
Plus simd directive set by user. The -fsimd-cost-model=unlimited
option can be used to relax the cost model.

-Woverride-init (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an initialized field without side effects is overridden
when using designated initializers.

This warning is included in -Wextra. To get other -Wextra warnings
without this one, use -Wextra -Wno-override-init.

-Wpacked
Warn if a structure is given the packed attribute, but the packed
attribute has no effect on the layout or size of the structure.
Such structures may be mis-aligned for little benefit. For
instance, in this code, the variable “f.x” in “struct bar” is
misaligned even though “struct bar” does not itself have the packed
attribute:

struct foo {
int x;
char a, b, c, d;
} __attribute__((packed));
struct bar {
char z;
struct foo f;
};

-Wpacked-bitfield-compat
The 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 series of GCC ignore the “packed” attribute on
bit-fields of type “char”. This has been fixed in GCC 4.4 but the
change can lead to differences in the structure layout. GCC
informs you when the offset of such a field has changed in GCC 4.4.
For example there is no longer a 4-bit padding between field “a”
and “b” in this structure:

struct foo
{
char a:4;
char b:8;
} __attribute__ ((packed));

This warning is enabled by default. Use
-Wno-packed-bitfield-compat to disable this warning.

-Wpadded
Warn if padding is included in a structure, either to align an
element of the structure or to align the whole structure.
Sometimes when this happens it is possible to rearrange the fields
of the structure to reduce the padding and so make the structure
smaller.

-Wredundant-decls
Warn if anything is declared more than once in the same scope, even
in cases where multiple declaration is valid and changes nothing.

-Wnested-externs (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an “extern” declaration is encountered within a function.

-Wno-inherited-variadic-ctor
Suppress warnings about use of C++11 inheriting constructors when
the base class inherited from has a C variadic constructor; the
warning is on by default because the ellipsis is not inherited.

-Winline
Warn if a function that is declared as inline cannot be inlined.
Even with this option, the compiler does not warn about failures to
inline functions declared in system headers.

The compiler uses a variety of heuristics to determine whether or
not to inline a function. For example, the compiler takes into
account the size of the function being inlined and the amount of
inlining that has already been done in the current function.
Therefore, seemingly insignificant changes in the source program
can cause the warnings produced by -Winline to appear or disappear.

-Wno-invalid-offsetof (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Suppress warnings from applying the “offsetof” macro to a non-POD
type. According to the 2014 ISO C++ standard, applying “offsetof”
to a non-standard-layout type is undefined. In existing C++
implementations, however, “offsetof” typically gives meaningful
results. This flag is for users who are aware that they are
writing nonportable code and who have deliberately chosen to ignore
the warning about it.

The restrictions on “offsetof” may be relaxed in a future version
of the C++ standard.

-Wno-int-to-pointer-cast
Suppress warnings from casts to pointer type of an integer of a
different size. In C++, casting to a pointer type of smaller size
is an error. Wint-to-pointer-cast is enabled by default.

-Wno-pointer-to-int-cast (C and Objective-C only)
Suppress warnings from casts from a pointer to an integer type of a
different size.

-Winvalid-pch
Warn if a precompiled header is found in the search path but can’t
be used.

-Wlong-long
Warn if “long long” type is used. This is enabled by either
-Wpedantic or -Wtraditional in ISO C90 and C++98 modes. To inhibit
the warning messages, use -Wno-long-long.

-Wvariadic-macros
Warn if variadic macros are used in ISO C90 mode, or if the GNU
alternate syntax is used in ISO C99 mode. This is enabled by
either -Wpedantic or -Wtraditional. To inhibit the warning
messages, use -Wno-variadic-macros.

-Wvarargs
Warn upon questionable usage of the macros used to handle variable
arguments like “va_start”. This is default. To inhibit the
warning messages, use -Wno-varargs.

-Wvector-operation-performance
Warn if vector operation is not implemented via SIMD capabilities
of the architecture. Mainly useful for the performance tuning.
Vector operation can be implemented “piecewise”, which means that
the scalar operation is performed on every vector element; “in
parallel”, which means that the vector operation is implemented
using scalars of wider type, which normally is more performance
efficient; and “as a single scalar”, which means that vector fits
into a scalar type.

-Wno-virtual-move-assign
Suppress warnings about inheriting from a virtual base with a non-
trivial C++11 move assignment operator. This is dangerous because
if the virtual base is reachable along more than one path, it is
moved multiple times, which can mean both objects end up in the
moved-from state. If the move assignment operator is written to
avoid moving from a moved-from object, this warning can be
disabled.

-Wvla
Warn if variable length array is used in the code. -Wno-vla
prevents the -Wpedantic warning of the variable length array.

-Wvolatile-register-var
Warn if a register variable is declared volatile. The volatile
modifier does not inhibit all optimizations that may eliminate
reads and/or writes to register variables. This warning is enabled
by -Wall.

-Wdisabled-optimization
Warn if a requested optimization pass is disabled. This warning
does not generally indicate that there is anything wrong with your
code; it merely indicates that GCC’s optimizers are unable to
handle the code effectively. Often, the problem is that your code
is too big or too complex; GCC refuses to optimize programs when
the optimization itself is likely to take inordinate amounts of
time.

-Wpointer-sign (C and Objective-C only)
Warn for pointer argument passing or assignment with different
signedness. This option is only supported for C and Objective-C.
It is implied by -Wall and by -Wpedantic, which can be disabled
with -Wno-pointer-sign.

-Wstack-protector
This option is only active when -fstack-protector is active. It
warns about functions that are not protected against stack
smashing.

-Woverlength-strings
Warn about string constants that are longer than the “minimum
maximum” length specified in the C standard. Modern compilers
generally allow string constants that are much longer than the
standard’s minimum limit, but very portable programs should avoid
using longer strings.

The limit applies after string constant concatenation, and does not
count the trailing NUL. In C90, the limit was 509 characters; in
C99, it was raised to 4095. C++98 does not specify a normative
minimum maximum, so we do not diagnose overlength strings in C++.

This option is implied by -Wpedantic, and can be disabled with
-Wno-overlength-strings.

-Wunsuffixed-float-constants (C and Objective-C only)
Issue a warning for any floating constant that does not have a
suffix. When used together with -Wsystem-headers it warns about
such constants in system header files. This can be useful when
preparing code to use with the “FLOAT_CONST_DECIMAL64” pragma from
the decimal floating-point extension to C99.

-Wno-designated-init (C and Objective-C only)
Suppress warnings when a positional initializer is used to
initialize a structure that has been marked with the
“designated_init” attribute.

Options for Debugging Your Program or GCC
GCC has various special options that are used for debugging either your
program or GCC:

-g Produce debugging information in the operating system’s native
format (stabs, COFF, XCOFF, or DWARF 2). GDB can work with this
debugging information.

On most systems that use stabs format, -g enables use of extra
debugging information that only GDB can use; this extra information
makes debugging work better in GDB but probably makes other
debuggers crash or refuse to read the program. If you want to
control for certain whether to generate the extra information, use
-gstabs+, -gstabs, -gxcoff+, -gxcoff, or -gvms (see below).

GCC allows you to use -g with -O. The shortcuts taken by optimized
code may occasionally produce surprising results: some variables
you declared may not exist at all; flow of control may briefly move
where you did not expect it; some statements may not be executed
because they compute constant results or their values are already
at hand; some statements may execute in different places because
they have been moved out of loops.

Nevertheless it proves possible to debug optimized output. This
makes it reasonable to use the optimizer for programs that might
have bugs.

The following options are useful when GCC is generated with the
capability for more than one debugging format.

-gsplit-dwarf
Separate as much dwarf debugging information as possible into a
separate output file with the extension .dwo. This option allows
the build system to avoid linking files with debug information. To
be useful, this option requires a debugger capable of reading .dwo
files.

-ggdb
Produce debugging information for use by GDB. This means to use
the most expressive format available (DWARF 2, stabs, or the native
format if neither of those are supported), including GDB extensions
if at all possible.

-gpubnames
Generate dwarf .debug_pubnames and .debug_pubtypes sections.

-ggnu-pubnames
Generate .debug_pubnames and .debug_pubtypes sections in a format
suitable for conversion into a GDB index. This option is only
useful with a linker that can produce GDB index version 7.

-gstabs
Produce debugging information in stabs format (if that is
supported), without GDB extensions. This is the format used by DBX
on most BSD systems. On MIPS, Alpha and System V Release 4 systems
this option produces stabs debugging output that is not understood
by DBX or SDB. On System V Release 4 systems this option requires
the GNU assembler.

-feliminate-unused-debug-symbols
Produce debugging information in stabs format (if that is
supported), for only symbols that are actually used.

-femit-class-debug-always
Instead of emitting debugging information for a C++ class in only
one object file, emit it in all object files using the class. This
option should be used only with debuggers that are unable to handle
the way GCC normally emits debugging information for classes
because using this option increases the size of debugging
information by as much as a factor of two.

-fdebug-types-section
When using DWARF Version 4 or higher, type DIEs can be put into
their own “.debug_types” section instead of making them part of the
“.debug_info” section. It is more efficient to put them in a
separate comdat sections since the linker can then remove
duplicates. But not all DWARF consumers support “.debug_types”
sections yet and on some objects “.debug_types” produces larger
instead of smaller debugging information.

-gstabs+
Produce debugging information in stabs format (if that is
supported), using GNU extensions understood only by the GNU
debugger (GDB). The use of these extensions is likely to make
other debuggers crash or refuse to read the program.

-gcoff
Produce debugging information in COFF format (if that is
supported). This is the format used by SDB on most System V
systems prior to System V Release 4.

-gxcoff
Produce debugging information in XCOFF format (if that is
supported). This is the format used by the DBX debugger on IBM
RS/6000 systems.

-gxcoff+
Produce debugging information in XCOFF format (if that is
supported), using GNU extensions understood only by the GNU
debugger (GDB). The use of these extensions is likely to make
other debuggers crash or refuse to read the program, and may cause
assemblers other than the GNU assembler (GAS) to fail with an
error.

-gdwarf-version
Produce debugging information in DWARF format (if that is
supported). The value of version may be either 2, 3, 4 or 5; the
default version for most targets is 4. DWARF Version 5 is only
experimental.

Note that with DWARF Version 2, some ports require and always use
some non-conflicting DWARF 3 extensions in the unwind tables.

Version 4 may require GDB 7.0 and -fvar-tracking-assignments for
maximum benefit.

-grecord-gcc-switches
This switch causes the command-line options used to invoke the
compiler that may affect code generation to be appended to the
DW_AT_producer attribute in DWARF debugging information. The
options are concatenated with spaces separating them from each
other and from the compiler version. See also
-frecord-gcc-switches for another way of storing compiler options
into the object file. This is the default.

-gno-record-gcc-switches
Disallow appending command-line options to the DW_AT_producer
attribute in DWARF debugging information.

-gstrict-dwarf
Disallow using extensions of later DWARF standard version than
selected with -gdwarf-version. On most targets using non-
conflicting DWARF extensions from later standard versions is
allowed.

-gno-strict-dwarf
Allow using extensions of later DWARF standard version than
selected with -gdwarf-version.

-gz[=type] Produce compressed debug sections in DWARF format, if that is
supported. If type is not given, the default type depends on the
capabilities of the assembler and linker used. type may be one of
none (don’t compress debug sections), zlib (use zlib compression in
ELF gABI format), or zlib-gnu (use zlib compression in traditional
GNU format). If the linker doesn’t support writing compressed
debug sections, the option is rejected. Otherwise, if the
assembler does not support them, -gz is silently ignored when
producing object files.

-gvms
Produce debugging information in Alpha/VMS debug format (if that is
supported). This is the format used by DEBUG on Alpha/VMS systems.

-glevel
-ggdblevel
-gstabslevel
-gcofflevel
-gxcofflevel
-gvmslevel
Request debugging information and also use level to specify how
much information. The default level is 2.

Level 0 produces no debug information at all. Thus, -g0 negates
-g.

Level 1 produces minimal information, enough for making backtraces
in parts of the program that you don’t plan to debug. This
includes descriptions of functions and external variables, and line
number tables, but no information about local variables.

Level 3 includes extra information, such as all the macro
definitions present in the program. Some debuggers support macro
expansion when you use -g3.

-gdwarf-2 does not accept a concatenated debug level, because GCC
used to support an option -gdwarf that meant to generate debug
information in version 1 of the DWARF format (which is very
different from version 2), and it would have been too confusing.
That debug format is long obsolete, but the option cannot be
changed now. Instead use an additional -glevel option to change
the debug level for DWARF.

-gtoggle
Turn off generation of debug info, if leaving out this option
generates it, or turn it on at level 2 otherwise. The position of
this argument in the command line does not matter; it takes effect
after all other options are processed, and it does so only once, no
matter how many times it is given. This is mainly intended to be
used with -fcompare-debug.

-fsanitize=address
Enable AddressSanitizer, a fast memory error detector. Memory
access instructions are instrumented to detect out-of-bounds and
use-after-free bugs. See
for
more details. The run-time behavior can be influenced using the
ASAN_OPTIONS environment variable. When set to “help=1”, the
available options are shown at startup of the instrumended program.
See

for a list of supported options.

-fsanitize=kernel-address
Enable AddressSanitizer for Linux kernel. See
for more details.

-fsanitize=thread
Enable ThreadSanitizer, a fast data race detector. Memory access
instructions are instrumented to detect data race bugs. See
for
more details. The run-time behavior can be influenced using the
TSAN_OPTIONS environment variable; see

for a list of supported options.

-fsanitize=leak
Enable LeakSanitizer, a memory leak detector. This option only
matters for linking of executables and if neither
-fsanitize=address nor -fsanitize=thread is used. In that case the
executable is linked against a library that overrides “malloc” and
other allocator functions. See

for more details. The run-time behavior can be influenced using
the LSAN_OPTIONS environment variable.

-fsanitize=undefined
Enable UndefinedBehaviorSanitizer, a fast undefined behavior
detector. Various computations are instrumented to detect
undefined behavior at runtime. Current suboptions are:

-fsanitize=shift
This option enables checking that the result of a shift
operation is not undefined. Note that what exactly is
considered undefined differs slightly between C and C++, as
well as between ISO C90 and C99, etc.

-fsanitize=integer-divide-by-zero
Detect integer division by zero as well as “INT_MIN / -1”
division.

-fsanitize=unreachable
With this option, the compiler turns the
“__builtin_unreachable” call into a diagnostics message call
instead. When reaching the “__builtin_unreachable” call, the
behavior is undefined.

-fsanitize=vla-bound
This option instructs the compiler to check that the size of a
variable length array is positive.

-fsanitize=null
This option enables pointer checking. Particularly, the
application built with this option turned on will issue an
error message when it tries to dereference a NULL pointer, or
if a reference (possibly an rvalue reference) is bound to a
NULL pointer, or if a method is invoked on an object pointed by
a NULL pointer.

-fsanitize=return
This option enables return statement checking. Programs built
with this option turned on will issue an error message when the
end of a non-void function is reached without actually
returning a value. This option works in C++ only.

-fsanitize=signed-integer-overflow
This option enables signed integer overflow checking. We check
that the result of “+”, “*”, and both unary and binary “-” does
not overflow in the signed arithmetics. Note, integer
promotion rules must be taken into account. That is, the
following is not an overflow:

signed char a = SCHAR_MAX;
a++;

-fsanitize=bounds
This option enables instrumentation of array bounds. Various
out of bounds accesses are detected. Flexible array members,
flexible array member-like arrays, and initializers of
variables with static storage are not instrumented.

-fsanitize=alignment
This option enables checking of alignment of pointers when they
are dereferenced, or when a reference is bound to
insufficiently aligned target, or when a method or constructor
is invoked on insufficiently aligned object.

-fsanitize=object-size
This option enables instrumentation of memory references using
the “__builtin_object_size” function. Various out of bounds
pointer accesses are detected.

-fsanitize=float-divide-by-zero
Detect floating-point division by zero. Unlike other similar
options, -fsanitize=float-divide-by-zero is not enabled by
-fsanitize=undefined, since floating-point division by zero can
be a legitimate way of obtaining infinities and NaNs.

-fsanitize=float-cast-overflow
This option enables floating-point type to integer conversion
checking. We check that the result of the conversion does not
overflow. Unlike other similar options,
-fsanitize=float-cast-overflow is not enabled by
-fsanitize=undefined. This option does not work well with
“FE_INVALID” exceptions enabled.

-fsanitize=nonnull-attribute
This option enables instrumentation of calls, checking whether
null values are not passed to arguments marked as requiring a
non-null value by the “nonnull” function attribute.

-fsanitize=returns-nonnull-attribute
This option enables instrumentation of return statements in
functions marked with “returns_nonnull” function attribute, to
detect returning of null values from such functions.

-fsanitize=bool
This option enables instrumentation of loads from bool. If a
value other than 0/1 is loaded, a run-time error is issued.

-fsanitize=enum
This option enables instrumentation of loads from an enum type.
If a value outside the range of values for the enum type is
loaded, a run-time error is issued.

-fsanitize=vptr
This option enables instrumentation of C++ member function
calls, member accesses and some conversions between pointers to
base and derived classes, to verify the referenced object has
the correct dynamic type.

While -ftrapv causes traps for signed overflows to be emitted,
-fsanitize=undefined gives a diagnostic message. This currently
works only for the C family of languages.

-fno-sanitize=all
This option disables all previously enabled sanitizers.
-fsanitize=all is not allowed, as some sanitizers cannot be used
together.

-fasan-shadow-offset=number
This option forces GCC to use custom shadow offset in
AddressSanitizer checks. It is useful for experimenting with
different shadow memory layouts in Kernel AddressSanitizer.

-fsanitize-recover[=opts] -fsanitize-recover= controls error recovery mode for sanitizers
mentioned in comma-separated list of opts. Enabling this option
for a sanitizer component causes it to attempt to continue running
the program as if no error happened. This means multiple runtime
errors can be reported in a single program run, and the exit code
of the program may indicate success even when errors have been
reported. The -fno-sanitize-recover= option can be used to alter
this behavior: only the first detected error is reported and
program then exits with a non-zero exit code.

Currently this feature only works for -fsanitize=undefined (and its
suboptions except for -fsanitize=unreachable and
-fsanitize=return), -fsanitize=float-cast-overflow,
-fsanitize=float-divide-by-zero and -fsanitize=kernel-address. For
these sanitizers error recovery is turned on by default.
-fsanitize-recover=all and -fno-sanitize-recover=all is also
accepted, the former enables recovery for all sanitizers that
support it, the latter disables recovery for all sanitizers that
support it.

Syntax without explicit opts parameter is deprecated. It is
equivalent to

-fsanitize-recover=undefined,float-cast-overflow,float-divide-by-zero

Similarly -fno-sanitize-recover is equivalent to

-fno-sanitize-recover=undefined,float-cast-overflow,float-divide-by-zero

-fsanitize-undefined-trap-on-error
The -fsanitize-undefined-trap-on-error option instructs the
compiler to report undefined behavior using “__builtin_trap” rather
than a “libubsan” library routine. The advantage of this is that
the “libubsan” library is not needed and is not linked in, so this
is usable even in freestanding environments.

-fcheck-pointer-bounds
Enable Pointer Bounds Checker instrumentation. Each memory
reference is instrumented with checks of the pointer used for
memory access against bounds associated with that pointer.

Currently there is only an implementation for Intel MPX available,
thus x86 target and -mmpx are required to enable this feature.
MPX-based instrumentation requires a runtime library to enable MPX
in hardware and handle bounds violation signals. By default when
-fcheck-pointer-bounds and -mmpx options are used to link a
program, the GCC driver links against the libmpx runtime library
and libmpxwrappers library. It also passes ‘-z bndplt’ to a linker
in case it supports this option (which is checked on libmpx
configuration). Note that old versions of linker may ignore
option. Gold linker doesn’t support ‘-z bndplt’ option. With no
‘-z bndplt’ support in linker all calls to dynamic libraries lose
passed bounds reducing overall protection level. It’s highly
recommended to use linker with ‘-z bndplt’ support. In case such
linker is not available it is adviced to always use
-static-libmpxwrappers for better protection level or use -static
to completely avoid external calls to dynamic libraries. MPX-based
instrumentation may be used for debugging and also may be included
in production code to increase program security. Depending on
usage, you may have different requirements for the runtime library.
The current version of the MPX runtime library is more oriented for
use as a debugging tool. MPX runtime library usage implies
-lpthread. See also -static-libmpx. The runtime library behavior
can be influenced using various CHKP_RT_* environment variables.
See

for more details.

Generated instrumentation may be controlled by various -fchkp-*
options and by the “bnd_variable_size” structure field attribute
and “bnd_legacy”, and “bnd_instrument” function attributes. GCC
also provides a number of built-in functions for controlling the
Pointer Bounds Checker.

-fchkp-check-incomplete-type
Generate pointer bounds checks for variables with incomplete type.
Enabled by default.

-fchkp-narrow-bounds
Controls bounds used by Pointer Bounds Checker for pointers to
object fields. If narrowing is enabled then field bounds are used.
Otherwise object bounds are used. See also
-fchkp-narrow-to-innermost-array and
-fchkp-first-field-has-own-bounds. Enabled by default.

-fchkp-first-field-has-own-bounds
Forces Pointer Bounds Checker to use narrowed bounds for the
address of the first field in the structure. By default a pointer
to the first field has the same bounds as a pointer to the whole
structure.

-fchkp-narrow-to-innermost-array
Forces Pointer Bounds Checker to use bounds of the innermost arrays
in case of nested static array access. By default this option is
disabled and bounds of the outermost array are used.

-fchkp-optimize
Enables Pointer Bounds Checker optimizations. Enabled by default
at optimization levels -O, -O2, -O3.

-fchkp-use-fast-string-functions
Enables use of *_nobnd versions of string functions (not copying
bounds) by Pointer Bounds Checker. Disabled by default.

-fchkp-use-nochk-string-functions
Enables use of *_nochk versions of string functions (not checking
bounds) by Pointer Bounds Checker. Disabled by default.

-fchkp-use-static-bounds
Allow Pointer Bounds Checker to generate static bounds holding
bounds of static variables. Enabled by default.

-fchkp-use-static-const-bounds
Use statically-initialized bounds for constant bounds instead of
generating them each time they are required. By default enabled
when -fchkp-use-static-bounds is enabled.

-fchkp-treat-zero-dynamic-size-as-infinite
With this option, objects with incomplete type whose dynamically-
obtained size is zero are treated as having infinite size instead
by Pointer Bounds Checker. This option may be helpful if a program
is linked with a library missing size information for some symbols.
Disabled by default.

-fchkp-check-read
Instructs Pointer Bounds Checker to generate checks for all read
accesses to memory. Enabled by default.

-fchkp-check-write
Instructs Pointer Bounds Checker to generate checks for all write
accesses to memory. Enabled by default.

-fchkp-store-bounds
Instructs Pointer Bounds Checker to generate bounds stores for
pointer writes. Enabled by default.

-fchkp-instrument-calls
Instructs Pointer Bounds Checker to pass pointer bounds to calls.
Enabled by default.

-fchkp-instrument-marked-only
Instructs Pointer Bounds Checker to instrument only functions
marked with the “bnd_instrument” attribute. Disabled by default.

-fchkp-use-wrappers
Allows Pointer Bounds Checker to replace calls to built-in
functions with calls to wrapper functions. When
-fchkp-use-wrappers is used to link a program, the GCC driver
automatically links against libmpxwrappers. See also
-static-libmpxwrappers. Enabled by default.

-fdump-final-insns[=file] Dump the final internal representation (RTL) to file. If the
optional argument is omitted (or if file is “.”), the name of the
dump file is determined by appending “.gkd” to the compilation
output file name.

-fcompare-debug[=opts] If no error occurs during compilation, run the compiler a second
time, adding opts and -fcompare-debug-second to the arguments
passed to the second compilation. Dump the final internal
representation in both compilations, and print an error if they
differ.

If the equal sign is omitted, the default -gtoggle is used.

The environment variable GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG, if defined, non-empty
and nonzero, implicitly enables -fcompare-debug. If
GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG is defined to a string starting with a dash, then
it is used for opts, otherwise the default -gtoggle is used.

-fcompare-debug=, with the equal sign but without opts, is
equivalent to -fno-compare-debug, which disables the dumping of the
final representation and the second compilation, preventing even
GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG from taking effect.

To verify full coverage during -fcompare-debug testing, set
GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG to say -fcompare-debug-not-overridden, which GCC
rejects as an invalid option in any actual compilation (rather than
preprocessing, assembly or linking). To get just a warning,
setting GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG to -w%n-fcompare-debug not overridden
will do.

-fcompare-debug-second
This option is implicitly passed to the compiler for the second
compilation requested by -fcompare-debug, along with options to
silence warnings, and omitting other options that would cause side-
effect compiler outputs to files or to the standard output. Dump
files and preserved temporary files are renamed so as to contain
the “.gk” additional extension during the second compilation, to
avoid overwriting those generated by the first.

When this option is passed to the compiler driver, it causes the
first compilation to be skipped, which makes it useful for little
other than debugging the compiler proper.

-feliminate-dwarf2-dups
Compress DWARF 2 debugging information by eliminating duplicated
information about each symbol. This option only makes sense when
generating DWARF 2 debugging information with -gdwarf-2.

-femit-struct-debug-baseonly
Emit debug information for struct-like types only when the base
name of the compilation source file matches the base name of file
in which the struct is defined.

This option substantially reduces the size of debugging
information, but at significant potential loss in type information
to the debugger. See -femit-struct-debug-reduced for a less
aggressive option. See -femit-struct-debug-detailed for more
detailed control.

This option works only with DWARF 2.

-femit-struct-debug-reduced
Emit debug information for struct-like types only when the base
name of the compilation source file matches the base name of file
in which the type is defined, unless the struct is a template or
defined in a system header.

This option significantly reduces the size of debugging
information, with some potential loss in type information to the
debugger. See -femit-struct-debug-baseonly for a more aggressive
option. See -femit-struct-debug-detailed for more detailed
control.

This option works only with DWARF 2.

-femit-struct-debug-detailed[=spec-list] Specify the struct-like types for which the compiler generates
debug information. The intent is to reduce duplicate struct debug
information between different object files within the same program.

This option is a detailed version of -femit-struct-debug-reduced
and -femit-struct-debug-baseonly, which serves for most needs.

A specification has the
syntax[dir:|ind:][ord:|gen:](any|sys|base|none)

The optional first word limits the specification to structs that
are used directly (dir:) or used indirectly (ind:). A struct type
is used directly when it is the type of a variable, member.
Indirect uses arise through pointers to structs. That is, when use
of an incomplete struct is valid, the use is indirect. An example
is struct one direct; struct two * indirect;.

The optional second word limits the specification to ordinary
structs (ord:) or generic structs (gen:). Generic structs are a
bit complicated to explain. For C++, these are non-explicit
specializations of template classes, or non-template classes within
the above. Other programming languages have generics, but
-femit-struct-debug-detailed does not yet implement them.

The third word specifies the source files for those structs for
which the compiler should emit debug information. The values none
and any have the normal meaning. The value base means that the
base of name of the file in which the type declaration appears must
match the base of the name of the main compilation file. In
practice, this means that when compiling foo.c, debug information
is generated for types declared in that file and foo.h, but not
other header files. The value sys means those types satisfying
base or declared in system or compiler headers.

You may need to experiment to determine the best settings for your
application.

The default is -femit-struct-debug-detailed=all.

This option works only with DWARF 2.

-fno-merge-debug-strings
Direct the linker to not merge together strings in the debugging
information that are identical in different object files. Merging
is not supported by all assemblers or linkers. Merging decreases
the size of the debug information in the output file at the cost of
increasing link processing time. Merging is enabled by default.

-fdebug-prefix-map=old=new
When compiling files in directory old, record debugging information
describing them as in new instead.

-fno-dwarf2-cfi-asm
Emit DWARF 2 unwind info as compiler generated “.eh_frame” section
instead of using GAS “.cfi_*” directives.

-p Generate extra code to write profile information suitable for the
analysis program prof. You must use this option when compiling the
source files you want data about, and you must also use it when
linking.

-pg Generate extra code to write profile information suitable for the
analysis program gprof. You must use this option when compiling
the source files you want data about, and you must also use it when
linking.

-Q Makes the compiler print out each function name as it is compiled,
and print some statistics about each pass when it finishes.

-ftime-report
Makes the compiler print some statistics about the time consumed by
each pass when it finishes.

-fmem-report
Makes the compiler print some statistics about permanent memory
allocation when it finishes.

-fmem-report-wpa
Makes the compiler print some statistics about permanent memory
allocation for the WPA phase only.

-fpre-ipa-mem-report
-fpost-ipa-mem-report
Makes the compiler print some statistics about permanent memory
allocation before or after interprocedural optimization.

-fprofile-report
Makes the compiler print some statistics about consistency of the
(estimated) profile and effect of individual passes.

-fstack-usage
Makes the compiler output stack usage information for the program,
on a per-function basis. The filename for the dump is made by
appending .su to the auxname. auxname is generated from the name
of the output file, if explicitly specified and it is not an
executable, otherwise it is the basename of the source file. An
entry is made up of three fields:

* The name of the function.

* A number of bytes.

* One or more qualifiers: “static”, “dynamic”, “bounded”.

The qualifier “static” means that the function manipulates the
stack statically: a fixed number of bytes are allocated for the
frame on function entry and released on function exit; no stack
adjustments are otherwise made in the function. The second field
is this fixed number of bytes.

The qualifier “dynamic” means that the function manipulates the
stack dynamically: in addition to the static allocation described
above, stack adjustments are made in the body of the function, for
example to push/pop arguments around function calls. If the
qualifier “bounded” is also present, the amount of these
adjustments is bounded at compile time and the second field is an
upper bound of the total amount of stack used by the function. If
it is not present, the amount of these adjustments is not bounded
at compile time and the second field only represents the bounded
part.

-fprofile-arcs
Add code so that program flow arcs are instrumented. During
execution the program records how many times each branch and call
is executed and how many times it is taken or returns. When the
compiled program exits it saves this data to a file called
auxname.gcda for each source file. The data may be used for
profile-directed optimizations (-fbranch-probabilities), or for
test coverage analysis (-ftest-coverage). Each object file’s
auxname is generated from the name of the output file, if
explicitly specified and it is not the final executable, otherwise
it is the basename of the source file. In both cases any suffix is
removed (e.g. foo.gcda for input file dir/foo.c, or dir/foo.gcda
for output file specified as -o dir/foo.o).

–coverage
This option is used to compile and link code instrumented for
coverage analysis. The option is a synonym for -fprofile-arcs
-ftest-coverage (when compiling) and -lgcov (when linking). See
the documentation for those options for more details.

* Compile the source files with -fprofile-arcs plus optimization
and code generation options. For test coverage analysis, use
the additional -ftest-coverage option. You do not need to
profile every source file in a program.

* Link your object files with -lgcov or -fprofile-arcs (the
latter implies the former).

* Run the program on a representative workload to generate the
arc profile information. This may be repeated any number of
times. You can run concurrent instances of your program, and
provided that the file system supports locking, the data files
will be correctly updated. Also “fork” calls are detected and
correctly handled (double counting will not happen).

* For profile-directed optimizations, compile the source files
again with the same optimization and code generation options
plus -fbranch-probabilities.

* For test coverage analysis, use gcov to produce human readable
information from the .gcno and .gcda files. Refer to the gcov
documentation for further information.

With -fprofile-arcs, for each function of your program GCC creates
a program flow graph, then finds a spanning tree for the graph.
Only arcs that are not on the spanning tree have to be
instrumented: the compiler adds code to count the number of times
that these arcs are executed. When an arc is the only exit or only
entrance to a block, the instrumentation code can be added to the
block; otherwise, a new basic block must be created to hold the
instrumentation code.

-ftest-coverage
Produce a notes file that the gcov code-coverage utility can use to
show program coverage. Each source file’s note file is called
auxname.gcno. Refer to the -fprofile-arcs option above for a
description of auxname and instructions on how to generate test
coverage data. Coverage data matches the source files more closely
if you do not optimize.

-fdbg-cnt-list
Print the name and the counter upper bound for all debug counters.

-fdbg-cnt=counter-value-list
Set the internal debug counter upper bound. counter-value-list is
a comma-separated list of name:value pairs which sets the upper
bound of each debug counter name to value. All debug counters have
the initial upper bound of “UINT_MAX”; thus “dbg_cnt” returns true
always unless the upper bound is set by this option. For example,
with -fdbg-cnt=dce:10,tail_call:0, “dbg_cnt(dce)” returns true only
for first 10 invocations.

-fenable-kind-pass
-fdisable-kind-pass=range-list
This is a set of options that are used to explicitly disable/enable
optimization passes. These options are intended for use for
debugging GCC. Compiler users should use regular options for
enabling/disabling passes instead.

-fdisable-ipa-pass
Disable IPA pass pass. pass is the pass name. If the same pass
is statically invoked in the compiler multiple times, the pass
name should be appended with a sequential number starting from
1.

-fdisable-rtl-pass
-fdisable-rtl-pass=range-list
Disable RTL pass pass. pass is the pass name. If the same
pass is statically invoked in the compiler multiple times, the
pass name should be appended with a sequential number starting
from 1. range-list is a comma-separated list of function
ranges or assembler names. Each range is a number pair
separated by a colon. The range is inclusive in both ends. If
the range is trivial, the number pair can be simplified as a
single number. If the function’s call graph node’s uid falls
within one of the specified ranges, the pass is disabled for
that function. The uid is shown in the function header of a
dump file, and the pass names can be dumped by using option
-fdump-passes.

-fdisable-tree-pass
-fdisable-tree-pass=range-list
Disable tree pass pass. See -fdisable-rtl for the description
of option arguments.

-fenable-ipa-pass
Enable IPA pass pass. pass is the pass name. If the same pass
is statically invoked in the compiler multiple times, the pass
name should be appended with a sequential number starting from
1.

-fenable-rtl-pass
-fenable-rtl-pass=range-list
Enable RTL pass pass. See -fdisable-rtl for option argument
description and examples.

-fenable-tree-pass
-fenable-tree-pass=range-list
Enable tree pass pass. See -fdisable-rtl for the description
of option arguments.

Here are some examples showing uses of these options.

# disable ccp1 for all functions
-fdisable-tree-ccp1
# disable complete unroll for function whose cgraph node uid is 1
-fenable-tree-cunroll=1
# disable gcse2 for functions at the following ranges [1,1],
# [300,400], and [400,1000] # disable gcse2 for functions foo and foo2
-fdisable-rtl-gcse2=foo,foo2
# disable early inlining
-fdisable-tree-einline
# disable ipa inlining
-fdisable-ipa-inline
# enable tree full unroll
-fenable-tree-unroll

-dletters
-fdump-rtl-pass
-fdump-rtl-pass=filename
Says to make debugging dumps during compilation at times specified
by letters. This is used for debugging the RTL-based passes of the
compiler. The file names for most of the dumps are made by
appending a pass number and a word to the dumpname, and the files
are created in the directory of the output file. In case of
=filename option, the dump is output on the given file instead of
the pass numbered dump files. Note that the pass number is computed
statically as passes get registered into the pass manager. Thus
the numbering is not related to the dynamic order of execution of
passes. In particular, a pass installed by a plugin could have a
number over 200 even if it executed quite early. dumpname is
generated from the name of the output file, if explicitly specified
and it is not an executable, otherwise it is the basename of the
source file. These switches may have different effects when -E is
used for preprocessing.

Debug dumps can be enabled with a -fdump-rtl switch or some -d
option letters. Here are the possible letters for use in pass and
letters, and their meanings:

-fdump-rtl-alignments
Dump after branch alignments have been computed.

-fdump-rtl-asmcons
Dump after fixing rtl statements that have unsatisfied in/out
constraints.

-fdump-rtl-auto_inc_dec
Dump after auto-inc-dec discovery. This pass is only run on
architectures that have auto inc or auto dec instructions.

-fdump-rtl-barriers
Dump after cleaning up the barrier instructions.

-fdump-rtl-bbpart
Dump after partitioning hot and cold basic blocks.

-fdump-rtl-bbro
Dump after block reordering.

-fdump-rtl-btl1
-fdump-rtl-btl2
-fdump-rtl-btl1 and -fdump-rtl-btl2 enable dumping after the
two branch target load optimization passes.

-fdump-rtl-bypass
Dump after jump bypassing and control flow optimizations.

-fdump-rtl-combine
Dump after the RTL instruction combination pass.

-fdump-rtl-compgotos
Dump after duplicating the computed gotos.

-fdump-rtl-ce1
-fdump-rtl-ce2
-fdump-rtl-ce3
-fdump-rtl-ce1, -fdump-rtl-ce2, and -fdump-rtl-ce3 enable
dumping after the three if conversion passes.

-fdump-rtl-cprop_hardreg
Dump after hard register copy propagation.

-fdump-rtl-csa
Dump after combining stack adjustments.

-fdump-rtl-cse1
-fdump-rtl-cse2
-fdump-rtl-cse1 and -fdump-rtl-cse2 enable dumping after the
two common subexpression elimination passes.

-fdump-rtl-dce
Dump after the standalone dead code elimination passes.

-fdump-rtl-dbr
Dump after delayed branch scheduling.

-fdump-rtl-dce1
-fdump-rtl-dce2
-fdump-rtl-dce1 and -fdump-rtl-dce2 enable dumping after the
two dead store elimination passes.

-fdump-rtl-eh
Dump after finalization of EH handling code.

-fdump-rtl-eh_ranges
Dump after conversion of EH handling range regions.

-fdump-rtl-expand
Dump after RTL generation.

-fdump-rtl-fwprop1
-fdump-rtl-fwprop2
-fdump-rtl-fwprop1 and -fdump-rtl-fwprop2 enable dumping after
the two forward propagation passes.

-fdump-rtl-gcse1
-fdump-rtl-gcse2
-fdump-rtl-gcse1 and -fdump-rtl-gcse2 enable dumping after
global common subexpression elimination.

-fdump-rtl-init-regs
Dump after the initialization of the registers.

-fdump-rtl-initvals
Dump after the computation of the initial value sets.

-fdump-rtl-into_cfglayout
Dump after converting to cfglayout mode.

-fdump-rtl-ira
Dump after iterated register allocation.

-fdump-rtl-jump
Dump after the second jump optimization.

-fdump-rtl-loop2
-fdump-rtl-loop2 enables dumping after the rtl loop
optimization passes.

-fdump-rtl-mach
Dump after performing the machine dependent reorganization
pass, if that pass exists.

-fdump-rtl-mode_sw
Dump after removing redundant mode switches.

-fdump-rtl-rnreg
Dump after register renumbering.

-fdump-rtl-outof_cfglayout
Dump after converting from cfglayout mode.

-fdump-rtl-peephole2
Dump after the peephole pass.

-fdump-rtl-postreload
Dump after post-reload optimizations.

-fdump-rtl-pro_and_epilogue
Dump after generating the function prologues and epilogues.

-fdump-rtl-sched1
-fdump-rtl-sched2
-fdump-rtl-sched1 and -fdump-rtl-sched2 enable dumping after
the basic block scheduling passes.

-fdump-rtl-ree
Dump after sign/zero extension elimination.

-fdump-rtl-seqabstr
Dump after common sequence discovery.

-fdump-rtl-shorten
Dump after shortening branches.

-fdump-rtl-sibling
Dump after sibling call optimizations.

-fdump-rtl-split1
-fdump-rtl-split2
-fdump-rtl-split3
-fdump-rtl-split4
-fdump-rtl-split5
These options enable dumping after five rounds of instruction
splitting.

-fdump-rtl-sms
Dump after modulo scheduling. This pass is only run on some
architectures.

-fdump-rtl-stack
Dump after conversion from GCC’s “flat register file” registers
to the x87’s stack-like registers. This pass is only run on
x86 variants.

-fdump-rtl-subreg1
-fdump-rtl-subreg2
-fdump-rtl-subreg1 and -fdump-rtl-subreg2 enable dumping after
the two subreg expansion passes.

-fdump-rtl-unshare
Dump after all rtl has been unshared.

-fdump-rtl-vartrack
Dump after variable tracking.

-fdump-rtl-vregs
Dump after converting virtual registers to hard registers.

-fdump-rtl-web
Dump after live range splitting.

-fdump-rtl-regclass
-fdump-rtl-subregs_of_mode_init
-fdump-rtl-subregs_of_mode_finish
-fdump-rtl-dfinit
-fdump-rtl-dfinish
These dumps are defined but always produce empty files.

-da
-fdump-rtl-all
Produce all the dumps listed above.

-dA Annotate the assembler output with miscellaneous debugging
information.

-dD Dump all macro definitions, at the end of preprocessing, in
addition to normal output.

-dH Produce a core dump whenever an error occurs.

-dp Annotate the assembler output with a comment indicating which
pattern and alternative is used. The length of each
instruction is also printed.

-dP Dump the RTL in the assembler output as a comment before each
instruction. Also turns on -dp annotation.

-dx Just generate RTL for a function instead of compiling it.
Usually used with -fdump-rtl-expand.

-fdump-noaddr
When doing debugging dumps, suppress address output. This makes it
more feasible to use diff on debugging dumps for compiler
invocations with different compiler binaries and/or different text
/ bss / data / heap / stack / dso start locations.

-freport-bug
Collect and dump debug information into temporary file if ICE in
C/C++ compiler occured.

-fdump-unnumbered
When doing debugging dumps, suppress instruction numbers and
address output. This makes it more feasible to use diff on
debugging dumps for compiler invocations with different options, in
particular with and without -g.

-fdump-unnumbered-links
When doing debugging dumps (see -d option above), suppress
instruction numbers for the links to the previous and next
instructions in a sequence.

-fdump-translation-unit (C++ only)
-fdump-translation-unit-options (C++ only)
Dump a representation of the tree structure for the entire
translation unit to a file. The file name is made by appending .tu
to the source file name, and the file is created in the same
directory as the output file. If the -options form is used,
options controls the details of the dump as described for the
-fdump-tree options.

-fdump-class-hierarchy (C++ only)
-fdump-class-hierarchy-options (C++ only)
Dump a representation of each class’s hierarchy and virtual
function table layout to a file. The file name is made by
appending .class to the source file name, and the file is created
in the same directory as the output file. If the -options form is
used, options controls the details of the dump as described for the
-fdump-tree options.

-fdump-ipa-switch
Control the dumping at various stages of inter-procedural analysis
language tree to a file. The file name is generated by appending a
switch specific suffix to the source file name, and the file is
created in the same directory as the output file. The following
dumps are possible:

all Enables all inter-procedural analysis dumps.

cgraph
Dumps information about call-graph optimization, unused
function removal, and inlining decisions.

inline
Dump after function inlining.

-fdump-passes
Dump the list of optimization passes that are turned on and off by
the current command-line options.

-fdump-statistics-option
Enable and control dumping of pass statistics in a separate file.
The file name is generated by appending a suffix ending in
.statistics to the source file name, and the file is created in the
same directory as the output file. If the -option form is used,
-stats causes counters to be summed over the whole compilation unit
while -details dumps every event as the passes generate them. The
default with no option is to sum counters for each function
compiled.

-fdump-tree-switch
-fdump-tree-switch-options
-fdump-tree-switch-options=filename
Control the dumping at various stages of processing the
intermediate language tree to a file. The file name is generated
by appending a switch-specific suffix to the source file name, and
the file is created in the same directory as the output file. In
case of =filename option, the dump is output on the given file
instead of the auto named dump files. If the -options form is
used, options is a list of – separated options which control the
details of the dump. Not all options are applicable to all dumps;
those that are not meaningful are ignored. The following options
are available

address
Print the address of each node. Usually this is not meaningful
as it changes according to the environment and source file.
Its primary use is for tying up a dump file with a debug
environment.

asmname
If “DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME” has been set for a given decl, use
that in the dump instead of “DECL_NAME”. Its primary use is
ease of use working backward from mangled names in the assembly
file.

slim
When dumping front-end intermediate representations, inhibit
dumping of members of a scope or body of a function merely
because that scope has been reached. Only dump such items when
they are directly reachable by some other path.

When dumping pretty-printed trees, this option inhibits dumping
the bodies of control structures.

When dumping RTL, print the RTL in slim (condensed) form
instead of the default LISP-like representation.

raw Print a raw representation of the tree. By default, trees are
pretty-printed into a C-like representation.

details
Enable more detailed dumps (not honored by every dump option).
Also include information from the optimization passes.

stats
Enable dumping various statistics about the pass (not honored
by every dump option).

blocks
Enable showing basic block boundaries (disabled in raw dumps).

graph
For each of the other indicated dump files (-fdump-rtl-pass),
dump a representation of the control flow graph suitable for
viewing with GraphViz to file.passid.pass.dot. Each function
in the file is pretty-printed as a subgraph, so that GraphViz
can render them all in a single plot.

This option currently only works for RTL dumps, and the RTL is
always dumped in slim form.

vops
Enable showing virtual operands for every statement.

lineno
Enable showing line numbers for statements.

uid Enable showing the unique ID (“DECL_UID”) for each variable.

verbose
Enable showing the tree dump for each statement.

eh Enable showing the EH region number holding each statement.

scev
Enable showing scalar evolution analysis details.

optimized
Enable showing optimization information (only available in
certain passes).

missed
Enable showing missed optimization information (only available
in certain passes).

note
Enable other detailed optimization information (only available
in certain passes).

=filename
Instead of an auto named dump file, output into the given file
name. The file names stdout and stderr are treated specially
and are considered already open standard streams. For example,

gcc -O2 -ftree-vectorize -fdump-tree-vect-blocks=foo.dump
-fdump-tree-pre=stderr file.c

outputs vectorizer dump into foo.dump, while the PRE dump is
output on to stderr. If two conflicting dump filenames are
given for the same pass, then the latter option overrides the
earlier one.

all Turn on all options, except raw, slim, verbose and lineno.

optall
Turn on all optimization options, i.e., optimized, missed, and
note.

The following tree dumps are possible:

original
Dump before any tree based optimization, to file.original.

optimized
Dump after all tree based optimization, to file.optimized.

gimple
Dump each function before and after the gimplification pass to
a file. The file name is made by appending .gimple to the
source file name.

cfg Dump the control flow graph of each function to a file. The
file name is made by appending .cfg to the source file name.

ch Dump each function after copying loop headers. The file name
is made by appending .ch to the source file name.

ssa Dump SSA related information to a file. The file name is made
by appending .ssa to the source file name.

alias
Dump aliasing information for each function. The file name is
made by appending .alias to the source file name.

ccp Dump each function after CCP. The file name is made by
appending .ccp to the source file name.

storeccp
Dump each function after STORE-CCP. The file name is made by
appending .storeccp to the source file name.

pre Dump trees after partial redundancy elimination. The file name
is made by appending .pre to the source file name.

fre Dump trees after full redundancy elimination. The file name is
made by appending .fre to the source file name.

copyprop
Dump trees after copy propagation. The file name is made by
appending .copyprop to the source file name.

store_copyprop
Dump trees after store copy-propagation. The file name is made
by appending .store_copyprop to the source file name.

dce Dump each function after dead code elimination. The file name
is made by appending .dce to the source file name.

sra Dump each function after performing scalar replacement of
aggregates. The file name is made by appending .sra to the
source file name.

sink
Dump each function after performing code sinking. The file
name is made by appending .sink to the source file name.

dom Dump each function after applying dominator tree optimizations.
The file name is made by appending .dom to the source file
name.

dse Dump each function after applying dead store elimination. The
file name is made by appending .dse to the source file name.

phiopt
Dump each function after optimizing PHI nodes into straightline
code. The file name is made by appending .phiopt to the source
file name.

forwprop
Dump each function after forward propagating single use
variables. The file name is made by appending .forwprop to the
source file name.

copyrename
Dump each function after applying the copy rename optimization.
The file name is made by appending .copyrename to the source
file name.

nrv Dump each function after applying the named return value
optimization on generic trees. The file name is made by
appending .nrv to the source file name.

vect
Dump each function after applying vectorization of loops. The
file name is made by appending .vect to the source file name.

slp Dump each function after applying vectorization of basic
blocks. The file name is made by appending .slp to the source
file name.

vrp Dump each function after Value Range Propagation (VRP). The
file name is made by appending .vrp to the source file name.

all Enable all the available tree dumps with the flags provided in
this option.

-fopt-info
-fopt-info-options
-fopt-info-options=filename
Controls optimization dumps from various optimization passes. If
the -options form is used, options is a list of – separated option
keywords to select the dump details and optimizations.

The options can be divided into two groups: options describing the
verbosity of the dump, and options describing which optimizations
should be included. The options from both the groups can be freely
mixed as they are non-overlapping. However, in case of any
conflicts, the later options override the earlier options on the
command line.

The following options control the dump verbosity:

optimized
Print information when an optimization is successfully applied.
It is up to a pass to decide which information is relevant. For
example, the vectorizer passes print the source location of
loops which are successfully vectorized.

missed
Print information about missed optimizations. Individual passes
control which information to include in the output.

note
Print verbose information about optimizations, such as certain
transformations, more detailed messages about decisions etc.

all Print detailed optimization information. This includes
optimized, missed, and note.

One or more of the following option keywords can be used to
describe a group of optimizations:

ipa Enable dumps from all interprocedural optimizations.

loop
Enable dumps from all loop optimizations.

inline
Enable dumps from all inlining optimizations.

vec Enable dumps from all vectorization optimizations.

optall
Enable dumps from all optimizations. This is a superset of the
optimization groups listed above.

If options is omitted, it defaults to optimized-optall, which means
to dump all info about successful optimizations from all the
passes.

If the filename is provided, then the dumps from all the applicable
optimizations are concatenated into the filename. Otherwise the
dump is output onto stderr. Though multiple -fopt-info options are
accepted, only one of them can include a filename. If other
filenames are provided then all but the first such option are
ignored.

Note that the output filename is overwritten in case of multiple
translation units. If a combined output from multiple translation
units is desired, stderr should be used instead.

In the following example, the optimization info is output to
stderr:

gcc -O3 -fopt-info

This example:

gcc -O3 -fopt-info-missed=missed.all

outputs missed optimization report from all the passes into
missed.all, and this one:

gcc -O2 -ftree-vectorize -fopt-info-vec-missed

prints information about missed optimization opportunities from
vectorization passes on stderr. Note that -fopt-info-vec-missed is
equivalent to -fopt-info-missed-vec.

As another example,

gcc -O3 -fopt-info-inline-optimized-missed=inline.txt

outputs information about missed optimizations as well as optimized
locations from all the inlining passes into inline.txt.

Finally, consider:

gcc -fopt-info-vec-missed=vec.miss -fopt-info-loop-optimized=loop.opt

Here the two output filenames vec.miss and loop.opt are in conflict
since only one output file is allowed. In this case, only the first
option takes effect and the subsequent options are ignored. Thus
only vec.miss is produced which contains dumps from the vectorizer
about missed opportunities.

-frandom-seed=string
This option provides a seed that GCC uses in place of random
numbers in generating certain symbol names that have to be
different in every compiled file. It is also used to place unique
stamps in coverage data files and the object files that produce
them. You can use the -frandom-seed option to produce reproducibly
identical object files.

The string can either be a number (decimal, octal or hex) or an
arbitrary string (in which case it’s converted to a number by
computing CRC32).

The string should be different for every file you compile.

-fsched-verbose=n
On targets that use instruction scheduling, this option controls
the amount of debugging output the scheduler prints. This
information is written to standard error, unless -fdump-rtl-sched1
or -fdump-rtl-sched2 is specified, in which case it is output to
the usual dump listing file, .sched1 or .sched2 respectively.
However for n greater than nine, the output is always printed to
standard error.

For n greater than zero, -fsched-verbose outputs the same
information as -fdump-rtl-sched1 and -fdump-rtl-sched2. For n
greater than one, it also output basic block probabilities,
detailed ready list information and unit/insn info. For n greater
than two, it includes RTL at abort point, control-flow and regions
info. And for n over four, -fsched-verbose also includes
dependence info.

-save-temps
-save-temps=cwd
Store the usual “temporary” intermediate files permanently; place
them in the current directory and name them based on the source
file. Thus, compiling foo.c with -c -save-temps produces files
foo.i and foo.s, as well as foo.o. This creates a preprocessed
foo.i output file even though the compiler now normally uses an
integrated preprocessor.

When used in combination with the -x command-line option,
-save-temps is sensible enough to avoid over writing an input
source file with the same extension as an intermediate file. The
corresponding intermediate file may be obtained by renaming the
source file before using -save-temps.

If you invoke GCC in parallel, compiling several different source
files that share a common base name in different subdirectories or
the same source file compiled for multiple output destinations, it
is likely that the different parallel compilers will interfere with
each other, and overwrite the temporary files. For instance:

gcc -save-temps -o outdir1/foo.o indir1/foo.c&
gcc -save-temps -o outdir2/foo.o indir2/foo.c&

may result in foo.i and foo.o being written to simultaneously by
both compilers.

-save-temps=obj
Store the usual “temporary” intermediate files permanently. If the
-o option is used, the temporary files are based on the object
file. If the -o option is not used, the -save-temps=obj switch
behaves like -save-temps.

For example:

gcc -save-temps=obj -c foo.c
gcc -save-temps=obj -c bar.c -o dir/xbar.o
gcc -save-temps=obj foobar.c -o dir2/yfoobar

creates foo.i, foo.s, dir/xbar.i, dir/xbar.s, dir2/yfoobar.i,
dir2/yfoobar.s, and dir2/yfoobar.o.

-time[=file] Report the CPU time taken by each subprocess in the compilation
sequence. For C source files, this is the compiler proper and
assembler (plus the linker if linking is done).

Without the specification of an output file, the output looks like
this:

# cc1 0.12 0.01
# as 0.00 0.01

The first number on each line is the “user time”, that is time
spent executing the program itself. The second number is “system
time”, time spent executing operating system routines on behalf of
the program. Both numbers are in seconds.

With the specification of an output file, the output is appended to
the named file, and it looks like this:

0.12 0.01 cc1
0.00 0.01 as

The “user time” and the “system time” are moved before the program
name, and the options passed to the program are displayed, so that
one can later tell what file was being compiled, and with which
options.

-fvar-tracking
Run variable tracking pass. It computes where variables are stored
at each position in code. Better debugging information is then
generated (if the debugging information format supports this
information).

It is enabled by default when compiling with optimization (-Os, -O,
-O2, …), debugging information (-g) and the debug info format
supports it.

-fvar-tracking-assignments
Annotate assignments to user variables early in the compilation and
attempt to carry the annotations over throughout the compilation
all the way to the end, in an attempt to improve debug information
while optimizing. Use of -gdwarf-4 is recommended along with it.

It can be enabled even if var-tracking is disabled, in which case
annotations are created and maintained, but discarded at the end.
By default, this flag is enabled together with -fvar-tracking,
except when selective scheduling is enabled.

-fvar-tracking-assignments-toggle
Toggle -fvar-tracking-assignments, in the same way that -gtoggle
toggles -g.

-print-file-name=library
Print the full absolute name of the library file library that would
be used when linking—and don’t do anything else. With this
option, GCC does not compile or link anything; it just prints the
file name.

-print-multi-directory
Print the directory name corresponding to the multilib selected by
any other switches present in the command line. This directory is
supposed to exist in GCC_EXEC_PREFIX.

-print-multi-lib
Print the mapping from multilib directory names to compiler
switches that enable them. The directory name is separated from
the switches by ;, and each switch starts with an @ instead of the
-, without spaces between multiple switches. This is supposed to
ease shell processing.

-print-multi-os-directory
Print the path to OS libraries for the selected multilib, relative
to some lib subdirectory. If OS libraries are present in the lib
subdirectory and no multilibs are used, this is usually just ., if
OS libraries are present in libsuffix sibling directories this
prints e.g. ../lib64, ../lib or ../lib32, or if OS libraries are
present in lib/subdir subdirectories it prints e.g. amd64, sparcv9
or ev6.

-print-multiarch
Print the path to OS libraries for the selected multiarch, relative
to some lib subdirectory.

-print-prog-name=program
Like -print-file-name, but searches for a program such as cpp.

-print-libgcc-file-name
Same as -print-file-name=libgcc.a.

This is useful when you use -nostdlib or -nodefaultlibs but you do
want to link with libgcc.a. You can do:

gcc -nostdlib … `gcc -print-libgcc-file-name`

-print-search-dirs
Print the name of the configured installation directory and a list
of program and library directories gcc searches—and don’t do
anything else.

This is useful when gcc prints the error message installation
problem, cannot exec cpp0: No such file or directory. To resolve
this you either need to put cpp0 and the other compiler components
where gcc expects to find them, or you can set the environment
variable GCC_EXEC_PREFIX to the directory where you installed them.
Don’t forget the trailing /.

-print-sysroot
Print the target sysroot directory that is used during compilation.
This is the target sysroot specified either at configure time or
using the –sysroot option, possibly with an extra suffix that
depends on compilation options. If no target sysroot is specified,
the option prints nothing.

-print-sysroot-headers-suffix
Print the suffix added to the target sysroot when searching for
headers, or give an error if the compiler is not configured with
such a suffix—and don’t do anything else.

-dumpmachine
Print the compiler’s target machine (for example,
i686-pc-linux-gnu)—and don’t do anything else.

-dumpversion
Print the compiler version (for example, 3.0)—and don’t do
anything else.

-dumpspecs
Print the compiler’s built-in specs—and don’t do anything else.
(This is used when GCC itself is being built.)

-fno-eliminate-unused-debug-types
Normally, when producing DWARF 2 output, GCC avoids producing debug
symbol output for types that are nowhere used in the source file
being compiled. Sometimes it is useful to have GCC emit debugging
information for all types declared in a compilation unit,
regardless of whether or not they are actually used in that
compilation unit, for example if, in the debugger, you want to cast
a value to a type that is not actually used in your program (but is
declared). More often, however, this results in a significant
amount of wasted space.

Options That Control Optimization
These options control various sorts of optimizations.

Without any optimization option, the compiler’s goal is to reduce the
cost of compilation and to make debugging produce the expected results.
Statements are independent: if you stop the program with a breakpoint
between statements, you can then assign a new value to any variable or
change the program counter to any other statement in the function and
get exactly the results you expect from the source code.

Turning on optimization flags makes the compiler attempt to improve the
performance and/or code size at the expense of compilation time and
possibly the ability to debug the program.

The compiler performs optimization based on the knowledge it has of the
program. Compiling multiple files at once to a single output file mode
allows the compiler to use information gained from all of the files
when compiling each of them.

Not all optimizations are controlled directly by a flag. Only
optimizations that have a flag are listed in this section.

Most optimizations are only enabled if an -O level is set on the
command line. Otherwise they are disabled, even if individual
optimization flags are specified.

Depending on the target and how GCC was configured, a slightly
different set of optimizations may be enabled at each -O level than
those listed here. You can invoke GCC with -Q –help=optimizers to
find out the exact set of optimizations that are enabled at each level.

-O
-O1 Optimize. Optimizing compilation takes somewhat more time, and a
lot more memory for a large function.

With -O, the compiler tries to reduce code size and execution time,
without performing any optimizations that take a great deal of
compilation time.

-O turns on the following optimization flags:

-fauto-inc-dec -fbranch-count-reg -fcombine-stack-adjustments
-fcompare-elim -fcprop-registers -fdce -fdefer-pop -fdelayed-branch
-fdse -fforward-propagate -fguess-branch-probability
-fif-conversion2 -fif-conversion -finline-functions-called-once
-fipa-pure-const -fipa-profile -fipa-reference -fmerge-constants
-fmove-loop-invariants -fshrink-wrap -fsplit-wide-types
-ftree-bit-ccp -ftree-ccp -fssa-phiopt -ftree-ch -ftree-copy-prop
-ftree-copyrename -ftree-dce -ftree-dominator-opts -ftree-dse
-ftree-forwprop -ftree-fre -ftree-phiprop -ftree-sink -ftree-slsr
-ftree-sra -ftree-pta -ftree-ter -funit-at-a-time

-O also turns on -fomit-frame-pointer on machines where doing so
does not interfere with debugging.

-O2 Optimize even more. GCC performs nearly all supported
optimizations that do not involve a space-speed tradeoff. As
compared to -O, this option increases both compilation time and the
performance of the generated code.

-O2 turns on all optimization flags specified by -O. It also turns
on the following optimization flags: -fthread-jumps
-falign-functions -falign-jumps -falign-loops -falign-labels
-fcaller-saves -fcrossjumping -fcse-follow-jumps -fcse-skip-blocks
-fdelete-null-pointer-checks -fdevirtualize
-fdevirtualize-speculatively -fexpensive-optimizations -fgcse
-fgcse-lm -fhoist-adjacent-loads -finline-small-functions
-findirect-inlining -fipa-cp -fipa-cp-alignment -fipa-sra -fipa-icf
-fisolate-erroneous-paths-dereference -flra-remat
-foptimize-sibling-calls -foptimize-strlen -fpartial-inlining
-fpeephole2 -freorder-blocks -freorder-blocks-and-partition
-freorder-functions -frerun-cse-after-loop -fsched-interblock
-fsched-spec -fschedule-insns -fschedule-insns2 -fstrict-aliasing
-fstrict-overflow -ftree-builtin-call-dce -ftree-switch-conversion
-ftree-tail-merge -ftree-pre -ftree-vrp -fipa-ra

Please note the warning under -fgcse about invoking -O2 on programs
that use computed gotos.

NOTE: In Ubuntu 8.10 and later versions, -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 is set
by default, and is activated when -O is set to 2 or higher. This
enables additional compile-time and run-time checks for several
libc functions. To disable, specify either -U_FORTIFY_SOURCE or
-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=0.

-O3 Optimize yet more. -O3 turns on all optimizations specified by -O2
and also turns on the -finline-functions, -funswitch-loops,
-fpredictive-commoning, -fgcse-after-reload, -ftree-loop-vectorize,
-ftree-loop-distribute-patterns, -ftree-slp-vectorize,
-fvect-cost-model, -ftree-partial-pre and -fipa-cp-clone options.

-O0 Reduce compilation time and make debugging produce the expected
results. This is the default.

-Os Optimize for size. -Os enables all -O2 optimizations that do not
typically increase code size. It also performs further
optimizations designed to reduce code size.

-Os disables the following optimization flags: -falign-functions
-falign-jumps -falign-loops -falign-labels -freorder-blocks
-freorder-blocks-and-partition -fprefetch-loop-arrays

-Ofast
Disregard strict standards compliance. -Ofast enables all -O3
optimizations. It also enables optimizations that are not valid
for all standard-compliant programs. It turns on -ffast-math and
the Fortran-specific -fno-protect-parens and -fstack-arrays.

-Og Optimize debugging experience. -Og enables optimizations that do
not interfere with debugging. It should be the optimization level
of choice for the standard edit-compile-debug cycle, offering a
reasonable level of optimization while maintaining fast compilation
and a good debugging experience.

If you use multiple -O options, with or without level numbers, the
last such option is the one that is effective.

Options of the form -fflag specify machine-independent flags. Most
flags have both positive and negative forms; the negative form of -ffoo
is -fno-foo. In the table below, only one of the forms is listed—the
one you typically use. You can figure out the other form by either
removing no- or adding it.

The following options control specific optimizations. They are either
activated by -O options or are related to ones that are. You can use
the following flags in the rare cases when “fine-tuning” of
optimizations to be performed is desired.

-fno-defer-pop
Always pop the arguments to each function call as soon as that
function returns. For machines that must pop arguments after a
function call, the compiler normally lets arguments accumulate on
the stack for several function calls and pops them all at once.

Disabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fforward-propagate
Perform a forward propagation pass on RTL. The pass tries to
combine two instructions and checks if the result can be
simplified. If loop unrolling is active, two passes are performed
and the second is scheduled after loop unrolling.

This option is enabled by default at optimization levels -O, -O2,
-O3, -Os.

-ffp-contract=style
-ffp-contract=off disables floating-point expression contraction.
-ffp-contract=fast enables floating-point expression contraction
such as forming of fused multiply-add operations if the target has
native support for them. -ffp-contract=on enables floating-point
expression contraction if allowed by the language standard. This
is currently not implemented and treated equal to
-ffp-contract=off.

The default is -ffp-contract=fast.

-fomit-frame-pointer
Don’t keep the frame pointer in a register for functions that don’t
need one. This avoids the instructions to save, set up and restore
frame pointers; it also makes an extra register available in many
functions. It also makes debugging impossible on some machines.

On some machines, such as the VAX, this flag has no effect, because
the standard calling sequence automatically handles the frame
pointer and nothing is saved by pretending it doesn’t exist. The
machine-description macro “FRAME_POINTER_REQUIRED” controls whether
a target machine supports this flag.

The default setting (when not optimizing for size) for 32-bit
GNU/Linux x86 and 32-bit Darwin x86 targets is
-fomit-frame-pointer. You can configure GCC with the
–enable-frame-pointer configure option to change the default.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-foptimize-sibling-calls
Optimize sibling and tail recursive calls.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-foptimize-strlen
Optimize various standard C string functions (e.g. “strlen”,
“strchr” or “strcpy”) and their “_FORTIFY_SOURCE” counterparts into
faster alternatives.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-fno-inline
Do not expand any functions inline apart from those marked with the
“always_inline” attribute. This is the default when not
optimizing.

Single functions can be exempted from inlining by marking them with
the “noinline” attribute.

-finline-small-functions
Integrate functions into their callers when their body is smaller
than expected function call code (so overall size of program gets
smaller). The compiler heuristically decides which functions are
simple enough to be worth integrating in this way. This inlining
applies to all functions, even those not declared inline.

Enabled at level -O2.

-findirect-inlining
Inline also indirect calls that are discovered to be known at
compile time thanks to previous inlining. This option has any
effect only when inlining itself is turned on by the
-finline-functions or -finline-small-functions options.

Enabled at level -O2.

-finline-functions
Consider all functions for inlining, even if they are not declared
inline. The compiler heuristically decides which functions are
worth integrating in this way.

If all calls to a given function are integrated, and the function
is declared “static”, then the function is normally not output as
assembler code in its own right.

Enabled at level -O3.

-finline-functions-called-once
Consider all “static” functions called once for inlining into their
caller even if they are not marked “inline”. If a call to a given
function is integrated, then the function is not output as
assembler code in its own right.

Enabled at levels -O1, -O2, -O3 and -Os.

-fearly-inlining
Inline functions marked by “always_inline” and functions whose body
seems smaller than the function call overhead early before doing
-fprofile-generate instrumentation and real inlining pass. Doing
so makes profiling significantly cheaper and usually inlining
faster on programs having large chains of nested wrapper functions.

Enabled by default.

-fipa-sra
Perform interprocedural scalar replacement of aggregates, removal
of unused parameters and replacement of parameters passed by
reference by parameters passed by value.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3 and -Os.

-finline-limit=n
By default, GCC limits the size of functions that can be inlined.
This flag allows coarse control of this limit. n is the size of
functions that can be inlined in number of pseudo instructions.

Inlining is actually controlled by a number of parameters, which
may be specified individually by using –param name=value. The
-finline-limit=n option sets some of these parameters as follows:

max-inline-insns-single
is set to n/2.

max-inline-insns-auto
is set to n/2.

See below for a documentation of the individual parameters
controlling inlining and for the defaults of these parameters.

Note: there may be no value to -finline-limit that results in
default behavior.

Note: pseudo instruction represents, in this particular context, an
abstract measurement of function’s size. In no way does it
represent a count of assembly instructions and as such its exact
meaning might change from one release to an another.

-fno-keep-inline-dllexport
This is a more fine-grained version of -fkeep-inline-functions,
which applies only to functions that are declared using the
“dllexport” attribute or declspec

-fkeep-inline-functions
In C, emit “static” functions that are declared “inline” into the
object file, even if the function has been inlined into all of its
callers. This switch does not affect functions using the “extern
inline” extension in GNU C90. In C++, emit any and all inline
functions into the object file.

-fkeep-static-consts
Emit variables declared “static const” when optimization isn’t
turned on, even if the variables aren’t referenced.

GCC enables this option by default. If you want to force the
compiler to check if a variable is referenced, regardless of
whether or not optimization is turned on, use the
-fno-keep-static-consts option.

-fmerge-constants
Attempt to merge identical constants (string constants and
floating-point constants) across compilation units.

This option is the default for optimized compilation if the
assembler and linker support it. Use -fno-merge-constants to
inhibit this behavior.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fmerge-all-constants
Attempt to merge identical constants and identical variables.

This option implies -fmerge-constants. In addition to
-fmerge-constants this considers e.g. even constant initialized
arrays or initialized constant variables with integral or floating-
point types. Languages like C or C++ require each variable,
including multiple instances of the same variable in recursive
calls, to have distinct locations, so using this option results in
non-conforming behavior.

-fmodulo-sched
Perform swing modulo scheduling immediately before the first
scheduling pass. This pass looks at innermost loops and reorders
their instructions by overlapping different iterations.

-fmodulo-sched-allow-regmoves
Perform more aggressive SMS-based modulo scheduling with register
moves allowed. By setting this flag certain anti-dependences edges
are deleted, which triggers the generation of reg-moves based on
the life-range analysis. This option is effective only with
-fmodulo-sched enabled.

-fno-branch-count-reg
Do not use “decrement and branch” instructions on a count register,
but instead generate a sequence of instructions that decrement a
register, compare it against zero, then branch based upon the
result. This option is only meaningful on architectures that
support such instructions, which include x86, PowerPC, IA-64 and
S/390.

Enabled by default at -O1 and higher.

The default is -fbranch-count-reg.

-fno-function-cse
Do not put function addresses in registers; make each instruction
that calls a constant function contain the function’s address
explicitly.

This option results in less efficient code, but some strange hacks
that alter the assembler output may be confused by the
optimizations performed when this option is not used.

The default is -ffunction-cse

-fno-zero-initialized-in-bss
If the target supports a BSS section, GCC by default puts variables
that are initialized to zero into BSS. This can save space in the
resulting code.

This option turns off this behavior because some programs
explicitly rely on variables going to the data section—e.g., so
that the resulting executable can find the beginning of that
section and/or make assumptions based on that.

The default is -fzero-initialized-in-bss.

-fthread-jumps
Perform optimizations that check to see if a jump branches to a
location where another comparison subsumed by the first is found.
If so, the first branch is redirected to either the destination of
the second branch or a point immediately following it, depending on
whether the condition is known to be true or false.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fsplit-wide-types
When using a type that occupies multiple registers, such as “long
long” on a 32-bit system, split the registers apart and allocate
them independently. This normally generates better code for those
types, but may make debugging more difficult.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fcse-follow-jumps
In common subexpression elimination (CSE), scan through jump
instructions when the target of the jump is not reached by any
other path. For example, when CSE encounters an “if” statement
with an “else” clause, CSE follows the jump when the condition
tested is false.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fcse-skip-blocks
This is similar to -fcse-follow-jumps, but causes CSE to follow
jumps that conditionally skip over blocks. When CSE encounters a
simple “if” statement with no else clause, -fcse-skip-blocks causes
CSE to follow the jump around the body of the “if”.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-frerun-cse-after-loop
Re-run common subexpression elimination after loop optimizations
are performed.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fgcse
Perform a global common subexpression elimination pass. This pass
also performs global constant and copy propagation.

Note: When compiling a program using computed gotos, a GCC
extension, you may get better run-time performance if you disable
the global common subexpression elimination pass by adding
-fno-gcse to the command line.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fgcse-lm
When -fgcse-lm is enabled, global common subexpression elimination
attempts to move loads that are only killed by stores into
themselves. This allows a loop containing a load/store sequence to
be changed to a load outside the loop, and a copy/store within the
loop.

Enabled by default when -fgcse is enabled.

-fgcse-sm
When -fgcse-sm is enabled, a store motion pass is run after global
common subexpression elimination. This pass attempts to move
stores out of loops. When used in conjunction with -fgcse-lm,
loops containing a load/store sequence can be changed to a load
before the loop and a store after the loop.

Not enabled at any optimization level.

-fgcse-las
When -fgcse-las is enabled, the global common subexpression
elimination pass eliminates redundant loads that come after stores
to the same memory location (both partial and full redundancies).

Not enabled at any optimization level.

-fgcse-after-reload
When -fgcse-after-reload is enabled, a redundant load elimination
pass is performed after reload. The purpose of this pass is to
clean up redundant spilling.

-faggressive-loop-optimizations
This option tells the loop optimizer to use language constraints to
derive bounds for the number of iterations of a loop. This assumes
that loop code does not invoke undefined behavior by for example
causing signed integer overflows or out-of-bound array accesses.
The bounds for the number of iterations of a loop are used to guide
loop unrolling and peeling and loop exit test optimizations. This
option is enabled by default.

-funsafe-loop-optimizations
This option tells the loop optimizer to assume that loop indices do
not overflow, and that loops with nontrivial exit condition are not
infinite. This enables a wider range of loop optimizations even if
the loop optimizer itself cannot prove that these assumptions are
valid. If you use -Wunsafe-loop-optimizations, the compiler warns
you if it finds this kind of loop.

-fcrossjumping
Perform cross-jumping transformation. This transformation unifies
equivalent code and saves code size. The resulting code may or may
not perform better than without cross-jumping.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fauto-inc-dec
Combine increments or decrements of addresses with memory accesses.
This pass is always skipped on architectures that do not have
instructions to support this. Enabled by default at -O and higher
on architectures that support this.

-fdce
Perform dead code elimination (DCE) on RTL. Enabled by default at
-O and higher.

-fdse
Perform dead store elimination (DSE) on RTL. Enabled by default at
-O and higher.

-fif-conversion
Attempt to transform conditional jumps into branch-less
equivalents. This includes use of conditional moves, min, max, set
flags and abs instructions, and some tricks doable by standard
arithmetics. The use of conditional execution on chips where it is
available is controlled by -fif-conversion2.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fif-conversion2
Use conditional execution (where available) to transform
conditional jumps into branch-less equivalents.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fdeclone-ctor-dtor
The C++ ABI requires multiple entry points for constructors and
destructors: one for a base subobject, one for a complete object,
and one for a virtual destructor that calls operator delete
afterwards. For a hierarchy with virtual bases, the base and
complete variants are clones, which means two copies of the
function. With this option, the base and complete variants are
changed to be thunks that call a common implementation.

Enabled by -Os.

-fdelete-null-pointer-checks
Assume that programs cannot safely dereference null pointers, and
that no code or data element resides there. This enables simple
constant folding optimizations at all optimization levels. In
addition, other optimization passes in GCC use this flag to control
global dataflow analyses that eliminate useless checks for null
pointers; these assume that if a pointer is checked after it has
already been dereferenced, it cannot be null.

Note however that in some environments this assumption is not true.
Use -fno-delete-null-pointer-checks to disable this optimization
for programs that depend on that behavior.

Some targets, especially embedded ones, disable this option at all
levels. Otherwise it is enabled at all levels: -O0, -O1, -O2, -O3,
-Os. Passes that use the information are enabled independently at
different optimization levels.

-fdevirtualize
Attempt to convert calls to virtual functions to direct calls.
This is done both within a procedure and interprocedurally as part
of indirect inlining (-findirect-inlining) and interprocedural
constant propagation (-fipa-cp). Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fdevirtualize-speculatively
Attempt to convert calls to virtual functions to speculative direct
calls. Based on the analysis of the type inheritance graph,
determine for a given call the set of likely targets. If the set is
small, preferably of size 1, change the call into a conditional
deciding between direct and indirect calls. The speculative calls
enable more optimizations, such as inlining. When they seem
useless after further optimization, they are converted back into
original form.

-fdevirtualize-at-ltrans
Stream extra information needed for aggressive devirtualization
when running the link-time optimizer in local transformation mode.
This option enables more devirtualization but significantly
increases the size of streamed data. For this reason it is disabled
by default.

-fexpensive-optimizations
Perform a number of minor optimizations that are relatively
expensive.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-free
Attempt to remove redundant extension instructions. This is
especially helpful for the x86-64 architecture, which implicitly
zero-extends in 64-bit registers after writing to their lower
32-bit half.

Enabled for Alpha, AArch64 and x86 at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fno-lifetime-dse
In C++ the value of an object is only affected by changes within
its lifetime: when the constructor begins, the object has an
indeterminate value, and any changes during the lifetime of the
object are dead when the object is destroyed. Normally dead store
elimination will take advantage of this; if your code relies on the
value of the object storage persisting beyond the lifetime of the
object, you can use this flag to disable this optimization.

-flive-range-shrinkage
Attempt to decrease register pressure through register live range
shrinkage. This is helpful for fast processors with small or
moderate size register sets.

-fira-algorithm=algorithm
Use the specified coloring algorithm for the integrated register
allocator. The algorithm argument can be priority, which specifies
Chow’s priority coloring, or CB, which specifies Chaitin-Briggs
coloring. Chaitin-Briggs coloring is not implemented for all
architectures, but for those targets that do support it, it is the
default because it generates better code.

-fira-region=region
Use specified regions for the integrated register allocator. The
region argument should be one of the following:

all Use all loops as register allocation regions. This can give
the best results for machines with a small and/or irregular
register set.

mixed
Use all loops except for loops with small register pressure as
the regions. This value usually gives the best results in most
cases and for most architectures, and is enabled by default
when compiling with optimization for speed (-O, -O2, …).

one Use all functions as a single region. This typically results
in the smallest code size, and is enabled by default for -Os or
-O0.

-fira-hoist-pressure
Use IRA to evaluate register pressure in the code hoisting pass for
decisions to hoist expressions. This option usually results in
smaller code, but it can slow the compiler down.

This option is enabled at level -Os for all targets.

-fira-loop-pressure
Use IRA to evaluate register pressure in loops for decisions to
move loop invariants. This option usually results in generation of
faster and smaller code on machines with large register files (>=
32 registers), but it can slow the compiler down.

This option is enabled at level -O3 for some targets.

-fno-ira-share-save-slots
Disable sharing of stack slots used for saving call-used hard
registers living through a call. Each hard register gets a
separate stack slot, and as a result function stack frames are
larger.

-fno-ira-share-spill-slots
Disable sharing of stack slots allocated for pseudo-registers.
Each pseudo-register that does not get a hard register gets a
separate stack slot, and as a result function stack frames are
larger.

-fira-verbose=n
Control the verbosity of the dump file for the integrated register
allocator. The default value is 5. If the value n is greater or
equal to 10, the dump output is sent to stderr using the same
format as n minus 10.

-flra-remat
Enable CFG-sensitive rematerialization in LRA. Instead of loading
values of spilled pseudos, LRA tries to rematerialize (recalculate)
values if it is profitable.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fdelayed-branch
If supported for the target machine, attempt to reorder
instructions to exploit instruction slots available after delayed
branch instructions.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fschedule-insns
If supported for the target machine, attempt to reorder
instructions to eliminate execution stalls due to required data
being unavailable. This helps machines that have slow floating
point or memory load instructions by allowing other instructions to
be issued until the result of the load or floating-point
instruction is required.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-fschedule-insns2
Similar to -fschedule-insns, but requests an additional pass of
instruction scheduling after register allocation has been done.
This is especially useful on machines with a relatively small
number of registers and where memory load instructions take more
than one cycle.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fno-sched-interblock
Don’t schedule instructions across basic blocks. This is normally
enabled by default when scheduling before register allocation, i.e.
with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher.

-fno-sched-spec
Don’t allow speculative motion of non-load instructions. This is
normally enabled by default when scheduling before register
allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher.

-fsched-pressure
Enable register pressure sensitive insn scheduling before register
allocation. This only makes sense when scheduling before register
allocation is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or
higher. Usage of this option can improve the generated code and
decrease its size by preventing register pressure increase above
the number of available hard registers and subsequent spills in
register allocation.

-fsched-spec-load
Allow speculative motion of some load instructions. This only
makes sense when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with
-fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher.

-fsched-spec-load-dangerous
Allow speculative motion of more load instructions. This only
makes sense when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with
-fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher.

-fsched-stalled-insns
-fsched-stalled-insns=n
Define how many insns (if any) can be moved prematurely from the
queue of stalled insns into the ready list during the second
scheduling pass. -fno-sched-stalled-insns means that no insns are
moved prematurely, -fsched-stalled-insns=0 means there is no limit
on how many queued insns can be moved prematurely.
-fsched-stalled-insns without a value is equivalent to
-fsched-stalled-insns=1.

-fsched-stalled-insns-dep
-fsched-stalled-insns-dep=n
Define how many insn groups (cycles) are examined for a dependency
on a stalled insn that is a candidate for premature removal from
the queue of stalled insns. This has an effect only during the
second scheduling pass, and only if -fsched-stalled-insns is used.
-fno-sched-stalled-insns-dep is equivalent to
-fsched-stalled-insns-dep=0. -fsched-stalled-insns-dep without a
value is equivalent to -fsched-stalled-insns-dep=1.

-fsched2-use-superblocks
When scheduling after register allocation, use superblock
scheduling. This allows motion across basic block boundaries,
resulting in faster schedules. This option is experimental, as not
all machine descriptions used by GCC model the CPU closely enough
to avoid unreliable results from the algorithm.

This only makes sense when scheduling after register allocation,
i.e. with -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.

-fsched-group-heuristic
Enable the group heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors
the instruction that belongs to a schedule group. This is enabled
by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns
or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.

-fsched-critical-path-heuristic
Enable the critical-path heuristic in the scheduler. This
heuristic favors instructions on the critical path. This is
enabled by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with
-fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.

-fsched-spec-insn-heuristic
Enable the speculative instruction heuristic in the scheduler.
This heuristic favors speculative instructions with greater
dependency weakness. This is enabled by default when scheduling is
enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2
or higher.

-fsched-rank-heuristic
Enable the rank heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors
the instruction belonging to a basic block with greater size or
frequency. This is enabled by default when scheduling is enabled,
i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or
higher.

-fsched-last-insn-heuristic
Enable the last-instruction heuristic in the scheduler. This
heuristic favors the instruction that is less dependent on the last
instruction scheduled. This is enabled by default when scheduling
is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at
-O2 or higher.

-fsched-dep-count-heuristic
Enable the dependent-count heuristic in the scheduler. This
heuristic favors the instruction that has more instructions
depending on it. This is enabled by default when scheduling is
enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2
or higher.

-freschedule-modulo-scheduled-loops
Modulo scheduling is performed before traditional scheduling. If a
loop is modulo scheduled, later scheduling passes may change its
schedule. Use this option to control that behavior.

-fselective-scheduling
Schedule instructions using selective scheduling algorithm.
Selective scheduling runs instead of the first scheduler pass.

-fselective-scheduling2
Schedule instructions using selective scheduling algorithm.
Selective scheduling runs instead of the second scheduler pass.

-fsel-sched-pipelining
Enable software pipelining of innermost loops during selective
scheduling. This option has no effect unless one of
-fselective-scheduling or -fselective-scheduling2 is turned on.

-fsel-sched-pipelining-outer-loops
When pipelining loops during selective scheduling, also pipeline
outer loops. This option has no effect unless
-fsel-sched-pipelining is turned on.

-fsemantic-interposition
Some object formats, like ELF, allow interposing of symbols by the
dynamic linker. This means that for symbols exported from the DSO,
the compiler cannot perform interprocedural propagation, inlining
and other optimizations in anticipation that the function or
variable in question may change. While this feature is useful, for
example, to rewrite memory allocation functions by a debugging
implementation, it is expensive in the terms of code quality. With
-fno-semantic-interposition the compiler assumes that if
interposition happens for functions the overwriting function will
have precisely the same semantics (and side effects). Similarly if
interposition happens for variables, the constructor of the
variable will be the same. The flag has no effect for functions
explicitly declared inline (where it is never allowed for
interposition to change semantics) and for symbols explicitly
declared weak.

-fshrink-wrap
Emit function prologues only before parts of the function that need
it, rather than at the top of the function. This flag is enabled
by default at -O and higher.

-fcaller-saves
Enable allocation of values to registers that are clobbered by
function calls, by emitting extra instructions to save and restore
the registers around such calls. Such allocation is done only when
it seems to result in better code.

This option is always enabled by default on certain machines,
usually those which have no call-preserved registers to use
instead.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fcombine-stack-adjustments
Tracks stack adjustments (pushes and pops) and stack memory
references and then tries to find ways to combine them.

Enabled by default at -O1 and higher.

-fipa-ra
Use caller save registers for allocation if those registers are not
used by any called function. In that case it is not necessary to
save and restore them around calls. This is only possible if
called functions are part of same compilation unit as current
function and they are compiled before it.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fconserve-stack
Attempt to minimize stack usage. The compiler attempts to use less
stack space, even if that makes the program slower. This option
implies setting the large-stack-frame parameter to 100 and the
large-stack-frame-growth parameter to 400.

-ftree-reassoc
Perform reassociation on trees. This flag is enabled by default at
-O and higher.

-ftree-pre
Perform partial redundancy elimination (PRE) on trees. This flag
is enabled by default at -O2 and -O3.

-ftree-partial-pre
Make partial redundancy elimination (PRE) more aggressive. This
flag is enabled by default at -O3.

-ftree-forwprop
Perform forward propagation on trees. This flag is enabled by
default at -O and higher.

-ftree-fre
Perform full redundancy elimination (FRE) on trees. The difference
between FRE and PRE is that FRE only considers expressions that are
computed on all paths leading to the redundant computation. This
analysis is faster than PRE, though it exposes fewer redundancies.
This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.

-ftree-phiprop
Perform hoisting of loads from conditional pointers on trees. This
pass is enabled by default at -O and higher.

-fhoist-adjacent-loads
Speculatively hoist loads from both branches of an if-then-else if
the loads are from adjacent locations in the same structure and the
target architecture has a conditional move instruction. This flag
is enabled by default at -O2 and higher.

-ftree-copy-prop
Perform copy propagation on trees. This pass eliminates
unnecessary copy operations. This flag is enabled by default at -O
and higher.

-fipa-pure-const
Discover which functions are pure or constant. Enabled by default
at -O and higher.

-fipa-reference
Discover which static variables do not escape the compilation unit.
Enabled by default at -O and higher.

-fipa-pta
Perform interprocedural pointer analysis and interprocedural
modification and reference analysis. This option can cause
excessive memory and compile-time usage on large compilation units.
It is not enabled by default at any optimization level.

-fipa-profile
Perform interprocedural profile propagation. The functions called
only from cold functions are marked as cold. Also functions
executed once (such as “cold”, “noreturn”, static constructors or
destructors) are identified. Cold functions and loop less parts of
functions executed once are then optimized for size. Enabled by
default at -O and higher.

-fipa-cp
Perform interprocedural constant propagation. This optimization
analyzes the program to determine when values passed to functions
are constants and then optimizes accordingly. This optimization
can substantially increase performance if the application has
constants passed to functions. This flag is enabled by default at
-O2, -Os and -O3.

-fipa-cp-clone
Perform function cloning to make interprocedural constant
propagation stronger. When enabled, interprocedural constant
propagation performs function cloning when externally visible
function can be called with constant arguments. Because this
optimization can create multiple copies of functions, it may
significantly increase code size (see –param
ipcp-unit-growth=value). This flag is enabled by default at -O3.

-fipa-cp-alignment
When enabled, this optimization propagates alignment of function
parameters to support better vectorization and string operations.

This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and -Os. It requires that
-fipa-cp is enabled.

-fipa-icf
Perform Identical Code Folding for functions and read-only
variables. The optimization reduces code size and may disturb
unwind stacks by replacing a function by equivalent one with a
different name. The optimization works more effectively with link
time optimization enabled.

Nevertheless the behavior is similar to Gold Linker ICF
optimization, GCC ICF works on different levels and thus the
optimizations are not same – there are equivalences that are found
only by GCC and equivalences found only by Gold.

This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and -Os.

-fisolate-erroneous-paths-dereference
Detect paths that trigger erroneous or undefined behavior due to
dereferencing a null pointer. Isolate those paths from the main
control flow and turn the statement with erroneous or undefined
behavior into a trap. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and
higher.

-fisolate-erroneous-paths-attribute
Detect paths that trigger erroneous or undefined behavior due a
null value being used in a way forbidden by a “returns_nonnull” or
“nonnull” attribute. Isolate those paths from the main control
flow and turn the statement with erroneous or undefined behavior
into a trap. This is not currently enabled, but may be enabled by
-O2 in the future.

-ftree-sink
Perform forward store motion on trees. This flag is enabled by
default at -O and higher.

-ftree-bit-ccp
Perform sparse conditional bit constant propagation on trees and
propagate pointer alignment information. This pass only operates
on local scalar variables and is enabled by default at -O and
higher. It requires that -ftree-ccp is enabled.

-ftree-ccp
Perform sparse conditional constant propagation (CCP) on trees.
This pass only operates on local scalar variables and is enabled by
default at -O and higher.

-fssa-phiopt
Perform pattern matching on SSA PHI nodes to optimize conditional
code. This pass is enabled by default at -O and higher.

-ftree-switch-conversion
Perform conversion of simple initializations in a switch to
initializations from a scalar array. This flag is enabled by
default at -O2 and higher.

-ftree-tail-merge
Look for identical code sequences. When found, replace one with a
jump to the other. This optimization is known as tail merging or
cross jumping. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and higher.
The compilation time in this pass can be limited using max-tail-
merge-comparisons parameter and max-tail-merge-iterations
parameter.

-ftree-dce
Perform dead code elimination (DCE) on trees. This flag is enabled
by default at -O and higher.

-ftree-builtin-call-dce
Perform conditional dead code elimination (DCE) for calls to built-
in functions that may set “errno” but are otherwise side-effect
free. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and higher if -Os is
not also specified.

-ftree-dominator-opts
Perform a variety of simple scalar cleanups (constant/copy
propagation, redundancy elimination, range propagation and
expression simplification) based on a dominator tree traversal.
This also performs jump threading (to reduce jumps to jumps). This
flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.

-ftree-dse
Perform dead store elimination (DSE) on trees. A dead store is a
store into a memory location that is later overwritten by another
store without any intervening loads. In this case the earlier
store can be deleted. This flag is enabled by default at -O and
higher.

-ftree-ch
Perform loop header copying on trees. This is beneficial since it
increases effectiveness of code motion optimizations. It also
saves one jump. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
It is not enabled for -Os, since it usually increases code size.

-ftree-loop-optimize
Perform loop optimizations on trees. This flag is enabled by
default at -O and higher.

-ftree-loop-linear
Perform loop interchange transformations on tree. Same as
-floop-interchange. To use this code transformation, GCC has to be
configured with –with-isl to enable the Graphite loop
transformation infrastructure.

-floop-interchange
Perform loop interchange transformations on loops. Interchanging
two nested loops switches the inner and outer loops. For example,
given a loop like:

DO J = 1, M
DO I = 1, N
A(J, I) = A(J, I) * C
ENDDO
ENDDO

loop interchange transforms the loop as if it were written:

DO I = 1, N
DO J = 1, M
A(J, I) = A(J, I) * C
ENDDO
ENDDO

which can be beneficial when “N” is larger than the caches, because
in Fortran, the elements of an array are stored in memory
contiguously by column, and the original loop iterates over rows,
potentially creating at each access a cache miss. This
optimization applies to all the languages supported by GCC and is
not limited to Fortran. To use this code transformation, GCC has
to be configured with –with-isl to enable the Graphite loop
transformation infrastructure.

-floop-strip-mine
Perform loop strip mining transformations on loops. Strip mining
splits a loop into two nested loops. The outer loop has strides
equal to the strip size and the inner loop has strides of the
original loop within a strip. The strip length can be changed
using the loop-block-tile-size parameter. For example, given a
loop like:

DO I = 1, N
A(I) = A(I) + C
ENDDO

loop strip mining transforms the loop as if it were written:

DO II = 1, N, 51
DO I = II, min (II + 50, N)
A(I) = A(I) + C
ENDDO
ENDDO

This optimization applies to all the languages supported by GCC and
is not limited to Fortran. To use this code transformation, GCC
has to be configured with –with-isl to enable the Graphite loop
transformation infrastructure.

-floop-block
Perform loop blocking transformations on loops. Blocking strip
mines each loop in the loop nest such that the memory accesses of
the element loops fit inside caches. The strip length can be
changed using the loop-block-tile-size parameter. For example,
given a loop like:

DO I = 1, N
DO J = 1, M
A(J, I) = B(I) + C(J)
ENDDO
ENDDO

loop blocking transforms the loop as if it were written:

DO II = 1, N, 51
DO JJ = 1, M, 51
DO I = II, min (II + 50, N)
DO J = JJ, min (JJ + 50, M)
A(J, I) = B(I) + C(J)
ENDDO
ENDDO
ENDDO
ENDDO

which can be beneficial when “M” is larger than the caches, because
the innermost loop iterates over a smaller amount of data which can
be kept in the caches. This optimization applies to all the
languages supported by GCC and is not limited to Fortran. To use
this code transformation, GCC has to be configured with –with-isl
to enable the Graphite loop transformation infrastructure.

-fgraphite-identity
Enable the identity transformation for graphite. For every SCoP we
generate the polyhedral representation and transform it back to
gimple. Using -fgraphite-identity we can check the costs or
benefits of the GIMPLE -> GRAPHITE -> GIMPLE transformation. Some
minimal optimizations are also performed by the code generator ISL,
like index splitting and dead code elimination in loops.

-floop-nest-optimize
Enable the ISL based loop nest optimizer. This is a generic loop
nest optimizer based on the Pluto optimization algorithms. It
calculates a loop structure optimized for data-locality and
parallelism. This option is experimental.

-floop-unroll-and-jam
Enable unroll and jam for the ISL based loop nest optimizer. The
unroll factor can be changed using the loop-unroll-jam-size
parameter. The unrolled dimension (counting from the most inner
one) can be changed using the loop-unroll-jam-depth parameter.
.

-floop-parallelize-all
Use the Graphite data dependence analysis to identify loops that
can be parallelized. Parallelize all the loops that can be
analyzed to not contain loop carried dependences without checking
that it is profitable to parallelize the loops.

-fcheck-data-deps
Compare the results of several data dependence analyzers. This
option is used for debugging the data dependence analyzers.

-ftree-loop-if-convert
Attempt to transform conditional jumps in the innermost loops to
branch-less equivalents. The intent is to remove control-flow from
the innermost loops in order to improve the ability of the
vectorization pass to handle these loops. This is enabled by
default if vectorization is enabled.

-ftree-loop-if-convert-stores
Attempt to also if-convert conditional jumps containing memory
writes. This transformation can be unsafe for multi-threaded
programs as it transforms conditional memory writes into
unconditional memory writes. For example,

for (i = 0; i < N; i++) if (cond) A[i] = expr; is transformed to for (i = 0; i < N; i++) A[i] = cond ? expr : A[i]; potentially producing data races. -ftree-loop-distribution Perform loop distribution. This flag can improve cache performance on big loop bodies and allow further loop optimizations, like parallelization or vectorization, to take place. For example, the loop DO I = 1, N A(I) = B(I) + C D(I) = E(I) * F ENDDO is transformed to DO I = 1, N A(I) = B(I) + C ENDDO DO I = 1, N D(I) = E(I) * F ENDDO -ftree-loop-distribute-patterns Perform loop distribution of patterns that can be code generated with calls to a library. This flag is enabled by default at -O3. This pass distributes the initialization loops and generates a call to memset zero. For example, the loop DO I = 1, N A(I) = 0 B(I) = A(I) + I ENDDO is transformed to DO I = 1, N A(I) = 0 ENDDO DO I = 1, N B(I) = A(I) + I ENDDO and the initialization loop is transformed into a call to memset zero. -ftree-loop-im Perform loop invariant motion on trees. This pass moves only invariants that are hard to handle at RTL level (function calls, operations that expand to nontrivial sequences of insns). With -funswitch-loops it also moves operands of conditions that are invariant out of the loop, so that we can use just trivial invariantness analysis in loop unswitching. The pass also includes store motion. -ftree-loop-ivcanon Create a canonical counter for number of iterations in loops for which determining number of iterations requires complicated analysis. Later optimizations then may determine the number easily. Useful especially in connection with unrolling. -fivopts Perform induction variable optimizations (strength reduction, induction variable merging and induction variable elimination) on trees. -ftree-parallelize-loops=n Parallelize loops, i.e., split their iteration space to run in n threads. This is only possible for loops whose iterations are independent and can be arbitrarily reordered. The optimization is only profitable on multiprocessor machines, for loops that are CPU- intensive, rather than constrained e.g. by memory bandwidth. This option implies -pthread, and thus is only supported on targets that have support for -pthread. -ftree-pta Perform function-local points-to analysis on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher. -ftree-sra Perform scalar replacement of aggregates. This pass replaces structure references with scalars to prevent committing structures to memory too early. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher. -ftree-copyrename Perform copy renaming on trees. This pass attempts to rename compiler temporaries to other variables at copy locations, usually resulting in variable names which more closely resemble the original variables. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher. -ftree-coalesce-inlined-vars Tell the copyrename pass (see -ftree-copyrename) to attempt to combine small user-defined variables too, but only if they are inlined from other functions. It is a more limited form of -ftree-coalesce-vars. This may harm debug information of such inlined variables, but it keeps variables of the inlined-into function apart from each other, such that they are more likely to contain the expected values in a debugging session. -ftree-coalesce-vars Tell the copyrename pass (see -ftree-copyrename) to attempt to combine small user-defined variables too, instead of just compiler temporaries. This may severely limit the ability to debug an optimized program compiled with -fno-var-tracking-assignments. In the negated form, this flag prevents SSA coalescing of user variables, including inlined ones. This option is enabled by default. -ftree-ter Perform temporary expression replacement during the SSA->normal
phase. Single use/single def temporaries are replaced at their use
location with their defining expression. This results in non-
GIMPLE code, but gives the expanders much more complex trees to
work on resulting in better RTL generation. This is enabled by
default at -O and higher.

-ftree-slsr
Perform straight-line strength reduction on trees. This recognizes
related expressions involving multiplications and replaces them by
less expensive calculations when possible. This is enabled by
default at -O and higher.

-ftree-vectorize
Perform vectorization on trees. This flag enables
-ftree-loop-vectorize and -ftree-slp-vectorize if not explicitly
specified.

-ftree-loop-vectorize
Perform loop vectorization on trees. This flag is enabled by
default at -O3 and when -ftree-vectorize is enabled.

-ftree-slp-vectorize
Perform basic block vectorization on trees. This flag is enabled by
default at -O3 and when -ftree-vectorize is enabled.

-fvect-cost-model=model
Alter the cost model used for vectorization. The model argument
should be one of unlimited, dynamic or cheap. With the unlimited
model the vectorized code-path is assumed to be profitable while
with the dynamic model a runtime check guards the vectorized code-
path to enable it only for iteration counts that will likely
execute faster than when executing the original scalar loop. The
cheap model disables vectorization of loops where doing so would be
cost prohibitive for example due to required runtime checks for
data dependence or alignment but otherwise is equal to the dynamic
model. The default cost model depends on other optimization flags
and is either dynamic or cheap.

-fsimd-cost-model=model
Alter the cost model used for vectorization of loops marked with
the OpenMP or Cilk Plus simd directive. The model argument should
be one of unlimited, dynamic, cheap. All values of model have the
same meaning as described in -fvect-cost-model and by default a
cost model defined with -fvect-cost-model is used.

-ftree-vrp
Perform Value Range Propagation on trees. This is similar to the
constant propagation pass, but instead of values, ranges of values
are propagated. This allows the optimizers to remove unnecessary
range checks like array bound checks and null pointer checks. This
is enabled by default at -O2 and higher. Null pointer check
elimination is only done if -fdelete-null-pointer-checks is
enabled.

-fsplit-ivs-in-unroller
Enables expression of values of induction variables in later
iterations of the unrolled loop using the value in the first
iteration. This breaks long dependency chains, thus improving
efficiency of the scheduling passes.

A combination of -fweb and CSE is often sufficient to obtain the
same effect. However, that is not reliable in cases where the loop
body is more complicated than a single basic block. It also does
not work at all on some architectures due to restrictions in the
CSE pass.

This optimization is enabled by default.

-fvariable-expansion-in-unroller
With this option, the compiler creates multiple copies of some
local variables when unrolling a loop, which can result in superior
code.

-fpartial-inlining
Inline parts of functions. This option has any effect only when
inlining itself is turned on by the -finline-functions or
-finline-small-functions options.

Enabled at level -O2.

-fpredictive-commoning
Perform predictive commoning optimization, i.e., reusing
computations (especially memory loads and stores) performed in
previous iterations of loops.

This option is enabled at level -O3.

-fprefetch-loop-arrays
If supported by the target machine, generate instructions to
prefetch memory to improve the performance of loops that access
large arrays.

This option may generate better or worse code; results are highly
dependent on the structure of loops within the source code.

Disabled at level -Os.

-fno-peephole
-fno-peephole2
Disable any machine-specific peephole optimizations. The
difference between -fno-peephole and -fno-peephole2 is in how they
are implemented in the compiler; some targets use one, some use the
other, a few use both.

-fpeephole is enabled by default. -fpeephole2 enabled at levels
-O2, -O3, -Os.

-fno-guess-branch-probability
Do not guess branch probabilities using heuristics.

GCC uses heuristics to guess branch probabilities if they are not
provided by profiling feedback (-fprofile-arcs). These heuristics
are based on the control flow graph. If some branch probabilities
are specified by “__builtin_expect”, then the heuristics are used
to guess branch probabilities for the rest of the control flow
graph, taking the “__builtin_expect” info into account. The
interactions between the heuristics and “__builtin_expect” can be
complex, and in some cases, it may be useful to disable the
heuristics so that the effects of “__builtin_expect” are easier to
understand.

The default is -fguess-branch-probability at levels -O, -O2, -O3,
-Os.

-freorder-blocks
Reorder basic blocks in the compiled function in order to reduce
number of taken branches and improve code locality.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-freorder-blocks-and-partition
In addition to reordering basic blocks in the compiled function, in
order to reduce number of taken branches, partitions hot and cold
basic blocks into separate sections of the assembly and .o files,
to improve paging and cache locality performance.

This optimization is automatically turned off in the presence of
exception handling, for linkonce sections, for functions with a
user-defined section attribute and on any architecture that does
not support named sections.

Enabled for x86 at levels -O2, -O3.

-freorder-functions
Reorder functions in the object file in order to improve code
locality. This is implemented by using special subsections
“.text.hot” for most frequently executed functions and
“.text.unlikely” for unlikely executed functions. Reordering is
done by the linker so object file format must support named
sections and linker must place them in a reasonable way.

Also profile feedback must be available to make this option
effective. See -fprofile-arcs for details.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fstrict-aliasing
Allow the compiler to assume the strictest aliasing rules
applicable to the language being compiled. For C (and C++), this
activates optimizations based on the type of expressions. In
particular, an object of one type is assumed never to reside at the
same address as an object of a different type, unless the types are
almost the same. For example, an “unsigned int” can alias an
“int”, but not a “void*” or a “double”. A character type may alias
any other type.

Pay special attention to code like this:

union a_union {
int i;
double d;
};

int f() {
union a_union t;
t.d = 3.0;
return t.i;
}

The practice of reading from a different union member than the one
most recently written to (called “type-punning”) is common. Even
with -fstrict-aliasing, type-punning is allowed, provided the
memory is accessed through the union type. So, the code above
works as expected. However, this code might not:

int f() {
union a_union t;
int* ip;
t.d = 3.0;
ip = &t.i;
return *ip;
}

Similarly, access by taking the address, casting the resulting
pointer and dereferencing the result has undefined behavior, even
if the cast uses a union type, e.g.:

int f() {
double d = 3.0;
return ((union a_union *) &d)->i;
}

The -fstrict-aliasing option is enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fstrict-overflow
Allow the compiler to assume strict signed overflow rules,
depending on the language being compiled. For C (and C++) this
means that overflow when doing arithmetic with signed numbers is
undefined, which means that the compiler may assume that it does
not happen. This permits various optimizations. For example, the
compiler assumes that an expression like “i + 10 > i” is always
true for signed “i”. This assumption is only valid if signed
overflow is undefined, as the expression is false if “i + 10”
overflows when using twos complement arithmetic. When this option
is in effect any attempt to determine whether an operation on
signed numbers overflows must be written carefully to not actually
involve overflow.

This option also allows the compiler to assume strict pointer
semantics: given a pointer to an object, if adding an offset to
that pointer does not produce a pointer to the same object, the
addition is undefined. This permits the compiler to conclude that
“p + u > p” is always true for a pointer “p” and unsigned integer
“u”. This assumption is only valid because pointer wraparound is
undefined, as the expression is false if “p + u” overflows using
twos complement arithmetic.

See also the -fwrapv option. Using -fwrapv means that integer
signed overflow is fully defined: it wraps. When -fwrapv is used,
there is no difference between -fstrict-overflow and
-fno-strict-overflow for integers. With -fwrapv certain types of
overflow are permitted. For example, if the compiler gets an
overflow when doing arithmetic on constants, the overflowed value
can still be used with -fwrapv, but not otherwise.

The -fstrict-overflow option is enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-falign-functions
-falign-functions=n
Align the start of functions to the next power-of-two greater than
n, skipping up to n bytes. For instance, -falign-functions=32
aligns functions to the next 32-byte boundary, but
-falign-functions=24 aligns to the next 32-byte boundary only if
this can be done by skipping 23 bytes or less.

-fno-align-functions and -falign-functions=1 are equivalent and
mean that functions are not aligned.

Some assemblers only support this flag when n is a power of two; in
that case, it is rounded up.

If n is not specified or is zero, use a machine-dependent default.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-falign-labels
-falign-labels=n
Align all branch targets to a power-of-two boundary, skipping up to
n bytes like -falign-functions. This option can easily make code
slower, because it must insert dummy operations for when the branch
target is reached in the usual flow of the code.

-fno-align-labels and -falign-labels=1 are equivalent and mean that
labels are not aligned.

If -falign-loops or -falign-jumps are applicable and are greater
than this value, then their values are used instead.

If n is not specified or is zero, use a machine-dependent default
which is very likely to be 1, meaning no alignment.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-falign-loops
-falign-loops=n
Align loops to a power-of-two boundary, skipping up to n bytes like
-falign-functions. If the loops are executed many times, this
makes up for any execution of the dummy operations.

-fno-align-loops and -falign-loops=1 are equivalent and mean that
loops are not aligned.

If n is not specified or is zero, use a machine-dependent default.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-falign-jumps
-falign-jumps=n
Align branch targets to a power-of-two boundary, for branch targets
where the targets can only be reached by jumping, skipping up to n
bytes like -falign-functions. In this case, no dummy operations
need be executed.

-fno-align-jumps and -falign-jumps=1 are equivalent and mean that
loops are not aligned.

If n is not specified or is zero, use a machine-dependent default.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-funit-at-a-time
This option is left for compatibility reasons. -funit-at-a-time has
no effect, while -fno-unit-at-a-time implies -fno-toplevel-reorder
and -fno-section-anchors.

Enabled by default.

-fno-toplevel-reorder
Do not reorder top-level functions, variables, and “asm”
statements. Output them in the same order that they appear in the
input file. When this option is used, unreferenced static
variables are not removed. This option is intended to support
existing code that relies on a particular ordering. For new code,
it is better to use attributes when possible.

Enabled at level -O0. When disabled explicitly, it also implies
-fno-section-anchors, which is otherwise enabled at -O0 on some
targets.

-fweb
Constructs webs as commonly used for register allocation purposes
and assign each web individual pseudo register. This allows the
register allocation pass to operate on pseudos directly, but also
strengthens several other optimization passes, such as CSE, loop
optimizer and trivial dead code remover. It can, however, make
debugging impossible, since variables no longer stay in a “home
register”.

Enabled by default with -funroll-loops.

-fwhole-program
Assume that the current compilation unit represents the whole
program being compiled. All public functions and variables with
the exception of “main” and those merged by attribute
“externally_visible” become static functions and in effect are
optimized more aggressively by interprocedural optimizers.

This option should not be used in combination with -flto. Instead
relying on a linker plugin should provide safer and more precise
information.

-flto[=n] This option runs the standard link-time optimizer. When invoked
with source code, it generates GIMPLE (one of GCC’s internal
representations) and writes it to special ELF sections in the
object file. When the object files are linked together, all the
function bodies are read from these ELF sections and instantiated
as if they had been part of the same translation unit.

To use the link-time optimizer, -flto and optimization options
should be specified at compile time and during the final link. For
example:

gcc -c -O2 -flto foo.c
gcc -c -O2 -flto bar.c
gcc -o myprog -flto -O2 foo.o bar.o

The first two invocations to GCC save a bytecode representation of
GIMPLE into special ELF sections inside foo.o and bar.o. The final
invocation reads the GIMPLE bytecode from foo.o and bar.o, merges
the two files into a single internal image, and compiles the result
as usual. Since both foo.o and bar.o are merged into a single
image, this causes all the interprocedural analyses and
optimizations in GCC to work across the two files as if they were a
single one. This means, for example, that the inliner is able to
inline functions in bar.o into functions in foo.o and vice-versa.

Another (simpler) way to enable link-time optimization is:

gcc -o myprog -flto -O2 foo.c bar.c

The above generates bytecode for foo.c and bar.c, merges them
together into a single GIMPLE representation and optimizes them as
usual to produce myprog.

The only important thing to keep in mind is that to enable link-
time optimizations you need to use the GCC driver to perform the
link-step. GCC then automatically performs link-time optimization
if any of the objects involved were compiled with the -flto
command-line option. You generally should specify the optimization
options to be used for link-time optimization though GCC tries to
be clever at guessing an optimization level to use from the options
used at compile-time if you fail to specify one at link-time. You
can always override the automatic decision to do link-time
optimization at link-time by passing -fno-lto to the link command.

To make whole program optimization effective, it is necessary to
make certain whole program assumptions. The compiler needs to know
what functions and variables can be accessed by libraries and
runtime outside of the link-time optimized unit. When supported by
the linker, the linker plugin (see -fuse-linker-plugin) passes
information to the compiler about used and externally visible
symbols. When the linker plugin is not available, -fwhole-program
should be used to allow the compiler to make these assumptions,
which leads to more aggressive optimization decisions.

When -fuse-linker-plugin is not enabled then, when a file is
compiled with -flto, the generated object file is larger than a
regular object file because it contains GIMPLE bytecodes and the
usual final code (see -ffat-lto-objects. This means that object
files with LTO information can be linked as normal object files; if
-fno-lto is passed to the linker, no interprocedural optimizations
are applied. Note that when -fno-fat-lto-objects is enabled the
compile-stage is faster but you cannot perform a regular, non-LTO
link on them.

Additionally, the optimization flags used to compile individual
files are not necessarily related to those used at link time. For
instance,

gcc -c -O0 -ffat-lto-objects -flto foo.c
gcc -c -O0 -ffat-lto-objects -flto bar.c
gcc -o myprog -O3 foo.o bar.o

This produces individual object files with unoptimized assembler
code, but the resulting binary myprog is optimized at -O3. If,
instead, the final binary is generated with -fno-lto, then myprog
is not optimized.

When producing the final binary, GCC only applies link-time
optimizations to those files that contain bytecode. Therefore, you
can mix and match object files and libraries with GIMPLE bytecodes
and final object code. GCC automatically selects which files to
optimize in LTO mode and which files to link without further
processing.

There are some code generation flags preserved by GCC when
generating bytecodes, as they need to be used during the final link
stage. Generally options specified at link-time override those
specified at compile-time.

If you do not specify an optimization level option -O at link-time
then GCC computes one based on the optimization levels used when
compiling the object files. The highest optimization level wins
here.

Currently, the following options and their setting are take from
the first object file that explicitely specified it: -fPIC, -fpic,
-fpie, -fcommon, -fexceptions, -fnon-call-exceptions, -fgnu-tm and
all the -m target flags.

Certain ABI changing flags are required to match in all
compilation-units and trying to override this at link-time with a
conflicting value is ignored. This includes options such as
-freg-struct-return and -fpcc-struct-return.

Other options such as -ffp-contract, -fno-strict-overflow, -fwrapv,
-fno-trapv or -fno-strict-aliasing are passed through to the link
stage and merged conservatively for conflicting translation units.
Specifically -fno-strict-overflow, -fwrapv and -fno-trapv take
precedence and for example -ffp-contract=off takes precedence over
-ffp-contract=fast. You can override them at linke-time.

It is recommended that you compile all the files participating in
the same link with the same options and also specify those options
at link time.

If LTO encounters objects with C linkage declared with incompatible
types in separate translation units to be linked together
(undefined behavior according to ISO C99 6.2.7), a non-fatal
diagnostic may be issued. The behavior is still undefined at run
time. Similar diagnostics may be raised for other languages.

Another feature of LTO is that it is possible to apply
interprocedural optimizations on files written in different
languages:

gcc -c -flto foo.c
g++ -c -flto bar.cc
gfortran -c -flto baz.f90
g++ -o myprog -flto -O3 foo.o bar.o baz.o -lgfortran

Notice that the final link is done with g++ to get the C++ runtime
libraries and -lgfortran is added to get the Fortran runtime
libraries. In general, when mixing languages in LTO mode, you
should use the same link command options as when mixing languages
in a regular (non-LTO) compilation.

If object files containing GIMPLE bytecode are stored in a library
archive, say libfoo.a, it is possible to extract and use them in an
LTO link if you are using a linker with plugin support. To create
static libraries suitable for LTO, use gcc-ar and gcc-ranlib
instead of ar and ranlib; to show the symbols of object files with
GIMPLE bytecode, use gcc-nm. Those commands require that ar,
ranlib and nm have been compiled with plugin support. At link
time, use the the flag -fuse-linker-plugin to ensure that the
library participates in the LTO optimization process:

gcc -o myprog -O2 -flto -fuse-linker-plugin a.o b.o -lfoo

With the linker plugin enabled, the linker extracts the needed
GIMPLE files from libfoo.a and passes them on to the running GCC to
make them part of the aggregated GIMPLE image to be optimized.

If you are not using a linker with plugin support and/or do not
enable the linker plugin, then the objects inside libfoo.a are
extracted and linked as usual, but they do not participate in the
LTO optimization process. In order to make a static library
suitable for both LTO optimization and usual linkage, compile its
object files with -flto -ffat-lto-objects.

Link-time optimizations do not require the presence of the whole
program to operate. If the program does not require any symbols to
be exported, it is possible to combine -flto and -fwhole-program to
allow the interprocedural optimizers to use more aggressive
assumptions which may lead to improved optimization opportunities.
Use of -fwhole-program is not needed when linker plugin is active
(see -fuse-linker-plugin).

The current implementation of LTO makes no attempt to generate
bytecode that is portable between different types of hosts. The
bytecode files are versioned and there is a strict version check,
so bytecode files generated in one version of GCC do not work with
an older or newer version of GCC.

Link-time optimization does not work well with generation of
debugging information. Combining -flto with -g is currently
experimental and expected to produce unexpected results.

If you specify the optional n, the optimization and code generation
done at link time is executed in parallel using n parallel jobs by
utilizing an installed make program. The environment variable MAKE
may be used to override the program used. The default value for n
is 1.

You can also specify -flto=jobserver to use GNU make’s job server
mode to determine the number of parallel jobs. This is useful when
the Makefile calling GCC is already executing in parallel. You
must prepend a + to the command recipe in the parent Makefile for
this to work. This option likely only works if MAKE is GNU make.

-flto-partition=alg
Specify the partitioning algorithm used by the link-time optimizer.
The value is either 1to1 to specify a partitioning mirroring the
original source files or balanced to specify partitioning into
equally sized chunks (whenever possible) or max to create new
partition for every symbol where possible. Specifying none as an
algorithm disables partitioning and streaming completely. The
default value is balanced. While 1to1 can be used as an workaround
for various code ordering issues, the max partitioning is intended
for internal testing only. The value one specifies that exactly
one partition should be used while the value none bypasses
partitioning and executes the link-time optimization step directly
from the WPA phase.

-flto-odr-type-merging
Enable streaming of mangled types names of C++ types and their
unification at linktime. This increases size of LTO object files,
but enable diagnostics about One Definition Rule violations.

-flto-compression-level=n
This option specifies the level of compression used for
intermediate language written to LTO object files, and is only
meaningful in conjunction with LTO mode (-flto). Valid values are
0 (no compression) to 9 (maximum compression). Values outside this
range are clamped to either 0 or 9. If the option is not given, a
default balanced compression setting is used.

-flto-report
Prints a report with internal details on the workings of the link-
time optimizer. The contents of this report vary from version to
version. It is meant to be useful to GCC developers when
processing object files in LTO mode (via -flto).

Disabled by default.

-flto-report-wpa
Like -flto-report, but only print for the WPA phase of Link Time
Optimization.

-fuse-linker-plugin
Enables the use of a linker plugin during link-time optimization.
This option relies on plugin support in the linker, which is
available in gold or in GNU ld 2.21 or newer.

This option enables the extraction of object files with GIMPLE
bytecode out of library archives. This improves the quality of
optimization by exposing more code to the link-time optimizer.
This information specifies what symbols can be accessed externally
(by non-LTO object or during dynamic linking). Resulting code
quality improvements on binaries (and shared libraries that use
hidden visibility) are similar to -fwhole-program. See -flto for a
description of the effect of this flag and how to use it.

This option is enabled by default when LTO support in GCC is
enabled and GCC was configured for use with a linker supporting
plugins (GNU ld 2.21 or newer or gold).

-ffat-lto-objects
Fat LTO objects are object files that contain both the intermediate
language and the object code. This makes them usable for both LTO
linking and normal linking. This option is effective only when
compiling with -flto and is ignored at link time.

-fno-fat-lto-objects improves compilation time over plain LTO, but
requires the complete toolchain to be aware of LTO. It requires a
linker with linker plugin support for basic functionality.
Additionally, nm, ar and ranlib need to support linker plugins to
allow a full-featured build environment (capable of building static
libraries etc). GCC provides the gcc-ar, gcc-nm, gcc-ranlib
wrappers to pass the right options to these tools. With non fat LTO
makefiles need to be modified to use them.

The default is -fno-fat-lto-objects on targets with linker plugin
support.

-fcompare-elim
After register allocation and post-register allocation instruction
splitting, identify arithmetic instructions that compute processor
flags similar to a comparison operation based on that arithmetic.
If possible, eliminate the explicit comparison operation.

This pass only applies to certain targets that cannot explicitly
represent the comparison operation before register allocation is
complete.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fcprop-registers
After register allocation and post-register allocation instruction
splitting, perform a copy-propagation pass to try to reduce
scheduling dependencies and occasionally eliminate the copy.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fprofile-correction
Profiles collected using an instrumented binary for multi-threaded
programs may be inconsistent due to missed counter updates. When
this option is specified, GCC uses heuristics to correct or smooth
out such inconsistencies. By default, GCC emits an error message
when an inconsistent profile is detected.

-fprofile-dir=path
Set the directory to search for the profile data files in to path.
This option affects only the profile data generated by
-fprofile-generate, -ftest-coverage, -fprofile-arcs and used by
-fprofile-use and -fbranch-probabilities and its related options.
Both absolute and relative paths can be used. By default, GCC uses
the current directory as path, thus the profile data file appears
in the same directory as the object file.

-fprofile-generate
-fprofile-generate=path
Enable options usually used for instrumenting application to
produce profile useful for later recompilation with profile
feedback based optimization. You must use -fprofile-generate both
when compiling and when linking your program.

The following options are enabled: -fprofile-arcs,
-fprofile-values, -fvpt.

If path is specified, GCC looks at the path to find the profile
feedback data files. See -fprofile-dir.

-fprofile-use
-fprofile-use=path
Enable profile feedback-directed optimizations, and the following
optimizations which are generally profitable only with profile
feedback available: -fbranch-probabilities, -fvpt, -funroll-loops,
-fpeel-loops, -ftracer, -ftree-vectorize, and ftree-loop-
distribute-patterns.

By default, GCC emits an error message if the feedback profiles do
not match the source code. This error can be turned into a warning
by using -Wcoverage-mismatch. Note this may result in poorly
optimized code.

If path is specified, GCC looks at the path to find the profile
feedback data files. See -fprofile-dir.

-fauto-profile
-fauto-profile=path
Enable sampling-based feedback-directed optimizations, and the
following optimizations which are generally profitable only with
profile feedback available: -fbranch-probabilities, -fvpt,
-funroll-loops, -fpeel-loops, -ftracer, -ftree-vectorize,
-finline-functions, -fipa-cp, -fipa-cp-clone,
-fpredictive-commoning, -funswitch-loops, -fgcse-after-reload, and
-ftree-loop-distribute-patterns.

path is the name of a file containing AutoFDO profile information.
If omitted, it defaults to fbdata.afdo in the current directory.

Producing an AutoFDO profile data file requires running your
program with the perf utility on a supported GNU/Linux target
system. For more information, see .

E.g.

perf record -e br_inst_retired:near_taken -b -o perf.data \
— your_program

Then use the create_gcov tool to convert the raw profile data to a
format that can be used by GCC. You must also supply the
unstripped binary for your program to this tool. See
.

E.g.

create_gcov –binary=your_program.unstripped –profile=perf.data \
–gcov=profile.afdo

The following options control compiler behavior regarding floating-
point arithmetic. These options trade off between speed and
correctness. All must be specifically enabled.

-ffloat-store
Do not store floating-point variables in registers, and inhibit
other options that might change whether a floating-point value is
taken from a register or memory.

This option prevents undesirable excess precision on machines such
as the 68000 where the floating registers (of the 68881) keep more
precision than a “double” is supposed to have. Similarly for the
x86 architecture. For most programs, the excess precision does
only good, but a few programs rely on the precise definition of
IEEE floating point. Use -ffloat-store for such programs, after
modifying them to store all pertinent intermediate computations
into variables.

-fexcess-precision=style
This option allows further control over excess precision on
machines where floating-point registers have more precision than
the IEEE “float” and “double” types and the processor does not
support operations rounding to those types. By default,
-fexcess-precision=fast is in effect; this means that operations
are carried out in the precision of the registers and that it is
unpredictable when rounding to the types specified in the source
code takes place. When compiling C, if -fexcess-precision=standard
is specified then excess precision follows the rules specified in
ISO C99; in particular, both casts and assignments cause values to
be rounded to their semantic types (whereas -ffloat-store only
affects assignments). This option is enabled by default for C if a
strict conformance option such as -std=c99 is used.

-fexcess-precision=standard is not implemented for languages other
than C, and has no effect if -funsafe-math-optimizations or
-ffast-math is specified. On the x86, it also has no effect if
-mfpmath=sse or -mfpmath=sse+387 is specified; in the former case,
IEEE semantics apply without excess precision, and in the latter,
rounding is unpredictable.

-ffast-math
Sets the options -fno-math-errno, -funsafe-math-optimizations,
-ffinite-math-only, -fno-rounding-math, -fno-signaling-nans and
-fcx-limited-range.

This option causes the preprocessor macro “__FAST_MATH__” to be
defined.

This option is not turned on by any -O option besides -Ofast since
it can result in incorrect output for programs that depend on an
exact implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math
functions. It may, however, yield faster code for programs that do
not require the guarantees of these specifications.

-fno-math-errno
Do not set “errno” after calling math functions that are executed
with a single instruction, e.g., “sqrt”. A program that relies on
IEEE exceptions for math error handling may want to use this flag
for speed while maintaining IEEE arithmetic compatibility.

This option is not turned on by any -O option since it can result
in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact
implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math
functions. It may, however, yield faster code for programs that do
not require the guarantees of these specifications.

The default is -fmath-errno.

On Darwin systems, the math library never sets “errno”. There is
therefore no reason for the compiler to consider the possibility
that it might, and -fno-math-errno is the default.

-funsafe-math-optimizations
Allow optimizations for floating-point arithmetic that (a) assume
that arguments and results are valid and (b) may violate IEEE or
ANSI standards. When used at link-time, it may include libraries
or startup files that change the default FPU control word or other
similar optimizations.

This option is not turned on by any -O option since it can result
in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact
implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math
functions. It may, however, yield faster code for programs that do
not require the guarantees of these specifications. Enables
-fno-signed-zeros, -fno-trapping-math, -fassociative-math and
-freciprocal-math.

The default is -fno-unsafe-math-optimizations.

-fassociative-math
Allow re-association of operands in series of floating-point
operations. This violates the ISO C and C++ language standard by
possibly changing computation result. NOTE: re-ordering may change
the sign of zero as well as ignore NaNs and inhibit or create
underflow or overflow (and thus cannot be used on code that relies
on rounding behavior like “(x + 2**52) – 2**52”. May also reorder
floating-point comparisons and thus may not be used when ordered
comparisons are required. This option requires that both
-fno-signed-zeros and -fno-trapping-math be in effect. Moreover,
it doesn’t make much sense with -frounding-math. For Fortran the
option is automatically enabled when both -fno-signed-zeros and
-fno-trapping-math are in effect.

The default is -fno-associative-math.

-freciprocal-math
Allow the reciprocal of a value to be used instead of dividing by
the value if this enables optimizations. For example “x / y” can
be replaced with “x * (1/y)”, which is useful if “(1/y)” is subject
to common subexpression elimination. Note that this loses
precision and increases the number of flops operating on the value.

The default is -fno-reciprocal-math.

-ffinite-math-only
Allow optimizations for floating-point arithmetic that assume that
arguments and results are not NaNs or +-Infs.

This option is not turned on by any -O option since it can result
in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact
implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math
functions. It may, however, yield faster code for programs that do
not require the guarantees of these specifications.

The default is -fno-finite-math-only.

-fno-signed-zeros
Allow optimizations for floating-point arithmetic that ignore the
signedness of zero. IEEE arithmetic specifies the behavior of
distinct +0.0 and -0.0 values, which then prohibits simplification
of expressions such as x+0.0 or 0.0*x (even with
-ffinite-math-only). This option implies that the sign of a zero
result isn’t significant.

The default is -fsigned-zeros.

-fno-trapping-math
Compile code assuming that floating-point operations cannot
generate user-visible traps. These traps include division by zero,
overflow, underflow, inexact result and invalid operation. This
option requires that -fno-signaling-nans be in effect. Setting
this option may allow faster code if one relies on “non-stop” IEEE
arithmetic, for example.

This option should never be turned on by any -O option since it can
result in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact
implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math
functions.

The default is -ftrapping-math.

-frounding-math
Disable transformations and optimizations that assume default
floating-point rounding behavior. This is round-to-zero for all
floating point to integer conversions, and round-to-nearest for all
other arithmetic truncations. This option should be specified for
programs that change the FP rounding mode dynamically, or that may
be executed with a non-default rounding mode. This option disables
constant folding of floating-point expressions at compile time
(which may be affected by rounding mode) and arithmetic
transformations that are unsafe in the presence of sign-dependent
rounding modes.

The default is -fno-rounding-math.

This option is experimental and does not currently guarantee to
disable all GCC optimizations that are affected by rounding mode.
Future versions of GCC may provide finer control of this setting
using C99’s “FENV_ACCESS” pragma. This command-line option will be
used to specify the default state for “FENV_ACCESS”.

-fsignaling-nans
Compile code assuming that IEEE signaling NaNs may generate user-
visible traps during floating-point operations. Setting this
option disables optimizations that may change the number of
exceptions visible with signaling NaNs. This option implies
-ftrapping-math.

This option causes the preprocessor macro “__SUPPORT_SNAN__” to be
defined.

The default is -fno-signaling-nans.

This option is experimental and does not currently guarantee to
disable all GCC optimizations that affect signaling NaN behavior.

-fsingle-precision-constant
Treat floating-point constants as single precision instead of
implicitly converting them to double-precision constants.

-fcx-limited-range
When enabled, this option states that a range reduction step is not
needed when performing complex division. Also, there is no
checking whether the result of a complex multiplication or division
is “NaN + I*NaN”, with an attempt to rescue the situation in that
case. The default is -fno-cx-limited-range, but is enabled by
-ffast-math.

This option controls the default setting of the ISO C99
“CX_LIMITED_RANGE” pragma. Nevertheless, the option applies to all
languages.

-fcx-fortran-rules
Complex multiplication and division follow Fortran rules. Range
reduction is done as part of complex division, but there is no
checking whether the result of a complex multiplication or division
is “NaN + I*NaN”, with an attempt to rescue the situation in that
case.

The default is -fno-cx-fortran-rules.

The following options control optimizations that may improve
performance, but are not enabled by any -O options. This section
includes experimental options that may produce broken code.

-fbranch-probabilities
After running a program compiled with -fprofile-arcs, you can
compile it a second time using -fbranch-probabilities, to improve
optimizations based on the number of times each branch was taken.
When a program compiled with -fprofile-arcs exits, it saves arc
execution counts to a file called sourcename.gcda for each source
file. The information in this data file is very dependent on the
structure of the generated code, so you must use the same source
code and the same optimization options for both compilations.

With -fbranch-probabilities, GCC puts a REG_BR_PROB note on each
JUMP_INSN and CALL_INSN. These can be used to improve
optimization. Currently, they are only used in one place: in
reorg.c, instead of guessing which path a branch is most likely to
take, the REG_BR_PROB values are used to exactly determine which
path is taken more often.

-fprofile-values
If combined with -fprofile-arcs, it adds code so that some data
about values of expressions in the program is gathered.

With -fbranch-probabilities, it reads back the data gathered from
profiling values of expressions for usage in optimizations.

Enabled with -fprofile-generate and -fprofile-use.

-fprofile-reorder-functions
Function reordering based on profile instrumentation collects first
time of execution of a function and orders these functions in
ascending order.

Enabled with -fprofile-use.

-fvpt
If combined with -fprofile-arcs, this option instructs the compiler
to add code to gather information about values of expressions.

With -fbranch-probabilities, it reads back the data gathered and
actually performs the optimizations based on them. Currently the
optimizations include specialization of division operations using
the knowledge about the value of the denominator.

-frename-registers
Attempt to avoid false dependencies in scheduled code by making use
of registers left over after register allocation. This
optimization most benefits processors with lots of registers.
Depending on the debug information format adopted by the target,
however, it can make debugging impossible, since variables no
longer stay in a “home register”.

Enabled by default with -funroll-loops and -fpeel-loops.

-fschedule-fusion
Performs a target dependent pass over the instruction stream to
schedule instructions of same type together because target machine
can execute them more efficiently if they are adjacent to each
other in the instruction flow.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-ftracer
Perform tail duplication to enlarge superblock size. This
transformation simplifies the control flow of the function allowing
other optimizations to do a better job.

Enabled with -fprofile-use.

-funroll-loops
Unroll loops whose number of iterations can be determined at
compile time or upon entry to the loop. -funroll-loops implies
-frerun-cse-after-loop, -fweb and -frename-registers. It also
turns on complete loop peeling (i.e. complete removal of loops with
a small constant number of iterations). This option makes code
larger, and may or may not make it run faster.

Enabled with -fprofile-use.

-funroll-all-loops
Unroll all loops, even if their number of iterations is uncertain
when the loop is entered. This usually makes programs run more
slowly. -funroll-all-loops implies the same options as
-funroll-loops.

-fpeel-loops
Peels loops for which there is enough information that they do not
roll much (from profile feedback). It also turns on complete loop
peeling (i.e. complete removal of loops with small constant number
of iterations).

Enabled with -fprofile-use.

-fmove-loop-invariants
Enables the loop invariant motion pass in the RTL loop optimizer.
Enabled at level -O1

-funswitch-loops
Move branches with loop invariant conditions out of the loop, with
duplicates of the loop on both branches (modified according to
result of the condition).

-ffunction-sections
-fdata-sections
Place each function or data item into its own section in the output
file if the target supports arbitrary sections. The name of the
function or the name of the data item determines the section’s name
in the output file.

Use these options on systems where the linker can perform
optimizations to improve locality of reference in the instruction
space. Most systems using the ELF object format and SPARC
processors running Solaris 2 have linkers with such optimizations.
AIX may have these optimizations in the future.

Only use these options when there are significant benefits from
doing so. When you specify these options, the assembler and linker
create larger object and executable files and are also slower. You
cannot use gprof on all systems if you specify this option, and you
may have problems with debugging if you specify both this option
and -g.

-fbranch-target-load-optimize
Perform branch target register load optimization before prologue /
epilogue threading. The use of target registers can typically be
exposed only during reload, thus hoisting loads out of loops and
doing inter-block scheduling needs a separate optimization pass.

-fbranch-target-load-optimize2
Perform branch target register load optimization after prologue /
epilogue threading.

-fbtr-bb-exclusive
When performing branch target register load optimization, don’t
reuse branch target registers within any basic block.

-fstack-protector
Emit extra code to check for buffer overflows, such as stack
smashing attacks. This is done by adding a guard variable to
functions with vulnerable objects. This includes functions that
call “alloca”, and functions with buffers larger than 8 bytes. The
guards are initialized when a function is entered and then checked
when the function exits. If a guard check fails, an error message
is printed and the program exits.

-fstack-protector-all
Like -fstack-protector except that all functions are protected.

-fstack-protector-strong
Like -fstack-protector but includes additional functions to be
protected — those that have local array definitions, or have
references to local frame addresses.

-fstack-protector-explicit
Like -fstack-protector but only protects those functions which have
the “stack_protect” attribute

-fstdarg-opt
Optimize the prologue of variadic argument functions with respect
to usage of those arguments.

NOTE: In Ubuntu 14.10 and later versions, -fstack-protector-strong
is enabled by default for C, C++, ObjC, ObjC++, if none of
-fno-stack-protector, -nostdlib, nor -ffreestanding are found.

-fsection-anchors
Try to reduce the number of symbolic address calculations by using
shared “anchor” symbols to address nearby objects. This
transformation can help to reduce the number of GOT entries and GOT
accesses on some targets.

For example, the implementation of the following function “foo”:

static int a, b, c;
int foo (void) { return a + b + c; }

usually calculates the addresses of all three variables, but if you
compile it with -fsection-anchors, it accesses the variables from a
common anchor point instead. The effect is similar to the
following pseudocode (which isn’t valid C):

int foo (void)
{
register int *xr = &x;
return xr[&a – &x] + xr[&b – &x] + xr[&c – &x];
}

Not all targets support this option.

–param name=value
In some places, GCC uses various constants to control the amount of
optimization that is done. For example, GCC does not inline
functions that contain more than a certain number of instructions.
You can control some of these constants on the command line using
the –param option.

The names of specific parameters, and the meaning of the values,
are tied to the internals of the compiler, and are subject to
change without notice in future releases.

In each case, the value is an integer. The allowable choices for
name are:

predictable-branch-outcome
When branch is predicted to be taken with probability lower
than this threshold (in percent), then it is considered well
predictable. The default is 10.

max-crossjump-edges
The maximum number of incoming edges to consider for cross-
jumping. The algorithm used by -fcrossjumping is O(N^2) in the
number of edges incoming to each block. Increasing values mean
more aggressive optimization, making the compilation time
increase with probably small improvement in executable size.

min-crossjump-insns
The minimum number of instructions that must be matched at the
end of two blocks before cross-jumping is performed on them.
This value is ignored in the case where all instructions in the
block being cross-jumped from are matched. The default value
is 5.

max-grow-copy-bb-insns
The maximum code size expansion factor when copying basic
blocks instead of jumping. The expansion is relative to a jump
instruction. The default value is 8.

max-goto-duplication-insns
The maximum number of instructions to duplicate to a block that
jumps to a computed goto. To avoid O(N^2) behavior in a number
of passes, GCC factors computed gotos early in the compilation
process, and unfactors them as late as possible. Only computed
jumps at the end of a basic blocks with no more than max-goto-
duplication-insns are unfactored. The default value is 8.

max-delay-slot-insn-search
The maximum number of instructions to consider when looking for
an instruction to fill a delay slot. If more than this
arbitrary number of instructions are searched, the time savings
from filling the delay slot are minimal, so stop searching.
Increasing values mean more aggressive optimization, making the
compilation time increase with probably small improvement in
execution time.

max-delay-slot-live-search
When trying to fill delay slots, the maximum number of
instructions to consider when searching for a block with valid
live register information. Increasing this arbitrarily chosen
value means more aggressive optimization, increasing the
compilation time. This parameter should be removed when the
delay slot code is rewritten to maintain the control-flow
graph.

max-gcse-memory
The approximate maximum amount of memory that can be allocated
in order to perform the global common subexpression elimination
optimization. If more memory than specified is required, the
optimization is not done.

max-gcse-insertion-ratio
If the ratio of expression insertions to deletions is larger
than this value for any expression, then RTL PRE inserts or
removes the expression and thus leaves partially redundant
computations in the instruction stream. The default value is
20.

max-pending-list-length
The maximum number of pending dependencies scheduling allows
before flushing the current state and starting over. Large
functions with few branches or calls can create excessively
large lists which needlessly consume memory and resources.

max-modulo-backtrack-attempts
The maximum number of backtrack attempts the scheduler should
make when modulo scheduling a loop. Larger values can
exponentially increase compilation time.

max-inline-insns-single
Several parameters control the tree inliner used in GCC. This
number sets the maximum number of instructions (counted in
GCC’s internal representation) in a single function that the
tree inliner considers for inlining. This only affects
functions declared inline and methods implemented in a class
declaration (C++). The default value is 400.

max-inline-insns-auto
When you use -finline-functions (included in -O3), a lot of
functions that would otherwise not be considered for inlining
by the compiler are investigated. To those functions, a
different (more restrictive) limit compared to functions
declared inline can be applied. The default value is 40.

inline-min-speedup
When estimated performance improvement of caller + callee
runtime exceeds this threshold (in precent), the function can
be inlined regardless the limit on –param max-inline-insns-
single and –param max-inline-insns-auto.

large-function-insns
The limit specifying really large functions. For functions
larger than this limit after inlining, inlining is constrained
by –param large-function-growth. This parameter is useful
primarily to avoid extreme compilation time caused by non-
linear algorithms used by the back end. The default value is
2700.

large-function-growth
Specifies maximal growth of large function caused by inlining
in percents. The default value is 100 which limits large
function growth to 2.0 times the original size.

large-unit-insns
The limit specifying large translation unit. Growth caused by
inlining of units larger than this limit is limited by –param
inline-unit-growth. For small units this might be too tight.
For example, consider a unit consisting of function A that is
inline and B that just calls A three times. If B is small
relative to A, the growth of unit is 300\% and yet such
inlining is very sane. For very large units consisting of
small inlineable functions, however, the overall unit growth
limit is needed to avoid exponential explosion of code size.
Thus for smaller units, the size is increased to –param large-
unit-insns before applying –param inline-unit-growth. The
default is 10000.

inline-unit-growth
Specifies maximal overall growth of the compilation unit caused
by inlining. The default value is 20 which limits unit growth
to 1.2 times the original size. Cold functions (either marked
cold via an attribute or by profile feedback) are not accounted
into the unit size.

ipcp-unit-growth
Specifies maximal overall growth of the compilation unit caused
by interprocedural constant propagation. The default value is
10 which limits unit growth to 1.1 times the original size.

large-stack-frame
The limit specifying large stack frames. While inlining the
algorithm is trying to not grow past this limit too much. The
default value is 256 bytes.

large-stack-frame-growth
Specifies maximal growth of large stack frames caused by
inlining in percents. The default value is 1000 which limits
large stack frame growth to 11 times the original size.

max-inline-insns-recursive
max-inline-insns-recursive-auto
Specifies the maximum number of instructions an out-of-line
copy of a self-recursive inline function can grow into by
performing recursive inlining.

–param max-inline-insns-recursive applies to functions
declared inline. For functions not declared inline, recursive
inlining happens only when -finline-functions (included in -O3)
is enabled; –param max-inline-insns-recursive-auto applies
instead. The default value is 450.

max-inline-recursive-depth
max-inline-recursive-depth-auto
Specifies the maximum recursion depth used for recursive
inlining.

–param max-inline-recursive-depth applies to functions
declared inline. For functions not declared inline, recursive
inlining happens only when -finline-functions (included in -O3)
is enabled; –param max-inline-recursive-depth-auto applies
instead. The default value is 8.

min-inline-recursive-probability
Recursive inlining is profitable only for function having deep
recursion in average and can hurt for function having little
recursion depth by increasing the prologue size or complexity
of function body to other optimizers.

When profile feedback is available (see -fprofile-generate) the
actual recursion depth can be guessed from probability that
function recurses via a given call expression. This parameter
limits inlining only to call expressions whose probability
exceeds the given threshold (in percents). The default value
is 10.

early-inlining-insns
Specify growth that the early inliner can make. In effect it
increases the amount of inlining for code having a large
abstraction penalty. The default value is 14.

max-early-inliner-iterations
Limit of iterations of the early inliner. This basically
bounds the number of nested indirect calls the early inliner
can resolve. Deeper chains are still handled by late inlining.

comdat-sharing-probability
Probability (in percent) that C++ inline function with comdat
visibility are shared across multiple compilation units. The
default value is 20.

profile-func-internal-id
A parameter to control whether to use function internal id in
profile database lookup. If the value is 0, the compiler uses
an id that is based on function assembler name and filename,
which makes old profile data more tolerant to source changes
such as function reordering etc. The default value is 0.

min-vect-loop-bound
The minimum number of iterations under which loops are not
vectorized when -ftree-vectorize is used. The number of
iterations after vectorization needs to be greater than the
value specified by this option to allow vectorization. The
default value is 0.

gcse-cost-distance-ratio
Scaling factor in calculation of maximum distance an expression
can be moved by GCSE optimizations. This is currently
supported only in the code hoisting pass. The bigger the
ratio, the more aggressive code hoisting is with simple
expressions, i.e., the expressions that have cost less than
gcse-unrestricted-cost. Specifying 0 disables hoisting of
simple expressions. The default value is 10.

gcse-unrestricted-cost
Cost, roughly measured as the cost of a single typical machine
instruction, at which GCSE optimizations do not constrain the
distance an expression can travel. This is currently supported
only in the code hoisting pass. The lesser the cost, the more
aggressive code hoisting is. Specifying 0 allows all
expressions to travel unrestricted distances. The default
value is 3.

max-hoist-depth
The depth of search in the dominator tree for expressions to
hoist. This is used to avoid quadratic behavior in hoisting
algorithm. The value of 0 does not limit on the search, but
may slow down compilation of huge functions. The default value
is 30.

max-tail-merge-comparisons
The maximum amount of similar bbs to compare a bb with. This
is used to avoid quadratic behavior in tree tail merging. The
default value is 10.

max-tail-merge-iterations
The maximum amount of iterations of the pass over the function.
This is used to limit compilation time in tree tail merging.
The default value is 2.

max-unrolled-insns
The maximum number of instructions that a loop may have to be
unrolled. If a loop is unrolled, this parameter also
determines how many times the loop code is unrolled.

max-average-unrolled-insns
The maximum number of instructions biased by probabilities of
their execution that a loop may have to be unrolled. If a loop
is unrolled, this parameter also determines how many times the
loop code is unrolled.

max-unroll-times
The maximum number of unrollings of a single loop.

max-peeled-insns
The maximum number of instructions that a loop may have to be
peeled. If a loop is peeled, this parameter also determines
how many times the loop code is peeled.

max-peel-times
The maximum number of peelings of a single loop.

max-peel-branches
The maximum number of branches on the hot path through the
peeled sequence.

max-completely-peeled-insns
The maximum number of insns of a completely peeled loop.

max-completely-peel-times
The maximum number of iterations of a loop to be suitable for
complete peeling.

max-completely-peel-loop-nest-depth
The maximum depth of a loop nest suitable for complete peeling.

max-unswitch-insns
The maximum number of insns of an unswitched loop.

max-unswitch-level
The maximum number of branches unswitched in a single loop.

lim-expensive
The minimum cost of an expensive expression in the loop
invariant motion.

iv-consider-all-candidates-bound
Bound on number of candidates for induction variables, below
which all candidates are considered for each use in induction
variable optimizations. If there are more candidates than
this, only the most relevant ones are considered to avoid
quadratic time complexity.

iv-max-considered-uses
The induction variable optimizations give up on loops that
contain more induction variable uses.

iv-always-prune-cand-set-bound
If the number of candidates in the set is smaller than this
value, always try to remove unnecessary ivs from the set when
adding a new one.

scev-max-expr-size
Bound on size of expressions used in the scalar evolutions
analyzer. Large expressions slow the analyzer.

scev-max-expr-complexity
Bound on the complexity of the expressions in the scalar
evolutions analyzer. Complex expressions slow the analyzer.

omega-max-vars
The maximum number of variables in an Omega constraint system.
The default value is 128.

omega-max-geqs
The maximum number of inequalities in an Omega constraint
system. The default value is 256.

omega-max-eqs
The maximum number of equalities in an Omega constraint system.
The default value is 128.

omega-max-wild-cards
The maximum number of wildcard variables that the Omega solver
is able to insert. The default value is 18.

omega-hash-table-size
The size of the hash table in the Omega solver. The default
value is 550.

omega-max-keys
The maximal number of keys used by the Omega solver. The
default value is 500.

omega-eliminate-redundant-constraints
When set to 1, use expensive methods to eliminate all redundant
constraints. The default value is 0.

vect-max-version-for-alignment-checks
The maximum number of run-time checks that can be performed
when doing loop versioning for alignment in the vectorizer.

vect-max-version-for-alias-checks
The maximum number of run-time checks that can be performed
when doing loop versioning for alias in the vectorizer.

vect-max-peeling-for-alignment
The maximum number of loop peels to enhance access alignment
for vectorizer. Value -1 means ‘no limit’.

max-iterations-to-track
The maximum number of iterations of a loop the brute-force
algorithm for analysis of the number of iterations of the loop
tries to evaluate.

hot-bb-count-ws-permille
A basic block profile count is considered hot if it contributes
to the given permillage (i.e. 0…1000) of the entire profiled
execution.

hot-bb-frequency-fraction
Select fraction of the entry block frequency of executions of
basic block in function given basic block needs to have to be
considered hot.

max-predicted-iterations
The maximum number of loop iterations we predict statically.
This is useful in cases where a function contains a single loop
with known bound and another loop with unknown bound. The
known number of iterations is predicted correctly, while the
unknown number of iterations average to roughly 10. This means
that the loop without bounds appears artificially cold relative
to the other one.

builtin-expect-probability
Control the probability of the expression having the specified
value. This parameter takes a percentage (i.e. 0 … 100) as
input. The default probability of 90 is obtained empirically.

align-threshold
Select fraction of the maximal frequency of executions of a
basic block in a function to align the basic block.

align-loop-iterations
A loop expected to iterate at least the selected number of
iterations is aligned.

tracer-dynamic-coverage
tracer-dynamic-coverage-feedback
This value is used to limit superblock formation once the given
percentage of executed instructions is covered. This limits
unnecessary code size expansion.

The tracer-dynamic-coverage-feedback parameter is used only
when profile feedback is available. The real profiles (as
opposed to statically estimated ones) are much less balanced
allowing the threshold to be larger value.

tracer-max-code-growth
Stop tail duplication once code growth has reached given
percentage. This is a rather artificial limit, as most of the
duplicates are eliminated later in cross jumping, so it may be
set to much higher values than is the desired code growth.

tracer-min-branch-ratio
Stop reverse growth when the reverse probability of best edge
is less than this threshold (in percent).

tracer-min-branch-ratio
tracer-min-branch-ratio-feedback
Stop forward growth if the best edge has probability lower than
this threshold.

Similarly to tracer-dynamic-coverage two values are present,
one for compilation for profile feedback and one for
compilation without. The value for compilation with profile
feedback needs to be more conservative (higher) in order to
make tracer effective.

max-cse-path-length
The maximum number of basic blocks on path that CSE considers.
The default is 10.

max-cse-insns
The maximum number of instructions CSE processes before
flushing. The default is 1000.

ggc-min-expand
GCC uses a garbage collector to manage its own memory
allocation. This parameter specifies the minimum percentage by
which the garbage collector’s heap should be allowed to expand
between collections. Tuning this may improve compilation
speed; it has no effect on code generation.

The default is 30% + 70% * (RAM/1GB) with an upper bound of
100% when RAM >= 1GB. If “getrlimit” is available, the notion
of “RAM” is the smallest of actual RAM and “RLIMIT_DATA” or
“RLIMIT_AS”. If GCC is not able to calculate RAM on a
particular platform, the lower bound of 30% is used. Setting
this parameter and ggc-min-heapsize to zero causes a full
collection to occur at every opportunity. This is extremely
slow, but can be useful for debugging.

ggc-min-heapsize
Minimum size of the garbage collector’s heap before it begins
bothering to collect garbage. The first collection occurs
after the heap expands by ggc-min-expand% beyond ggc-min-
heapsize. Again, tuning this may improve compilation speed,
and has no effect on code generation.

The default is the smaller of RAM/8, RLIMIT_RSS, or a limit
that tries to ensure that RLIMIT_DATA or RLIMIT_AS are not
exceeded, but with a lower bound of 4096 (four megabytes) and
an upper bound of 131072 (128 megabytes). If GCC is not able
to calculate RAM on a particular platform, the lower bound is
used. Setting this parameter very large effectively disables
garbage collection. Setting this parameter and ggc-min-expand
to zero causes a full collection to occur at every opportunity.

max-reload-search-insns
The maximum number of instruction reload should look backward
for equivalent register. Increasing values mean more
aggressive optimization, making the compilation time increase
with probably slightly better performance. The default value
is 100.

max-cselib-memory-locations
The maximum number of memory locations cselib should take into
account. Increasing values mean more aggressive optimization,
making the compilation time increase with probably slightly
better performance. The default value is 500.

reorder-blocks-duplicate
reorder-blocks-duplicate-feedback
Used by the basic block reordering pass to decide whether to
use unconditional branch or duplicate the code on its
destination. Code is duplicated when its estimated size is
smaller than this value multiplied by the estimated size of
unconditional jump in the hot spots of the program.

The reorder-block-duplicate-feedback parameter is used only
when profile feedback is available. It may be set to higher
values than reorder-block-duplicate since information about the
hot spots is more accurate.

max-sched-ready-insns
The maximum number of instructions ready to be issued the
scheduler should consider at any given time during the first
scheduling pass. Increasing values mean more thorough
searches, making the compilation time increase with probably
little benefit. The default value is 100.

max-sched-region-blocks
The maximum number of blocks in a region to be considered for
interblock scheduling. The default value is 10.

max-pipeline-region-blocks
The maximum number of blocks in a region to be considered for
pipelining in the selective scheduler. The default value is
15.

max-sched-region-insns
The maximum number of insns in a region to be considered for
interblock scheduling. The default value is 100.

max-pipeline-region-insns
The maximum number of insns in a region to be considered for
pipelining in the selective scheduler. The default value is
200.

min-spec-prob
The minimum probability (in percents) of reaching a source
block for interblock speculative scheduling. The default value
is 40.

max-sched-extend-regions-iters
The maximum number of iterations through CFG to extend regions.
A value of 0 (the default) disables region extensions.

max-sched-insn-conflict-delay
The maximum conflict delay for an insn to be considered for
speculative motion. The default value is 3.

sched-spec-prob-cutoff
The minimal probability of speculation success (in percents),
so that speculative insns are scheduled. The default value is
40.

sched-spec-state-edge-prob-cutoff
The minimum probability an edge must have for the scheduler to
save its state across it. The default value is 10.

sched-mem-true-dep-cost
Minimal distance (in CPU cycles) between store and load
targeting same memory locations. The default value is 1.

selsched-max-lookahead
The maximum size of the lookahead window of selective
scheduling. It is a depth of search for available
instructions. The default value is 50.

selsched-max-sched-times
The maximum number of times that an instruction is scheduled
during selective scheduling. This is the limit on the number
of iterations through which the instruction may be pipelined.
The default value is 2.

selsched-max-insns-to-rename
The maximum number of best instructions in the ready list that
are considered for renaming in the selective scheduler. The
default value is 2.

sms-min-sc
The minimum value of stage count that swing modulo scheduler
generates. The default value is 2.

max-last-value-rtl
The maximum size measured as number of RTLs that can be
recorded in an expression in combiner for a pseudo register as
last known value of that register. The default is 10000.

max-combine-insns
The maximum number of instructions the RTL combiner tries to
combine. The default value is 2 at -Og and 4 otherwise.

integer-share-limit
Small integer constants can use a shared data structure,
reducing the compiler’s memory usage and increasing its speed.
This sets the maximum value of a shared integer constant. The
default value is 256.

ssp-buffer-size
The minimum size of buffers (i.e. arrays) that receive stack
smashing protection when -fstack-protection is used.

This default before Ubuntu 10.10 was “8”. Currently it is “4”,
to increase the number of functions protected by the stack
protector.

min-size-for-stack-sharing
The minimum size of variables taking part in stack slot sharing
when not optimizing. The default value is 32.

max-jump-thread-duplication-stmts
Maximum number of statements allowed in a block that needs to
be duplicated when threading jumps.

max-fields-for-field-sensitive
Maximum number of fields in a structure treated in a field
sensitive manner during pointer analysis. The default is zero
for -O0 and -O1, and 100 for -Os, -O2, and -O3.

prefetch-latency
Estimate on average number of instructions that are executed
before prefetch finishes. The distance prefetched ahead is
proportional to this constant. Increasing this number may also
lead to less streams being prefetched (see simultaneous-
prefetches).

simultaneous-prefetches
Maximum number of prefetches that can run at the same time.

l1-cache-line-size
The size of cache line in L1 cache, in bytes.

l1-cache-size
The size of L1 cache, in kilobytes.

l2-cache-size
The size of L2 cache, in kilobytes.

min-insn-to-prefetch-ratio
The minimum ratio between the number of instructions and the
number of prefetches to enable prefetching in a loop.

prefetch-min-insn-to-mem-ratio
The minimum ratio between the number of instructions and the
number of memory references to enable prefetching in a loop.

use-canonical-types
Whether the compiler should use the “canonical” type system.
By default, this should always be 1, which uses a more
efficient internal mechanism for comparing types in C++ and
Objective-C++. However, if bugs in the canonical type system
are causing compilation failures, set this value to 0 to
disable canonical types.

switch-conversion-max-branch-ratio
Switch initialization conversion refuses to create arrays that
are bigger than switch-conversion-max-branch-ratio times the
number of branches in the switch.

max-partial-antic-length
Maximum length of the partial antic set computed during the
tree partial redundancy elimination optimization (-ftree-pre)
when optimizing at -O3 and above. For some sorts of source
code the enhanced partial redundancy elimination optimization
can run away, consuming all of the memory available on the host
machine. This parameter sets a limit on the length of the sets
that are computed, which prevents the runaway behavior.
Setting a value of 0 for this parameter allows an unlimited set
length.

sccvn-max-scc-size
Maximum size of a strongly connected component (SCC) during
SCCVN processing. If this limit is hit, SCCVN processing for
the whole function is not done and optimizations depending on
it are disabled. The default maximum SCC size is 10000.

sccvn-max-alias-queries-per-access
Maximum number of alias-oracle queries we perform when looking
for redundancies for loads and stores. If this limit is hit
the search is aborted and the load or store is not considered
redundant. The number of queries is algorithmically limited to
the number of stores on all paths from the load to the function
entry. The default maxmimum number of queries is 1000.

ira-max-loops-num
IRA uses regional register allocation by default. If a
function contains more loops than the number given by this
parameter, only at most the given number of the most
frequently-executed loops form regions for regional register
allocation. The default value of the parameter is 100.

ira-max-conflict-table-size
Although IRA uses a sophisticated algorithm to compress the
conflict table, the table can still require excessive amounts
of memory for huge functions. If the conflict table for a
function could be more than the size in MB given by this
parameter, the register allocator instead uses a faster,
simpler, and lower-quality algorithm that does not require
building a pseudo-register conflict table. The default value
of the parameter is 2000.

ira-loop-reserved-regs
IRA can be used to evaluate more accurate register pressure in
loops for decisions to move loop invariants (see -O3). The
number of available registers reserved for some other purposes
is given by this parameter. The default value of the parameter
is 2, which is the minimal number of registers needed by
typical instructions. This value is the best found from
numerous experiments.

lra-inheritance-ebb-probability-cutoff
LRA tries to reuse values reloaded in registers in subsequent
insns. This optimization is called inheritance. EBB is used
as a region to do this optimization. The parameter defines a
minimal fall-through edge probability in percentage used to add
BB to inheritance EBB in LRA. The default value of the
parameter is 40. The value was chosen from numerous runs of
SPEC2000 on x86-64.

loop-invariant-max-bbs-in-loop
Loop invariant motion can be very expensive, both in
compilation time and in amount of needed compile-time memory,
with very large loops. Loops with more basic blocks than this
parameter won’t have loop invariant motion optimization
performed on them. The default value of the parameter is 1000
for -O1 and 10000 for -O2 and above.

loop-max-datarefs-for-datadeps
Building data dapendencies is expensive for very large loops.
This parameter limits the number of data references in loops
that are considered for data dependence analysis. These large
loops are no handled by the optimizations using loop data
dependencies. The default value is 1000.

max-vartrack-size
Sets a maximum number of hash table slots to use during
variable tracking dataflow analysis of any function. If this
limit is exceeded with variable tracking at assignments
enabled, analysis for that function is retried without it,
after removing all debug insns from the function. If the limit
is exceeded even without debug insns, var tracking analysis is
completely disabled for the function. Setting the parameter to
zero makes it unlimited.

max-vartrack-expr-depth
Sets a maximum number of recursion levels when attempting to
map variable names or debug temporaries to value expressions.
This trades compilation time for more complete debug
information. If this is set too low, value expressions that
are available and could be represented in debug information may
end up not being used; setting this higher may enable the
compiler to find more complex debug expressions, but compile
time and memory use may grow. The default is 12.

min-nondebug-insn-uid
Use uids starting at this parameter for nondebug insns. The
range below the parameter is reserved exclusively for debug
insns created by -fvar-tracking-assignments, but debug insns
may get (non-overlapping) uids above it if the reserved range
is exhausted.

ipa-sra-ptr-growth-factor
IPA-SRA replaces a pointer to an aggregate with one or more new
parameters only when their cumulative size is less or equal to
ipa-sra-ptr-growth-factor times the size of the original
pointer parameter.

sra-max-scalarization-size-Ospeed
sra-max-scalarization-size-Osize
The two Scalar Reduction of Aggregates passes (SRA and IPA-SRA)
aim to replace scalar parts of aggregates with uses of
independent scalar variables. These parameters control the
maximum size, in storage units, of aggregate which is
considered for replacement when compiling for speed (sra-max-
scalarization-size-Ospeed) or size (sra-max-scalarization-size-
Osize) respectively.

tm-max-aggregate-size
When making copies of thread-local variables in a transaction,
this parameter specifies the size in bytes after which
variables are saved with the logging functions as opposed to
save/restore code sequence pairs. This option only applies
when using -fgnu-tm.

graphite-max-nb-scop-params
To avoid exponential effects in the Graphite loop transforms,
the number of parameters in a Static Control Part (SCoP) is
bounded. The default value is 10 parameters. A variable whose
value is unknown at compilation time and defined outside a SCoP
is a parameter of the SCoP.

graphite-max-bbs-per-function
To avoid exponential effects in the detection of SCoPs, the
size of the functions analyzed by Graphite is bounded. The
default value is 100 basic blocks.

loop-block-tile-size
Loop blocking or strip mining transforms, enabled with
-floop-block or -floop-strip-mine, strip mine each loop in the
loop nest by a given number of iterations. The strip length
can be changed using the loop-block-tile-size parameter. The
default value is 51 iterations.

loop-unroll-jam-size
Specify the unroll factor for the -floop-unroll-and-jam option.
The default value is 4.

loop-unroll-jam-depth
Specify the dimension to be unrolled (counting from the most
inner loop) for the -floop-unroll-and-jam. The default value
is 2.

ipa-cp-value-list-size
IPA-CP attempts to track all possible values and types passed
to a function’s parameter in order to propagate them and
perform devirtualization. ipa-cp-value-list-size is the
maximum number of values and types it stores per one formal
parameter of a function.

ipa-cp-eval-threshold
IPA-CP calculates its own score of cloning profitability
heuristics and performs those cloning opportunities with scores
that exceed ipa-cp-eval-threshold.

ipa-cp-recursion-penalty
Percentage penalty the recursive functions will receive when
they are evaluated for cloning.

ipa-cp-single-call-penalty
Percentage penalty functions containg a single call to another
function will receive when they are evaluated for cloning.

ipa-max-agg-items
IPA-CP is also capable to propagate a number of scalar values
passed in an aggregate. ipa-max-agg-items controls the maximum
number of such values per one parameter.

ipa-cp-loop-hint-bonus
When IPA-CP determines that a cloning candidate would make the
number of iterations of a loop known, it adds a bonus of ipa-
cp-loop-hint-bonus to the profitability score of the candidate.

ipa-cp-array-index-hint-bonus
When IPA-CP determines that a cloning candidate would make the
index of an array access known, it adds a bonus of ipa-cp-
array-index-hint-bonus to the profitability score of the
candidate.

ipa-max-aa-steps
During its analysis of function bodies, IPA-CP employs alias
analysis in order to track values pointed to by function
parameters. In order not spend too much time analyzing huge
functions, it gives up and consider all memory clobbered after
examining ipa-max-aa-steps statements modifying memory.

lto-partitions
Specify desired number of partitions produced during WHOPR
compilation. The number of partitions should exceed the number
of CPUs used for compilation. The default value is 32.

lto-minpartition
Size of minimal partition for WHOPR (in estimated
instructions). This prevents expenses of splitting very small
programs into too many partitions.

cxx-max-namespaces-for-diagnostic-help
The maximum number of namespaces to consult for suggestions
when C++ name lookup fails for an identifier. The default is
1000.

sink-frequency-threshold
The maximum relative execution frequency (in percents) of the
target block relative to a statement’s original block to allow
statement sinking of a statement. Larger numbers result in
more aggressive statement sinking. The default value is 75. A
small positive adjustment is applied for statements with memory
operands as those are even more profitable so sink.

max-stores-to-sink
The maximum number of conditional stores paires that can be
sunk. Set to 0 if either vectorization (-ftree-vectorize) or
if-conversion (-ftree-loop-if-convert) is disabled. The
default is 2.

allow-store-data-races
Allow optimizers to introduce new data races on stores. Set to
1 to allow, otherwise to 0. This option is enabled by default
at optimization level -Ofast.

case-values-threshold
The smallest number of different values for which it is best to
use a jump-table instead of a tree of conditional branches. If
the value is 0, use the default for the machine. The default
is 0.

tree-reassoc-width
Set the maximum number of instructions executed in parallel in
reassociated tree. This parameter overrides target dependent
heuristics used by default if has non zero value.

sched-pressure-algorithm
Choose between the two available implementations of
-fsched-pressure. Algorithm 1 is the original implementation
and is the more likely to prevent instructions from being
reordered. Algorithm 2 was designed to be a compromise between
the relatively conservative approach taken by algorithm 1 and
the rather aggressive approach taken by the default scheduler.
It relies more heavily on having a regular register file and
accurate register pressure classes. See haifa-sched.c in the
GCC sources for more details.

The default choice depends on the target.

max-slsr-cand-scan
Set the maximum number of existing candidates that are
considered when seeking a basis for a new straight-line
strength reduction candidate.

asan-globals
Enable buffer overflow detection for global objects. This kind
of protection is enabled by default if you are using
-fsanitize=address option. To disable global objects
protection use –param asan-globals=0.

asan-stack
Enable buffer overflow detection for stack objects. This kind
of protection is enabled by default when
using-fsanitize=address. To disable stack protection use
–param asan-stack=0 option.

asan-instrument-reads
Enable buffer overflow detection for memory reads. This kind
of protection is enabled by default when using
-fsanitize=address. To disable memory reads protection use
–param asan-instrument-reads=0.

asan-instrument-writes
Enable buffer overflow detection for memory writes. This kind
of protection is enabled by default when using
-fsanitize=address. To disable memory writes protection use
–param asan-instrument-writes=0 option.

asan-memintrin
Enable detection for built-in functions. This kind of
protection is enabled by default when using -fsanitize=address.
To disable built-in functions protection use –param
asan-memintrin=0.

asan-use-after-return
Enable detection of use-after-return. This kind of protection
is enabled by default when using -fsanitize=address option. To
disable use-after-return detection use –param
asan-use-after-return=0.

asan-instrumentation-with-call-threshold
If number of memory accesses in function being instrumented is
greater or equal to this number, use callbacks instead of
inline checks. E.g. to disable inline code use –param
asan-instrumentation-with-call-threshold=0.

chkp-max-ctor-size
Static constructors generated by Pointer Bounds Checker may
become very large and significantly increase compile time at
optimization level -O1 and higher. This parameter is a maximum
nubmer of statements in a single generated constructor.
Default value is 5000.

max-fsm-thread-path-insns
Maximum number of instructions to copy when duplicating blocks
on a finite state automaton jump thread path. The default is
100.

max-fsm-thread-length
Maximum number of basic blocks on a finite state automaton jump
thread path. The default is 10.

max-fsm-thread-paths
Maximum number of new jump thread paths to create for a finite
state automaton. The default is 50.

Options Controlling the Preprocessor
These options control the C preprocessor, which is run on each C source
file before actual compilation.

If you use the -E option, nothing is done except preprocessing. Some
of these options make sense only together with -E because they cause
the preprocessor output to be unsuitable for actual compilation.

-Wp,option
You can use -Wp,option to bypass the compiler driver and pass
option directly through to the preprocessor. If option contains
commas, it is split into multiple options at the commas. However,
many options are modified, translated or interpreted by the
compiler driver before being passed to the preprocessor, and -Wp
forcibly bypasses this phase. The preprocessor’s direct interface
is undocumented and subject to change, so whenever possible you
should avoid using -Wp and let the driver handle the options
instead.

-Xpreprocessor option
Pass option as an option to the preprocessor. You can use this to
supply system-specific preprocessor options that GCC does not
recognize.

If you want to pass an option that takes an argument, you must use
-Xpreprocessor twice, once for the option and once for the
argument.

-no-integrated-cpp
Perform preprocessing as a separate pass before compilation. By
default, GCC performs preprocessing as an integrated part of input
tokenization and parsing. If this option is provided, the
appropriate language front end (cc1, cc1plus, or cc1obj for C, C++,
and Objective-C, respectively) is instead invoked twice, once for
preprocessing only and once for actual compilation of the
preprocessed input. This option may be useful in conjunction with
the -B or -wrapper options to specify an alternate preprocessor or
perform additional processing of the program source between normal
preprocessing and compilation.

-D name
Predefine name as a macro, with definition 1.

-D name=definition
The contents of definition are tokenized and processed as if they
appeared during translation phase three in a #define directive. In
particular, the definition will be truncated by embedded newline
characters.

If you are invoking the preprocessor from a shell or shell-like
program you may need to use the shell’s quoting syntax to protect
characters such as spaces that have a meaning in the shell syntax.

If you wish to define a function-like macro on the command line,
write its argument list with surrounding parentheses before the
equals sign (if any). Parentheses are meaningful to most shells,
so you will need to quote the option. With sh and csh,
-D’name(args…)=definition’ works.

-D and -U options are processed in the order they are given on the
command line. All -imacros file and -include file options are
processed after all -D and -U options.

-U name
Cancel any previous definition of name, either built in or provided
with a -D option.

-undef
Do not predefine any system-specific or GCC-specific macros. The
standard predefined macros remain defined.

-I dir
Add the directory dir to the list of directories to be searched for
header files. Directories named by -I are searched before the
standard system include directories. If the directory dir is a
standard system include directory, the option is ignored to ensure
that the default search order for system directories and the
special treatment of system headers are not defeated . If dir
begins with “=”, then the “=” will be replaced by the sysroot
prefix; see –sysroot and -isysroot.

-o file
Write output to file. This is the same as specifying file as the
second non-option argument to cpp. gcc has a different
interpretation of a second non-option argument, so you must use -o
to specify the output file.

-Wall
Turns on all optional warnings which are desirable for normal code.
At present this is -Wcomment, -Wtrigraphs, -Wmultichar and a
warning about integer promotion causing a change of sign in “#if”
expressions. Note that many of the preprocessor’s warnings are on
by default and have no options to control them.

-Wcomment
-Wcomments
Warn whenever a comment-start sequence /* appears in a /* comment,
or whenever a backslash-newline appears in a // comment. (Both
forms have the same effect.)

-Wtrigraphs
Most trigraphs in comments cannot affect the meaning of the
program. However, a trigraph that would form an escaped newline
(??/ at the end of a line) can, by changing where the comment
begins or ends. Therefore, only trigraphs that would form escaped
newlines produce warnings inside a comment.

This option is implied by -Wall. If -Wall is not given, this
option is still enabled unless trigraphs are enabled. To get
trigraph conversion without warnings, but get the other -Wall
warnings, use -trigraphs -Wall -Wno-trigraphs.

-Wtraditional
Warn about certain constructs that behave differently in
traditional and ISO C. Also warn about ISO C constructs that have
no traditional C equivalent, and problematic constructs which
should be avoided.

-Wundef
Warn whenever an identifier which is not a macro is encountered in
an #if directive, outside of defined. Such identifiers are
replaced with zero.

-Wunused-macros
Warn about macros defined in the main file that are unused. A
macro is used if it is expanded or tested for existence at least
once. The preprocessor will also warn if the macro has not been
used at the time it is redefined or undefined.

Built-in macros, macros defined on the command line, and macros
defined in include files are not warned about.

Note: If a macro is actually used, but only used in skipped
conditional blocks, then CPP will report it as unused. To avoid
the warning in such a case, you might improve the scope of the
macro’s definition by, for example, moving it into the first
skipped block. Alternatively, you could provide a dummy use with
something like:

#if defined the_macro_causing_the_warning
#endif

-Wendif-labels
Warn whenever an #else or an #endif are followed by text. This
usually happens in code of the form

#if FOO

#else FOO

#endif FOO

The second and third “FOO” should be in comments, but often are not
in older programs. This warning is on by default.

-Werror
Make all warnings into hard errors. Source code which triggers
warnings will be rejected.

-Wsystem-headers
Issue warnings for code in system headers. These are normally
unhelpful in finding bugs in your own code, therefore suppressed.
If you are responsible for the system library, you may want to see
them.

-w Suppress all warnings, including those which GNU CPP issues by
default.

-pedantic
Issue all the mandatory diagnostics listed in the C standard. Some
of them are left out by default, since they trigger frequently on
harmless code.

-pedantic-errors
Issue all the mandatory diagnostics, and make all mandatory
diagnostics into errors. This includes mandatory diagnostics that
GCC issues without -pedantic but treats as warnings.

-M Instead of outputting the result of preprocessing, output a rule
suitable for make describing the dependencies of the main source
file. The preprocessor outputs one make rule containing the object
file name for that source file, a colon, and the names of all the
included files, including those coming from -include or -imacros
command-line options.

Unless specified explicitly (with -MT or -MQ), the object file name
consists of the name of the source file with any suffix replaced
with object file suffix and with any leading directory parts
removed. If there are many included files then the rule is split
into several lines using \-newline. The rule has no commands.

This option does not suppress the preprocessor’s debug output, such
as -dM. To avoid mixing such debug output with the dependency
rules you should explicitly specify the dependency output file with
-MF, or use an environment variable like DEPENDENCIES_OUTPUT.
Debug output will still be sent to the regular output stream as
normal.

Passing -M to the driver implies -E, and suppresses warnings with
an implicit -w.

-MM Like -M but do not mention header files that are found in system
header directories, nor header files that are included, directly or
indirectly, from such a header.

This implies that the choice of angle brackets or double quotes in
an #include directive does not in itself determine whether that
header will appear in -MM dependency output. This is a slight
change in semantics from GCC versions 3.0 and earlier.

-MF file
When used with -M or -MM, specifies a file to write the
dependencies to. If no -MF switch is given the preprocessor sends
the rules to the same place it would have sent preprocessed output.

When used with the driver options -MD or -MMD, -MF overrides the
default dependency output file.

-MG In conjunction with an option such as -M requesting dependency
generation, -MG assumes missing header files are generated files
and adds them to the dependency list without raising an error. The
dependency filename is taken directly from the “#include” directive
without prepending any path. -MG also suppresses preprocessed
output, as a missing header file renders this useless.

This feature is used in automatic updating of makefiles.

-MP This option instructs CPP to add a phony target for each dependency
other than the main file, causing each to depend on nothing. These
dummy rules work around errors make gives if you remove header
files without updating the Makefile to match.

This is typical output:

test.o: test.c test.h

test.h:

-MT target
Change the target of the rule emitted by dependency generation. By
default CPP takes the name of the main input file, deletes any
directory components and any file suffix such as .c, and appends
the platform’s usual object suffix. The result is the target.

An -MT option will set the target to be exactly the string you
specify. If you want multiple targets, you can specify them as a
single argument to -MT, or use multiple -MT options.

For example, -MT ‘$(objpfx)foo.o’ might give

$(objpfx)foo.o: foo.c

-MQ target
Same as -MT, but it quotes any characters which are special to
Make. -MQ ‘$(objpfx)foo.o’ gives

$$(objpfx)foo.o: foo.c

The default target is automatically quoted, as if it were given
with -MQ.

-MD -MD is equivalent to -M -MF file, except that -E is not implied.
The driver determines file based on whether an -o option is given.
If it is, the driver uses its argument but with a suffix of .d,
otherwise it takes the name of the input file, removes any
directory components and suffix, and applies a .d suffix.

If -MD is used in conjunction with -E, any -o switch is understood
to specify the dependency output file, but if used without -E, each
-o is understood to specify a target object file.

Since -E is not implied, -MD can be used to generate a dependency
output file as a side-effect of the compilation process.

-MMD
Like -MD except mention only user header files, not system header
files.

-fpch-deps
When using precompiled headers, this flag will cause the
dependency-output flags to also list the files from the precompiled
header’s dependencies. If not specified only the precompiled
header would be listed and not the files that were used to create
it because those files are not consulted when a precompiled header
is used.

-fpch-preprocess
This option allows use of a precompiled header together with -E.
It inserts a special “#pragma”, “#pragma GCC pch_preprocess
“filename”” in the output to mark the place where the precompiled
header was found, and its filename. When -fpreprocessed is in use,
GCC recognizes this “#pragma” and loads the PCH.

This option is off by default, because the resulting preprocessed
output is only really suitable as input to GCC. It is switched on
by -save-temps.

You should not write this “#pragma” in your own code, but it is
safe to edit the filename if the PCH file is available in a
different location. The filename may be absolute or it may be
relative to GCC’s current directory.

-x c
-x c++
-x objective-c
-x assembler-with-cpp
Specify the source language: C, C++, Objective-C, or assembly.
This has nothing to do with standards conformance or extensions; it
merely selects which base syntax to expect. If you give none of
these options, cpp will deduce the language from the extension of
the source file: .c, .cc, .m, or .S. Some other common extensions
for C++ and assembly are also recognized. If cpp does not
recognize the extension, it will treat the file as C; this is the
most generic mode.

Note: Previous versions of cpp accepted a -lang option which
selected both the language and the standards conformance level.
This option has been removed, because it conflicts with the -l
option.

-std=standard
-ansi
Specify the standard to which the code should conform. Currently
CPP knows about C and C++ standards; others may be added in the
future.

standard may be one of:

“c90”
“c89”
“iso9899:1990”
The ISO C standard from 1990. c90 is the customary shorthand
for this version of the standard.

The -ansi option is equivalent to -std=c90.

“iso9899:199409”
The 1990 C standard, as amended in 1994.

“iso9899:1999”
“c99”
“iso9899:199x”
“c9x”
The revised ISO C standard, published in December 1999. Before
publication, this was known as C9X.

“iso9899:2011”
“c11”
“c1x”
The revised ISO C standard, published in December 2011. Before
publication, this was known as C1X.

“gnu90”
“gnu89”
The 1990 C standard plus GNU extensions. This is the default.

“gnu99”
“gnu9x”
The 1999 C standard plus GNU extensions.

“gnu11”
“gnu1x”
The 2011 C standard plus GNU extensions.

“c++98”
The 1998 ISO C++ standard plus amendments.

“gnu++98”
The same as -std=c++98 plus GNU extensions. This is the
default for C++ code.

-I- Split the include path. Any directories specified with -I options
before -I- are searched only for headers requested with
“#include “file””; they are not searched for “#include “. If
additional directories are specified with -I options after the -I-,
those directories are searched for all #include directives.

In addition, -I- inhibits the use of the directory of the current
file directory as the first search directory for “#include “file””.
This option has been deprecated.

-nostdinc
Do not search the standard system directories for header files.
Only the directories you have specified with -I options (and the
directory of the current file, if appropriate) are searched.

-nostdinc++
Do not search for header files in the C++-specific standard
directories, but do still search the other standard directories.
(This option is used when building the C++ library.)

-include file
Process file as if “#include “file”” appeared as the first line of
the primary source file. However, the first directory searched for
file is the preprocessor’s working directory instead of the
directory containing the main source file. If not found there, it
is searched for in the remainder of the “#include “…”” search
chain as normal.

If multiple -include options are given, the files are included in
the order they appear on the command line.

-imacros file
Exactly like -include, except that any output produced by scanning
file is thrown away. Macros it defines remain defined. This
allows you to acquire all the macros from a header without also
processing its declarations.

All files specified by -imacros are processed before all files
specified by -include.

-idirafter dir
Search dir for header files, but do it after all directories
specified with -I and the standard system directories have been
exhausted. dir is treated as a system include directory. If dir
begins with “=”, then the “=” will be replaced by the sysroot
prefix; see –sysroot and -isysroot.

-iprefix prefix
Specify prefix as the prefix for subsequent -iwithprefix options.
If the prefix represents a directory, you should include the final
/.

-iwithprefix dir
-iwithprefixbefore dir
Append dir to the prefix specified previously with -iprefix, and
add the resulting directory to the include search path.
-iwithprefixbefore puts it in the same place -I would; -iwithprefix
puts it where -idirafter would.

-isysroot dir
This option is like the –sysroot option, but applies only to
header files (except for Darwin targets, where it applies to both
header files and libraries). See the –sysroot option for more
information.

-imultilib dir
Use dir as a subdirectory of the directory containing target-
specific C++ headers.

-isystem dir
Search dir for header files, after all directories specified by -I
but before the standard system directories. Mark it as a system
directory, so that it gets the same special treatment as is applied
to the standard system directories. If dir begins with “=”, then
the “=” will be replaced by the sysroot prefix; see –sysroot and
-isysroot.

-iquote dir
Search dir only for header files requested with “#include “file””;
they are not searched for “#include “, before all directories
specified by -I and before the standard system directories. If dir
begins with “=”, then the “=” will be replaced by the sysroot
prefix; see –sysroot and -isysroot.

-fdirectives-only
When preprocessing, handle directives, but do not expand macros.

The option’s behavior depends on the -E and -fpreprocessed options.

With -E, preprocessing is limited to the handling of directives
such as “#define”, “#ifdef”, and “#error”. Other preprocessor
operations, such as macro expansion and trigraph conversion are not
performed. In addition, the -dD option is implicitly enabled.

With -fpreprocessed, predefinition of command line and most builtin
macros is disabled. Macros such as “__LINE__”, which are
contextually dependent, are handled normally. This enables
compilation of files previously preprocessed with “-E
-fdirectives-only”.

With both -E and -fpreprocessed, the rules for -fpreprocessed take
precedence. This enables full preprocessing of files previously
preprocessed with “-E -fdirectives-only”.

-fdollars-in-identifiers
Accept $ in identifiers.

-fextended-identifiers
Accept universal character names in identifiers. This option is
enabled by default for C99 (and later C standard versions) and C++.

-fno-canonical-system-headers
When preprocessing, do not shorten system header paths with
canonicalization.

-fpreprocessed
Indicate to the preprocessor that the input file has already been
preprocessed. This suppresses things like macro expansion,
trigraph conversion, escaped newline splicing, and processing of
most directives. The preprocessor still recognizes and removes
comments, so that you can pass a file preprocessed with -C to the
compiler without problems. In this mode the integrated
preprocessor is little more than a tokenizer for the front ends.

-fpreprocessed is implicit if the input file has one of the
extensions .i, .ii or .mi. These are the extensions that GCC uses
for preprocessed files created by -save-temps.

-ftabstop=width
Set the distance between tab stops. This helps the preprocessor
report correct column numbers in warnings or errors, even if tabs
appear on the line. If the value is less than 1 or greater than
100, the option is ignored. The default is 8.

-fdebug-cpp
This option is only useful for debugging GCC. When used with -E,
dumps debugging information about location maps. Every token in
the output is preceded by the dump of the map its location belongs
to. The dump of the map holding the location of a token would be:

{“P”:F;”F”:F;”L”:;”C”:;”S”:;”M”:;”E”:,”loc”:}

When used without -E, this option has no effect.

-ftrack-macro-expansion[=level] Track locations of tokens across macro expansions. This allows the
compiler to emit diagnostic about the current macro expansion stack
when a compilation error occurs in a macro expansion. Using this
option makes the preprocessor and the compiler consume more memory.
The level parameter can be used to choose the level of precision of
token location tracking thus decreasing the memory consumption if
necessary. Value 0 of level de-activates this option just as if no
-ftrack-macro-expansion was present on the command line. Value 1
tracks tokens locations in a degraded mode for the sake of minimal
memory overhead. In this mode all tokens resulting from the
expansion of an argument of a function-like macro have the same
location. Value 2 tracks tokens locations completely. This value is
the most memory hungry. When this option is given no argument, the
default parameter value is 2.

Note that “-ftrack-macro-expansion=2” is activated by default.

-fexec-charset=charset
Set the execution character set, used for string and character
constants. The default is UTF-8. charset can be any encoding
supported by the system’s “iconv” library routine.

-fwide-exec-charset=charset
Set the wide execution character set, used for wide string and
character constants. The default is UTF-32 or UTF-16, whichever
corresponds to the width of “wchar_t”. As with -fexec-charset,
charset can be any encoding supported by the system’s “iconv”
library routine; however, you will have problems with encodings
that do not fit exactly in “wchar_t”.

-finput-charset=charset
Set the input character set, used for translation from the
character set of the input file to the source character set used by
GCC. If the locale does not specify, or GCC cannot get this
information from the locale, the default is UTF-8. This can be
overridden by either the locale or this command-line option.
Currently the command-line option takes precedence if there’s a
conflict. charset can be any encoding supported by the system’s
“iconv” library routine.

-fworking-directory
Enable generation of linemarkers in the preprocessor output that
will let the compiler know the current working directory at the
time of preprocessing. When this option is enabled, the
preprocessor will emit, after the initial linemarker, a second
linemarker with the current working directory followed by two
slashes. GCC will use this directory, when it’s present in the
preprocessed input, as the directory emitted as the current working
directory in some debugging information formats. This option is
implicitly enabled if debugging information is enabled, but this
can be inhibited with the negated form -fno-working-directory. If
the -P flag is present in the command line, this option has no
effect, since no “#line” directives are emitted whatsoever.

-fno-show-column
Do not print column numbers in diagnostics. This may be necessary
if diagnostics are being scanned by a program that does not
understand the column numbers, such as dejagnu.

-A predicate=answer
Make an assertion with the predicate predicate and answer answer.
This form is preferred to the older form -A predicate(answer),
which is still supported, because it does not use shell special
characters.

-A -predicate=answer
Cancel an assertion with the predicate predicate and answer answer.

-dCHARS
CHARS is a sequence of one or more of the following characters, and
must not be preceded by a space. Other characters are interpreted
by the compiler proper, or reserved for future versions of GCC, and
so are silently ignored. If you specify characters whose behavior
conflicts, the result is undefined.

M Instead of the normal output, generate a list of #define
directives for all the macros defined during the execution of
the preprocessor, including predefined macros. This gives you
a way of finding out what is predefined in your version of the
preprocessor. Assuming you have no file foo.h, the command

touch foo.h; cpp -dM foo.h

will show all the predefined macros.

If you use -dM without the -E option, -dM is interpreted as a
synonym for -fdump-rtl-mach.

D Like M except in two respects: it does not include the
predefined macros, and it outputs both the #define directives
and the result of preprocessing. Both kinds of output go to
the standard output file.

N Like D, but emit only the macro names, not their expansions.

I Output #include directives in addition to the result of
preprocessing.

U Like D except that only macros that are expanded, or whose
definedness is tested in preprocessor directives, are output;
the output is delayed until the use or test of the macro; and
#undef directives are also output for macros tested but
undefined at the time.

-P Inhibit generation of linemarkers in the output from the
preprocessor. This might be useful when running the preprocessor
on something that is not C code, and will be sent to a program
which might be confused by the linemarkers.

-C Do not discard comments. All comments are passed through to the
output file, except for comments in processed directives, which are
deleted along with the directive.

You should be prepared for side effects when using -C; it causes
the preprocessor to treat comments as tokens in their own right.
For example, comments appearing at the start of what would be a
directive line have the effect of turning that line into an
ordinary source line, since the first token on the line is no
longer a #.

-CC Do not discard comments, including during macro expansion. This is
like -C, except that comments contained within macros are also
passed through to the output file where the macro is expanded.

In addition to the side-effects of the -C option, the -CC option
causes all C++-style comments inside a macro to be converted to
C-style comments. This is to prevent later use of that macro from
inadvertently commenting out the remainder of the source line.

The -CC option is generally used to support lint comments.

-traditional-cpp
Try to imitate the behavior of old-fashioned C preprocessors, as
opposed to ISO C preprocessors.

-trigraphs
Process trigraph sequences. These are three-character sequences,
all starting with ??, that are defined by ISO C to stand for single
characters. For example, ??/ stands for \, so ‘??/n’ is a
character constant for a newline. By default, GCC ignores
trigraphs, but in standard-conforming modes it converts them. See
the -std and -ansi options.

The nine trigraphs and their replacements are

Trigraph: ??( ??) ??< ??> ??= ??/ ??’ ??! ??-
Replacement: [ ] { } # \ ^ | ~

-remap
Enable special code to work around file systems which only permit
very short file names, such as MS-DOS.

–help
–target-help
Print text describing all the command-line options instead of
preprocessing anything.

-v Verbose mode. Print out GNU CPP’s version number at the beginning
of execution, and report the final form of the include path.

-H Print the name of each header file used, in addition to other
normal activities. Each name is indented to show how deep in the
#include stack it is. Precompiled header files are also printed,
even if they are found to be invalid; an invalid precompiled header
file is printed with …x and a valid one with …! .

-version
–version
Print out GNU CPP’s version number. With one dash, proceed to
preprocess as normal. With two dashes, exit immediately.

Passing Options to the Assembler
You can pass options to the assembler.

-Wa,option
Pass option as an option to the assembler. If option contains
commas, it is split into multiple options at the commas.

-Xassembler option
Pass option as an option to the assembler. You can use this to
supply system-specific assembler options that GCC does not
recognize.

If you want to pass an option that takes an argument, you must use
-Xassembler twice, once for the option and once for the argument.

Options for Linking
These options come into play when the compiler links object files into
an executable output file. They are meaningless if the compiler is not
doing a link step.

object-file-name
A file name that does not end in a special recognized suffix is
considered to name an object file or library. (Object files are
distinguished from libraries by the linker according to the file
contents.) If linking is done, these object files are used as
input to the linker.

-c
-S
-E If any of these options is used, then the linker is not run, and
object file names should not be used as arguments.

-fuse-ld=bfd
Use the bfd linker instead of the default linker.

-fuse-ld=gold
Use the gold linker instead of the default linker.

-llibrary
-l library
Search the library named library when linking. (The second
alternative with the library as a separate argument is only for
POSIX compliance and is not recommended.)

It makes a difference where in the command you write this option;
the linker searches and processes libraries and object files in the
order they are specified. Thus, foo.o -lz bar.o searches library z
after file foo.o but before bar.o. If bar.o refers to functions in
z, those functions may not be loaded.

The linker searches a standard list of directories for the library,
which is actually a file named liblibrary.a. The linker then uses
this file as if it had been specified precisely by name.

The directories searched include several standard system
directories plus any that you specify with -L.

Normally the files found this way are library files—archive files
whose members are object files. The linker handles an archive file
by scanning through it for members which define symbols that have
so far been referenced but not defined. But if the file that is
found is an ordinary object file, it is linked in the usual
fashion. The only difference between using an -l option and
specifying a file name is that -l surrounds library with lib and .a
and searches several directories.

-lobjc
You need this special case of the -l option in order to link an
Objective-C or Objective-C++ program.

-nostartfiles
Do not use the standard system startup files when linking. The
standard system libraries are used normally, unless -nostdlib or
-nodefaultlibs is used.

-nodefaultlibs
Do not use the standard system libraries when linking. Only the
libraries you specify are passed to the linker, and options
specifying linkage of the system libraries, such as -static-libgcc
or -shared-libgcc, are ignored. The standard startup files are
used normally, unless -nostartfiles is used.

The compiler may generate calls to “memcmp”, “memset”, “memcpy” and
“memmove”. These entries are usually resolved by entries in libc.
These entry points should be supplied through some other mechanism
when this option is specified.

-nostdlib
Do not use the standard system startup files or libraries when
linking. No startup files and only the libraries you specify are
passed to the linker, and options specifying linkage of the system
libraries, such as -static-libgcc or -shared-libgcc, are ignored.

The compiler may generate calls to “memcmp”, “memset”, “memcpy” and
“memmove”. These entries are usually resolved by entries in libc.
These entry points should be supplied through some other mechanism
when this option is specified.

One of the standard libraries bypassed by -nostdlib and
-nodefaultlibs is libgcc.a, a library of internal subroutines which
GCC uses to overcome shortcomings of particular machines, or
special needs for some languages.

In most cases, you need libgcc.a even when you want to avoid other
standard libraries. In other words, when you specify -nostdlib or
-nodefaultlibs you should usually specify -lgcc as well. This
ensures that you have no unresolved references to internal GCC
library subroutines. (An example of such an internal subroutine is
“__main”, used to ensure C++ constructors are called.)

-pie
Produce a position independent executable on targets that support
it. For predictable results, you must also specify the same set of
options used for compilation (-fpie, -fPIE, or model suboptions)
when you specify this linker option.

-no-pie
Don’t produce a position independent executable.

-rdynamic
Pass the flag -export-dynamic to the ELF linker, on targets that
support it. This instructs the linker to add all symbols, not only
used ones, to the dynamic symbol table. This option is needed for
some uses of “dlopen” or to allow obtaining backtraces from within
a program.

-s Remove all symbol table and relocation information from the
executable.

-static
On systems that support dynamic linking, this prevents linking with
the shared libraries. On other systems, this option has no effect.

-shared
Produce a shared object which can then be linked with other objects
to form an executable. Not all systems support this option. For
predictable results, you must also specify the same set of options
used for compilation (-fpic, -fPIC, or model suboptions) when you
specify this linker option.[1]

-shared-libgcc
-static-libgcc
On systems that provide libgcc as a shared library, these options
force the use of either the shared or static version, respectively.
If no shared version of libgcc was built when the compiler was
configured, these options have no effect.

There are several situations in which an application should use the
shared libgcc instead of the static version. The most common of
these is when the application wishes to throw and catch exceptions
across different shared libraries. In that case, each of the
libraries as well as the application itself should use the shared
libgcc.

Therefore, the G++ and GCJ drivers automatically add -shared-libgcc
whenever you build a shared library or a main executable, because
C++ and Java programs typically use exceptions, so this is the
right thing to do.

If, instead, you use the GCC driver to create shared libraries, you
may find that they are not always linked with the shared libgcc.
If GCC finds, at its configuration time, that you have a non-GNU
linker or a GNU linker that does not support option –eh-frame-hdr,
it links the shared version of libgcc into shared libraries by
default. Otherwise, it takes advantage of the linker and optimizes
away the linking with the shared version of libgcc, linking with
the static version of libgcc by default. This allows exceptions to
propagate through such shared libraries, without incurring
relocation costs at library load time.

However, if a library or main executable is supposed to throw or
catch exceptions, you must link it using the G++ or GCJ driver, as
appropriate for the languages used in the program, or using the
option -shared-libgcc, such that it is linked with the shared
libgcc.

-static-libasan
When the -fsanitize=address option is used to link a program, the
GCC driver automatically links against libasan. If libasan is
available as a shared library, and the -static option is not used,
then this links against the shared version of libasan. The
-static-libasan option directs the GCC driver to link libasan
statically, without necessarily linking other libraries statically.

-static-libtsan
When the -fsanitize=thread option is used to link a program, the
GCC driver automatically links against libtsan. If libtsan is
available as a shared library, and the -static option is not used,
then this links against the shared version of libtsan. The
-static-libtsan option directs the GCC driver to link libtsan
statically, without necessarily linking other libraries statically.

-static-liblsan
When the -fsanitize=leak option is used to link a program, the GCC
driver automatically links against liblsan. If liblsan is
available as a shared library, and the -static option is not used,
then this links against the shared version of liblsan. The
-static-liblsan option directs the GCC driver to link liblsan
statically, without necessarily linking other libraries statically.

-static-libubsan
When the -fsanitize=undefined option is used to link a program, the
GCC driver automatically links against libubsan. If libubsan is
available as a shared library, and the -static option is not used,
then this links against the shared version of libubsan. The
-static-libubsan option directs the GCC driver to link libubsan
statically, without necessarily linking other libraries statically.

-static-libmpx
When the -fcheck-pointer bounds and -mmpx options are used to link
a program, the GCC driver automatically links against libmpx. If
libmpx is available as a shared library, and the -static option is
not used, then this links against the shared version of libmpx.
The -static-libmpx option directs the GCC driver to link libmpx
statically, without necessarily linking other libraries statically.

-static-libmpxwrappers
When the -fcheck-pointer bounds and -mmpx options are used to link
a program without also using -fno-chkp-use-wrappers, the GCC driver
automatically links against libmpxwrappers. If libmpxwrappers is
available as a shared library, and the -static option is not used,
then this links against the shared version of libmpxwrappers. The
-static-libmpxwrappers option directs the GCC driver to link
libmpxwrappers statically, without necessarily linking other
libraries statically.

-static-libstdc++
When the g++ program is used to link a C++ program, it normally
automatically links against libstdc++. If libstdc++ is available
as a shared library, and the -static option is not used, then this
links against the shared version of libstdc++. That is normally
fine. However, it is sometimes useful to freeze the version of
libstdc++ used by the program without going all the way to a fully
static link. The -static-libstdc++ option directs the g++ driver
to link libstdc++ statically, without necessarily linking other
libraries statically.

-symbolic
Bind references to global symbols when building a shared object.
Warn about any unresolved references (unless overridden by the link
editor option -Xlinker -z -Xlinker defs). Only a few systems
support this option.

-T script
Use script as the linker script. This option is supported by most
systems using the GNU linker. On some targets, such as bare-board
targets without an operating system, the -T option may be required
when linking to avoid references to undefined symbols.

-Xlinker option
Pass option as an option to the linker. You can use this to supply
system-specific linker options that GCC does not recognize.

If you want to pass an option that takes a separate argument, you
must use -Xlinker twice, once for the option and once for the
argument. For example, to pass -assert definitions, you must write
-Xlinker -assert -Xlinker definitions. It does not work to write
-Xlinker “-assert definitions”, because this passes the entire
string as a single argument, which is not what the linker expects.

When using the GNU linker, it is usually more convenient to pass
arguments to linker options using the option=value syntax than as
separate arguments. For example, you can specify -Xlinker
-Map=output.map rather than -Xlinker -Map -Xlinker output.map.
Other linkers may not support this syntax for command-line options.

-Wl,option
Pass option as an option to the linker. If option contains commas,
it is split into multiple options at the commas. You can use this
syntax to pass an argument to the option. For example,
-Wl,-Map,output.map passes -Map output.map to the linker. When
using the GNU linker, you can also get the same effect with
-Wl,-Map=output.map.

NOTE: In Ubuntu 8.10 and later versions, for LDFLAGS, the option
-Wl,-z,relro is used. To disable, use -Wl,-z,norelro.

-u symbol
Pretend the symbol symbol is undefined, to force linking of library
modules to define it. You can use -u multiple times with different
symbols to force loading of additional library modules.

-z keyword
-z is passed directly on to the linker along with the keyword
keyword. See the section in the documentation of your linker for
permitted values and their meanings.

Options for Directory Search
These options specify directories to search for header files, for
libraries and for parts of the compiler:

-Idir
Add the directory dir to the head of the list of directories to be
searched for header files. This can be used to override a system
header file, substituting your own version, since these directories
are searched before the system header file directories. However,
you should not use this option to add directories that contain
vendor-supplied system header files (use -isystem for that). If
you use more than one -I option, the directories are scanned in
left-to-right order; the standard system directories come after.

If a standard system include directory, or a directory specified
with -isystem, is also specified with -I, the -I option is ignored.
The directory is still searched but as a system directory at its
normal position in the system include chain. This is to ensure
that GCC’s procedure to fix buggy system headers and the ordering
for the “include_next” directive are not inadvertently changed. If
you really need to change the search order for system directories,
use the -nostdinc and/or -isystem options.

-iplugindir=dir
Set the directory to search for plugins that are passed by
-fplugin=name instead of -fplugin=path/name.so. This option is not
meant to be used by the user, but only passed by the driver.

-iquotedir
Add the directory dir to the head of the list of directories to be
searched for header files only for the case of “#include “file””;
they are not searched for “#include “, otherwise just like
-I.

-Ldir
Add directory dir to the list of directories to be searched for -l.

-Bprefix
This option specifies where to find the executables, libraries,
include files, and data files of the compiler itself.

The compiler driver program runs one or more of the subprograms
cpp, cc1, as and ld. It tries prefix as a prefix for each program
it tries to run, both with and without machine/version/.

For each subprogram to be run, the compiler driver first tries the
-B prefix, if any. If that name is not found, or if -B is not
specified, the driver tries two standard prefixes, /usr/lib/gcc/
and /usr/local/lib/gcc/. If neither of those results in a file
name that is found, the unmodified program name is searched for
using the directories specified in your PATH environment variable.

The compiler checks to see if the path provided by -B refers to a
directory, and if necessary it adds a directory separator character
at the end of the path.

-B prefixes that effectively specify directory names also apply to
libraries in the linker, because the compiler translates these
options into -L options for the linker. They also apply to include
files in the preprocessor, because the compiler translates these
options into -isystem options for the preprocessor. In this case,
the compiler appends include to the prefix.

The runtime support file libgcc.a can also be searched for using
the -B prefix, if needed. If it is not found there, the two
standard prefixes above are tried, and that is all. The file is
left out of the link if it is not found by those means.

Another way to specify a prefix much like the -B prefix is to use
the environment variable GCC_EXEC_PREFIX.

As a special kludge, if the path provided by -B is [dir/]stageN/,
where N is a number in the range 0 to 9, then it is replaced by
[dir/]include. This is to help with boot-strapping the compiler.

-specs=file
Process file after the compiler reads in the standard specs file,
in order to override the defaults which the gcc driver program uses
when determining what switches to pass to cc1, cc1plus, as, ld,
etc. More than one -specs=file can be specified on the command
line, and they are processed in order, from left to right.

–sysroot=dir
Use dir as the logical root directory for headers and libraries.
For example, if the compiler normally searches for headers in
/usr/include and libraries in /usr/lib, it instead searches
dir/usr/include and dir/usr/lib.

If you use both this option and the -isysroot option, then the
–sysroot option applies to libraries, but the -isysroot option
applies to header files.

The GNU linker (beginning with version 2.16) has the necessary
support for this option. If your linker does not support this
option, the header file aspect of –sysroot still works, but the
library aspect does not.

–no-sysroot-suffix
For some targets, a suffix is added to the root directory specified
with –sysroot, depending on the other options used, so that
headers may for example be found in dir/suffix/usr/include instead
of dir/usr/include. This option disables the addition of such a
suffix.

-I- This option has been deprecated. Please use -iquote instead for -I
directories before the -I- and remove the -I- option. Any
directories you specify with -I options before the -I- option are
searched only for the case of “#include “file””; they are not
searched for “#include “.

If additional directories are specified with -I options after the
-I- option, these directories are searched for all “#include”
directives. (Ordinarily all -I directories are used this way.)

In addition, the -I- option inhibits the use of the current
directory (where the current input file came from) as the first
search directory for “#include “file””. There is no way to
override this effect of -I-. With -I. you can specify searching
the directory that is current when the compiler is invoked. That
is not exactly the same as what the preprocessor does by default,
but it is often satisfactory.

-I- does not inhibit the use of the standard system directories for
header files. Thus, -I- and -nostdinc are independent.

Specifying Target Machine and Compiler Version
The usual way to run GCC is to run the executable called gcc, or
machine-gcc when cross-compiling, or machine-gcc-version to run a
version other than the one that was installed last.

Hardware Models and Configurations
Each target machine types can have its own special options, starting
with -m, to choose among various hardware models or
configurations—for example, 68010 vs 68020, floating coprocessor or
none. A single installed version of the compiler can compile for any
model or configuration, according to the options specified.

Some configurations of the compiler also support additional special
options, usually for compatibility with other compilers on the same
platform.

AArch64 Options

These options are defined for AArch64 implementations:

-mabi=name
Generate code for the specified data model. Permissible values are
ilp32 for SysV-like data model where int, long int and pointer are
32-bit, and lp64 for SysV-like data model where int is 32-bit, but
long int and pointer are 64-bit.

The default depends on the specific target configuration. Note
that the LP64 and ILP32 ABIs are not link-compatible; you must
compile your entire program with the same ABI, and link with a
compatible set of libraries.

-mbig-endian
Generate big-endian code. This is the default when GCC is
configured for an aarch64_be-*-* target.

-mgeneral-regs-only
Generate code which uses only the general registers.

-mlittle-endian
Generate little-endian code. This is the default when GCC is
configured for an aarch64-*-* but not an aarch64_be-*-* target.

-mcmodel=tiny
Generate code for the tiny code model. The program and its
statically defined symbols must be within 1GB of each other.
Pointers are 64 bits. Programs can be statically or dynamically
linked. This model is not fully implemented and mostly treated as
small.

-mcmodel=small
Generate code for the small code model. The program and its
statically defined symbols must be within 4GB of each other.
Pointers are 64 bits. Programs can be statically or dynamically
linked. This is the default code model.

-mcmodel=large
Generate code for the large code model. This makes no assumptions
about addresses and sizes of sections. Pointers are 64 bits.
Programs can be statically linked only.

-mstrict-align
Do not assume that unaligned memory references are handled by the
system.

-momit-leaf-frame-pointer
-mno-omit-leaf-frame-pointer
Omit or keep the frame pointer in leaf functions. The former
behaviour is the default.

-mtls-dialect=desc
Use TLS descriptors as the thread-local storage mechanism for
dynamic accesses of TLS variables. This is the default.

-mtls-dialect=traditional
Use traditional TLS as the thread-local storage mechanism for
dynamic accesses of TLS variables.

-mfix-cortex-a53-835769
-mno-fix-cortex-a53-835769
Enable or disable the workaround for the ARM Cortex-A53 erratum
number 835769. This involves inserting a NOP instruction between
memory instructions and 64-bit integer multiply-accumulate
instructions.

-mfix-cortex-a53-843419
-mno-fix-cortex-a53-843419
Enable or disable the workaround for the ARM Cortex-A53 erratum
number 843419. This erratum workaround is made at link time and
this will only pass the corresponding flag to the linker.

-march=name
Specify the name of the target architecture, optionally suffixed by
one or more feature modifiers. This option has the form
-march=arch{+[no]feature}*, where the only permissible value for
arch is armv8-a. The permissible values for feature are documented
in the sub-section below.

Where conflicting feature modifiers are specified, the right-most
feature is used.

GCC uses this name to determine what kind of instructions it can
emit when generating assembly code.

Where -march is specified without either of -mtune or -mcpu also
being specified, the code is tuned to perform well across a range
of target processors implementing the target architecture.

-mtune=name
Specify the name of the target processor for which GCC should tune
the performance of the code. Permissible values for this option
are: generic, cortex-a53, cortex-a57, cortex-a72, exynos-m1,
thunderx, xgene1.

Additionally, this option can specify that GCC should tune the
performance of the code for a big.LITTLE system. Permissible
values for this option are: cortex-a57.cortex-a53,
cortex-a72.cortex-a53.

Where none of -mtune=, -mcpu= or -march= are specified, the code is
tuned to perform well across a range of target processors.

This option cannot be suffixed by feature modifiers.

-mcpu=name
Specify the name of the target processor, optionally suffixed by
one or more feature modifiers. This option has the form
-mcpu=cpu{+[no]feature}*, where the permissible values for cpu are
the same as those available for -mtune.

The permissible values for feature are documented in the sub-
section below.

Where conflicting feature modifiers are specified, the right-most
feature is used.

GCC uses this name to determine what kind of instructions it can
emit when generating assembly code (as if by -march) and to
determine the target processor for which to tune for performance
(as if by -mtune). Where this option is used in conjunction with
-march or -mtune, those options take precedence over the
appropriate part of this option.

-march and -mcpu Feature Modifiers

Feature modifiers used with -march and -mcpu can be one the following:

crc Enable CRC extension.

crypto
Enable Crypto extension. This implies Advanced SIMD is enabled.

fp Enable floating-point instructions.

simd
Enable Advanced SIMD instructions. This implies floating-point
instructions are enabled. This is the default for all current
possible values for options -march and -mcpu=.

Adapteva Epiphany Options

These -m options are defined for Adapteva Epiphany:

-mhalf-reg-file
Don’t allocate any register in the range “r32″…”r63”. That
allows code to run on hardware variants that lack these registers.

-mprefer-short-insn-regs
Preferrentially allocate registers that allow short instruction
generation. This can result in increased instruction count, so
this may either reduce or increase overall code size.

-mbranch-cost=num
Set the cost of branches to roughly num “simple” instructions.
This cost is only a heuristic and is not guaranteed to produce
consistent results across releases.

-mcmove
Enable the generation of conditional moves.

-mnops=num
Emit num NOPs before every other generated instruction.

-mno-soft-cmpsf
For single-precision floating-point comparisons, emit an “fsub”
instruction and test the flags. This is faster than a software
comparison, but can get incorrect results in the presence of NaNs,
or when two different small numbers are compared such that their
difference is calculated as zero. The default is -msoft-cmpsf,
which uses slower, but IEEE-compliant, software comparisons.

-mstack-offset=num
Set the offset between the top of the stack and the stack pointer.
E.g., a value of 8 means that the eight bytes in the range
“sp+0…sp+7” can be used by leaf functions without stack
allocation. Values other than 8 or 16 are untested and unlikely to
work. Note also that this option changes the ABI; compiling a
program with a different stack offset than the libraries have been
compiled with generally does not work. This option can be useful
if you want to evaluate if a different stack offset would give you
better code, but to actually use a different stack offset to build
working programs, it is recommended to configure the toolchain with
the appropriate –with-stack-offset=num option.

-mno-round-nearest
Make the scheduler assume that the rounding mode has been set to
truncating. The default is -mround-nearest.

-mlong-calls
If not otherwise specified by an attribute, assume all calls might
be beyond the offset range of the “b” / “bl” instructions, and
therefore load the function address into a register before
performing a (otherwise direct) call. This is the default.

-mshort-calls
If not otherwise specified by an attribute, assume all direct calls
are in the range of the “b” / “bl” instructions, so use these
instructions for direct calls. The default is -mlong-calls.

-msmall16
Assume addresses can be loaded as 16-bit unsigned values. This
does not apply to function addresses for which -mlong-calls
semantics are in effect.

-mfp-mode=mode
Set the prevailing mode of the floating-point unit. This
determines the floating-point mode that is provided and expected at
function call and return time. Making this mode match the mode you
predominantly need at function start can make your programs smaller
and faster by avoiding unnecessary mode switches.

mode can be set to one the following values:

caller
Any mode at function entry is valid, and retained or restored
when the function returns, and when it calls other functions.
This mode is useful for compiling libraries or other
compilation units you might want to incorporate into different
programs with different prevailing FPU modes, and the
convenience of being able to use a single object file outweighs
the size and speed overhead for any extra mode switching that
might be needed, compared with what would be needed with a more
specific choice of prevailing FPU mode.

truncate
This is the mode used for floating-point calculations with
truncating (i.e. round towards zero) rounding mode. That
includes conversion from floating point to integer.

round-nearest
This is the mode used for floating-point calculations with
round-to-nearest-or-even rounding mode.

int This is the mode used to perform integer calculations in the
FPU, e.g. integer multiply, or integer multiply-and-
accumulate.

The default is -mfp-mode=caller

-mnosplit-lohi
-mno-postinc
-mno-postmodify
Code generation tweaks that disable, respectively, splitting of
32-bit loads, generation of post-increment addresses, and
generation of post-modify addresses. The defaults are msplit-lohi,
-mpost-inc, and -mpost-modify.

-mnovect-double
Change the preferred SIMD mode to SImode. The default is
-mvect-double, which uses DImode as preferred SIMD mode.

-max-vect-align=num
The maximum alignment for SIMD vector mode types. num may be 4 or
8. The default is 8. Note that this is an ABI change, even though
many library function interfaces are unaffected if they don’t use
SIMD vector modes in places that affect size and/or alignment of
relevant types.

-msplit-vecmove-early
Split vector moves into single word moves before reload. In theory
this can give better register allocation, but so far the reverse
seems to be generally the case.

-m1reg-reg
Specify a register to hold the constant -1, which makes loading
small negative constants and certain bitmasks faster. Allowable
values for reg are r43 and r63, which specify use of that register
as a fixed register, and none, which means that no register is used
for this purpose. The default is -m1reg-none.

ARC Options

The following options control the architecture variant for which code
is being compiled:

-mbarrel-shifter
Generate instructions supported by barrel shifter. This is the
default unless -mcpu=ARC601 is in effect.

-mcpu=cpu
Set architecture type, register usage, and instruction scheduling
parameters for cpu. There are also shortcut alias options
available for backward compatibility and convenience. Supported
values for cpu are

ARC600
Compile for ARC600. Aliases: -mA6, -mARC600.

ARC601
Compile for ARC601. Alias: -mARC601.

ARC700
Compile for ARC700. Aliases: -mA7, -mARC700. This is the
default when configured with –with-cpu=arc700.

-mdpfp
-mdpfp-compact
FPX: Generate Double Precision FPX instructions, tuned for the
compact implementation.

-mdpfp-fast
FPX: Generate Double Precision FPX instructions, tuned for the fast
implementation.

-mno-dpfp-lrsr
Disable LR and SR instructions from using FPX extension aux
registers.

-mea
Generate Extended arithmetic instructions. Currently only “divaw”,
“adds”, “subs”, and “sat16” are supported. This is always enabled
for -mcpu=ARC700.

-mno-mpy
Do not generate mpy instructions for ARC700.

-mmul32x16
Generate 32×16 bit multiply and mac instructions.

-mmul64
Generate mul64 and mulu64 instructions. Only valid for
-mcpu=ARC600.

-mnorm
Generate norm instruction. This is the default if -mcpu=ARC700 is
in effect.

-mspfp
-mspfp-compact
FPX: Generate Single Precision FPX instructions, tuned for the
compact implementation.

-mspfp-fast
FPX: Generate Single Precision FPX instructions, tuned for the fast
implementation.

-msimd
Enable generation of ARC SIMD instructions via target-specific
builtins. Only valid for -mcpu=ARC700.

-msoft-float
This option ignored; it is provided for compatibility purposes
only. Software floating point code is emitted by default, and this
default can overridden by FPX options; mspfp, mspfp-compact, or
mspfp-fast for single precision, and mdpfp, mdpfp-compact, or
mdpfp-fast for double precision.

-mswap
Generate swap instructions.

The following options are passed through to the assembler, and also
define preprocessor macro symbols.

-mdsp-packa
Passed down to the assembler to enable the DSP Pack A extensions.
Also sets the preprocessor symbol “__Xdsp_packa”.

-mdvbf
Passed down to the assembler to enable the dual viterbi butterfly
extension. Also sets the preprocessor symbol “__Xdvbf”.

-mlock
Passed down to the assembler to enable the Locked Load/Store
Conditional extension. Also sets the preprocessor symbol
“__Xlock”.

-mmac-d16
Passed down to the assembler. Also sets the preprocessor symbol
“__Xxmac_d16”.

-mmac-24
Passed down to the assembler. Also sets the preprocessor symbol
“__Xxmac_24”.

-mrtsc
Passed down to the assembler to enable the 64-bit Time-Stamp
Counter extension instruction. Also sets the preprocessor symbol
“__Xrtsc”.

-mswape
Passed down to the assembler to enable the swap byte ordering
extension instruction. Also sets the preprocessor symbol
“__Xswape”.

-mtelephony
Passed down to the assembler to enable dual and single operand
instructions for telephony. Also sets the preprocessor symbol
“__Xtelephony”.

-mxy
Passed down to the assembler to enable the XY Memory extension.
Also sets the preprocessor symbol “__Xxy”.

The following options control how the assembly code is annotated:

-misize
Annotate assembler instructions with estimated addresses.

-mannotate-align
Explain what alignment considerations lead to the decision to make
an instruction short or long.

The following options are passed through to the linker:

-marclinux
Passed through to the linker, to specify use of the “arclinux”
emulation. This option is enabled by default in tool chains built
for “arc-linux-uclibc” and “arceb-linux-uclibc” targets when
profiling is not requested.

-marclinux_prof
Passed through to the linker, to specify use of the “arclinux_prof”
emulation. This option is enabled by default in tool chains built
for “arc-linux-uclibc” and “arceb-linux-uclibc” targets when
profiling is requested.

The following options control the semantics of generated code:

-mepilogue-cfi
Enable generation of call frame information for epilogues.

-mno-epilogue-cfi
Disable generation of call frame information for epilogues.

-mlong-calls
Generate call insns as register indirect calls, thus providing
access to the full 32-bit address range.

-mmedium-calls
Don’t use less than 25 bit addressing range for calls, which is the
offset available for an unconditional branch-and-link instruction.
Conditional execution of function calls is suppressed, to allow use
of the 25-bit range, rather than the 21-bit range with conditional
branch-and-link. This is the default for tool chains built for
“arc-linux-uclibc” and “arceb-linux-uclibc” targets.

-mno-sdata
Do not generate sdata references. This is the default for tool
chains built for “arc-linux-uclibc” and “arceb-linux-uclibc”
targets.

-mucb-mcount
Instrument with mcount calls as used in UCB code. I.e. do the
counting in the callee, not the caller. By default ARC
instrumentation counts in the caller.

-mvolatile-cache
Use ordinarily cached memory accesses for volatile references.
This is the default.

-mno-volatile-cache
Enable cache bypass for volatile references.

The following options fine tune code generation:

-malign-call
Do alignment optimizations for call instructions.

-mauto-modify-reg
Enable the use of pre/post modify with register displacement.

-mbbit-peephole
Enable bbit peephole2.

-mno-brcc
This option disables a target-specific pass in arc_reorg to
generate “BRcc” instructions. It has no effect on “BRcc”
generation driven by the combiner pass.

-mcase-vector-pcrel
Use pc-relative switch case tables – this enables case table
shortening. This is the default for -Os.

-mcompact-casesi
Enable compact casesi pattern. This is the default for -Os.

-mno-cond-exec
Disable ARCompact specific pass to generate conditional execution
instructions. Due to delay slot scheduling and interactions
between operand numbers, literal sizes, instruction lengths, and
the support for conditional execution, the target-independent pass
to generate conditional execution is often lacking, so the ARC port
has kept a special pass around that tries to find more conditional
execution generating opportunities after register allocation,
branch shortening, and delay slot scheduling have been done. This
pass generally, but not always, improves performance and code size,
at the cost of extra compilation time, which is why there is an
option to switch it off. If you have a problem with call
instructions exceeding their allowable offset range because they
are conditionalized, you should consider using -mmedium-calls
instead.

-mearly-cbranchsi
Enable pre-reload use of the cbranchsi pattern.

-mexpand-adddi
Expand “adddi3” and “subdi3” at rtl generation time into “add.f”,
“adc” etc.

-mindexed-loads
Enable the use of indexed loads. This can be problematic because
some optimizers then assume that indexed stores exist, which is not
the case.

-mlra
Enable Local Register Allocation. This is still experimental for
ARC, so by default the compiler uses standard reload (i.e.
-mno-lra).

-mlra-priority-none
Don’t indicate any priority for target registers.

-mlra-priority-compact
Indicate target register priority for r0..r3 / r12..r15.

-mlra-priority-noncompact
Reduce target regsiter priority for r0..r3 / r12..r15.

-mno-millicode
When optimizing for size (using -Os), prologues and epilogues that
have to save or restore a large number of registers are often
shortened by using call to a special function in libgcc; this is
referred to as a millicode call. As these calls can pose
performance issues, and/or cause linking issues when linking in a
nonstandard way, this option is provided to turn off millicode call
generation.

-mmixed-code
Tweak register allocation to help 16-bit instruction generation.
This generally has the effect of decreasing the average instruction
size while increasing the instruction count.

-mq-class
Enable ‘q’ instruction alternatives. This is the default for -Os.

-mRcq
Enable Rcq constraint handling – most short code generation depends
on this. This is the default.

-mRcw
Enable Rcw constraint handling – ccfsm condexec mostly depends on
this. This is the default.

-msize-level=level
Fine-tune size optimization with regards to instruction lengths and
alignment. The recognized values for level are:

0 No size optimization. This level is deprecated and treated
like 1.

1 Short instructions are used opportunistically.

2 In addition, alignment of loops and of code after barriers are
dropped.

3 In addition, optional data alignment is dropped, and the option
Os is enabled.

This defaults to 3 when -Os is in effect. Otherwise, the behavior
when this is not set is equivalent to level 1.

-mtune=cpu
Set instruction scheduling parameters for cpu, overriding any
implied by -mcpu=.

Supported values for cpu are

ARC600
Tune for ARC600 cpu.

ARC601
Tune for ARC601 cpu.

ARC700
Tune for ARC700 cpu with standard multiplier block.

ARC700-xmac
Tune for ARC700 cpu with XMAC block.

ARC725D
Tune for ARC725D cpu.

ARC750D
Tune for ARC750D cpu.

-mmultcost=num
Cost to assume for a multiply instruction, with 4 being equal to a
normal instruction.

-munalign-prob-threshold=probability
Set probability threshold for unaligning branches. When tuning for
ARC700 and optimizing for speed, branches without filled delay slot
are preferably emitted unaligned and long, unless profiling
indicates that the probability for the branch to be taken is below
probability. The default is (REG_BR_PROB_BASE/2), i.e. 5000.

The following options are maintained for backward compatibility, but
are now deprecated and will be removed in a future release:

-margonaut
Obsolete FPX.

-mbig-endian
-EB Compile code for big endian targets. Use of these options is now
deprecated. Users wanting big-endian code, should use the
“arceb-elf32” and “arceb-linux-uclibc” targets when building the
tool chain, for which big-endian is the default.

-mlittle-endian
-EL Compile code for little endian targets. Use of these options is
now deprecated. Users wanting little-endian code should use the
“arc-elf32” and “arc-linux-uclibc” targets when building the tool
chain, for which little-endian is the default.

-mbarrel_shifter
Replaced by -mbarrel-shifter.

-mdpfp_compact
Replaced by -mdpfp-compact.

-mdpfp_fast
Replaced by -mdpfp-fast.

-mdsp_packa
Replaced by -mdsp-packa.

-mEA
Replaced by -mea.

-mmac_24
Replaced by -mmac-24.

-mmac_d16
Replaced by -mmac-d16.

-mspfp_compact
Replaced by -mspfp-compact.

-mspfp_fast
Replaced by -mspfp-fast.

-mtune=cpu
Values arc600, arc601, arc700 and arc700-xmac for cpu are replaced
by ARC600, ARC601, ARC700 and ARC700-xmac respectively

-multcost=num
Replaced by -mmultcost.

ARM Options

These -m options are defined for the ARM port:

-mabi=name
Generate code for the specified ABI. Permissible values are: apcs-
gnu, atpcs, aapcs, aapcs-linux and iwmmxt.

-mapcs-frame
Generate a stack frame that is compliant with the ARM Procedure
Call Standard for all functions, even if this is not strictly
necessary for correct execution of the code. Specifying
-fomit-frame-pointer with this option causes the stack frames not
to be generated for leaf functions. The default is
-mno-apcs-frame. This option is deprecated.

-mapcs
This is a synonym for -mapcs-frame and is deprecated.

-mthumb-interwork
Generate code that supports calling between the ARM and Thumb
instruction sets. Without this option, on pre-v5 architectures,
the two instruction sets cannot be reliably used inside one
program. The default is -mno-thumb-interwork, since slightly
larger code is generated when -mthumb-interwork is specified. In
AAPCS configurations this option is meaningless.

-mno-sched-prolog
Prevent the reordering of instructions in the function prologue, or
the merging of those instruction with the instructions in the
function’s body. This means that all functions start with a
recognizable set of instructions (or in fact one of a choice from a
small set of different function prologues), and this information
can be used to locate the start of functions inside an executable
piece of code. The default is -msched-prolog.

-mfloat-abi=name
Specifies which floating-point ABI to use. Permissible values are:
soft, softfp and hard.

Specifying soft causes GCC to generate output containing library
calls for floating-point operations. softfp allows the generation
of code using hardware floating-point instructions, but still uses
the soft-float calling conventions. hard allows generation of
floating-point instructions and uses FPU-specific calling
conventions.

The default depends on the specific target configuration. Note
that the hard-float and soft-float ABIs are not link-compatible;
you must compile your entire program with the same ABI, and link
with a compatible set of libraries.

-mlittle-endian
Generate code for a processor running in little-endian mode. This
is the default for all standard configurations.

-mbig-endian
Generate code for a processor running in big-endian mode; the
default is to compile code for a little-endian processor.

-march=name
This specifies the name of the target ARM architecture. GCC uses
this name to determine what kind of instructions it can emit when
generating assembly code. This option can be used in conjunction
with or instead of the -mcpu= option. Permissible names are:
armv2, armv2a, armv3, armv3m, armv4, armv4t, armv5, armv5t, armv5e,
armv5te, armv6, armv6j, armv6t2, armv6z, armv6zk, armv6-m, armv7,
armv7-a, armv7-r, armv7-m, armv7e-m, armv7ve, armv8-a, armv8-a+crc,
iwmmxt, iwmmxt2, ep9312.

-march=armv7ve is the armv7-a architecture with virtualization
extensions.

-march=armv8-a+crc enables code generation for the ARMv8-A
architecture together with the optional CRC32 extensions.

-march=native causes the compiler to auto-detect the architecture
of the build computer. At present, this feature is only supported
on GNU/Linux, and not all architectures are recognized. If the
auto-detect is unsuccessful the option has no effect.

-mtune=name
This option specifies the name of the target ARM processor for
which GCC should tune the performance of the code. For some ARM
implementations better performance can be obtained by using this
option. Permissible names are: arm2, arm250, arm3, arm6, arm60,
arm600, arm610, arm620, arm7, arm7m, arm7d, arm7dm, arm7di,
arm7dmi, arm70, arm700, arm700i, arm710, arm710c, arm7100, arm720,
arm7500, arm7500fe, arm7tdmi, arm7tdmi-s, arm710t, arm720t,
arm740t, strongarm, strongarm110, strongarm1100, strongarm1110,
arm8, arm810, arm9, arm9e, arm920, arm920t, arm922t, arm946e-s,
arm966e-s, arm968e-s, arm926ej-s, arm940t, arm9tdmi, arm10tdmi,
arm1020t, arm1026ej-s, arm10e, arm1020e, arm1022e, arm1136j-s,
arm1136jf-s, mpcore, mpcorenovfp, arm1156t2-s, arm1156t2f-s,
arm1176jz-s, arm1176jzf-s, cortex-a5, cortex-a7, cortex-a8,
cortex-a9, cortex-a12, cortex-a15, cortex-a53, cortex-a57,
cortex-a72, cortex-r4, cortex-r4f, cortex-r5, cortex-r7, cortex-m7,
cortex-m4, cortex-m3, cortex-m1, cortex-m0, cortex-m0plus,
cortex-m1.small-multiply, cortex-m0.small-multiply,
cortex-m0plus.small-multiply, exynos-m1, marvell-pj4, xscale,
iwmmxt, iwmmxt2, ep9312, fa526, fa626, fa606te, fa626te, fmp626,
fa726te, xgene1.

Additionally, this option can specify that GCC should tune the
performance of the code for a big.LITTLE system. Permissible names
are: cortex-a15.cortex-a7, cortex-a57.cortex-a53,
cortex-a72.cortex-a53.

-mtune=generic-arch specifies that GCC should tune the performance
for a blend of processors within architecture arch. The aim is to
generate code that run well on the current most popular processors,
balancing between optimizations that benefit some CPUs in the
range, and avoiding performance pitfalls of other CPUs. The
effects of this option may change in future GCC versions as CPU
models come and go.

-mtune=native causes the compiler to auto-detect the CPU of the
build computer. At present, this feature is only supported on
GNU/Linux, and not all architectures are recognized. If the auto-
detect is unsuccessful the option has no effect.

-mcpu=name
This specifies the name of the target ARM processor. GCC uses this
name to derive the name of the target ARM architecture (as if
specified by -march) and the ARM processor type for which to tune
for performance (as if specified by -mtune). Where this option is
used in conjunction with -march or -mtune, those options take
precedence over the appropriate part of this option.

Permissible names for this option are the same as those for -mtune.

-mcpu=generic-arch is also permissible, and is equivalent to
-march=arch -mtune=generic-arch. See -mtune for more information.

-mcpu=native causes the compiler to auto-detect the CPU of the
build computer. At present, this feature is only supported on
GNU/Linux, and not all architectures are recognized. If the auto-
detect is unsuccessful the option has no effect.

-mfpu=name
This specifies what floating-point hardware (or hardware emulation)
is available on the target. Permissible names are: vfp, vfpv3,
vfpv3-fp16, vfpv3-d16, vfpv3-d16-fp16, vfpv3xd, vfpv3xd-fp16, neon,
neon-fp16, vfpv4, vfpv4-d16, fpv4-sp-d16, neon-vfpv4, fpv5-d16,
fpv5-sp-d16, fp-armv8, neon-fp-armv8, and crypto-neon-fp-armv8.

If -msoft-float is specified this specifies the format of floating-
point values.

If the selected floating-point hardware includes the NEON extension
(e.g. -mfpu=neon), note that floating-point operations are not
generated by GCC’s auto-vectorization pass unless
-funsafe-math-optimizations is also specified. This is because
NEON hardware does not fully implement the IEEE 754 standard for
floating-point arithmetic (in particular denormal values are
treated as zero), so the use of NEON instructions may lead to a
loss of precision.

-mfp16-format=name
Specify the format of the “__fp16” half-precision floating-point
type. Permissible names are none, ieee, and alternative; the
default is none, in which case the “__fp16” type is not defined.

-mstructure-size-boundary=n
The sizes of all structures and unions are rounded up to a multiple
of the number of bits set by this option. Permissible values are
8, 32 and 64. The default value varies for different toolchains.
For the COFF targeted toolchain the default value is 8. A value of
64 is only allowed if the underlying ABI supports it.

Specifying a larger number can produce faster, more efficient code,
but can also increase the size of the program. Different values
are potentially incompatible. Code compiled with one value cannot
necessarily expect to work with code or libraries compiled with
another value, if they exchange information using structures or
unions.

-mabort-on-noreturn
Generate a call to the function “abort” at the end of a “noreturn”
function. It is executed if the function tries to return.

-mlong-calls
-mno-long-calls
Tells the compiler to perform function calls by first loading the
address of the function into a register and then performing a
subroutine call on this register. This switch is needed if the
target function lies outside of the 64-megabyte addressing range of
the offset-based version of subroutine call instruction.

Even if this switch is enabled, not all function calls are turned
into long calls. The heuristic is that static functions, functions
that have the “short_call” attribute, functions that are inside the
scope of a “#pragma no_long_calls” directive, and functions whose
definitions have already been compiled within the current
compilation unit are not turned into long calls. The exceptions to
this rule are that weak function definitions, functions with the
“long_call” attribute or the “section” attribute, and functions
that are within the scope of a “#pragma long_calls” directive are
always turned into long calls.

This feature is not enabled by default. Specifying -mno-long-calls
restores the default behavior, as does placing the function calls
within the scope of a “#pragma long_calls_off” directive. Note
these switches have no effect on how the compiler generates code to
handle function calls via function pointers.

-msingle-pic-base
Treat the register used for PIC addressing as read-only, rather
than loading it in the prologue for each function. The runtime
system is responsible for initializing this register with an
appropriate value before execution begins.

-mpic-register=reg
Specify the register to be used for PIC addressing. For standard
PIC base case, the default is any suitable register determined by
compiler. For single PIC base case, the default is R9 if target is
EABI based or stack-checking is enabled, otherwise the default is
R10.

-mpic-data-is-text-relative
Assume that each data segments are relative to text segment at load
time. Therefore, it permits addressing data using PC-relative
operations. This option is on by default for targets other than
VxWorks RTP.

-mpoke-function-name
Write the name of each function into the text section, directly
preceding the function prologue. The generated code is similar to
this:

t0
.ascii “arm_poke_function_name”, 0
.align
t1
.word 0xff000000 + (t1 – t0)
arm_poke_function_name
mov ip, sp
stmfd sp!, {fp, ip, lr, pc}
sub fp, ip, #4

When performing a stack backtrace, code can inspect the value of
“pc” stored at “fp + 0”. If the trace function then looks at
location “pc – 12” and the top 8 bits are set, then we know that
there is a function name embedded immediately preceding this
location and has length “((pc[-3]) & 0xff000000)”.

-mthumb
-marm
Select between generating code that executes in ARM and Thumb
states. The default for most configurations is to generate code
that executes in ARM state, but the default can be changed by
configuring GCC with the –with-mode=state configure option.

-mtpcs-frame
Generate a stack frame that is compliant with the Thumb Procedure
Call Standard for all non-leaf functions. (A leaf function is one
that does not call any other functions.) The default is
-mno-tpcs-frame.

-mtpcs-leaf-frame
Generate a stack frame that is compliant with the Thumb Procedure
Call Standard for all leaf functions. (A leaf function is one that
does not call any other functions.) The default is
-mno-apcs-leaf-frame.

-mcallee-super-interworking
Gives all externally visible functions in the file being compiled
an ARM instruction set header which switches to Thumb mode before
executing the rest of the function. This allows these functions to
be called from non-interworking code. This option is not valid in
AAPCS configurations because interworking is enabled by default.

-mcaller-super-interworking
Allows calls via function pointers (including virtual functions) to
execute correctly regardless of whether the target code has been
compiled for interworking or not. There is a small overhead in the
cost of executing a function pointer if this option is enabled.
This option is not valid in AAPCS configurations because
interworking is enabled by default.

-mtp=name
Specify the access model for the thread local storage pointer. The
valid models are soft, which generates calls to “__aeabi_read_tp”,
cp15, which fetches the thread pointer from “cp15” directly
(supported in the arm6k architecture), and auto, which uses the
best available method for the selected processor. The default
setting is auto.

-mtls-dialect=dialect
Specify the dialect to use for accessing thread local storage. Two
dialects are supported—gnu and gnu2. The gnu dialect selects the
original GNU scheme for supporting local and global dynamic TLS
models. The gnu2 dialect selects the GNU descriptor scheme, which
provides better performance for shared libraries. The GNU
descriptor scheme is compatible with the original scheme, but does
require new assembler, linker and library support. Initial and
local exec TLS models are unaffected by this option and always use
the original scheme.

-mword-relocations
Only generate absolute relocations on word-sized values (i.e.
R_ARM_ABS32). This is enabled by default on targets (uClinux,
SymbianOS) where the runtime loader imposes this restriction, and
when -fpic or -fPIC is specified.

-mfix-cortex-m3-ldrd
Some Cortex-M3 cores can cause data corruption when “ldrd”
instructions with overlapping destination and base registers are
used. This option avoids generating these instructions. This
option is enabled by default when -mcpu=cortex-m3 is specified.

-munaligned-access
-mno-unaligned-access
Enables (or disables) reading and writing of 16- and 32- bit values
from addresses that are not 16- or 32- bit aligned. By default
unaligned access is disabled for all pre-ARMv6 and all ARMv6-M
architectures, and enabled for all other architectures. If
unaligned access is not enabled then words in packed data
structures are accessed a byte at a time.

The ARM attribute “Tag_CPU_unaligned_access” is set in the
generated object file to either true or false, depending upon the
setting of this option. If unaligned access is enabled then the
preprocessor symbol “__ARM_FEATURE_UNALIGNED” is also defined.

-mneon-for-64bits
Enables using Neon to handle scalar 64-bits operations. This is
disabled by default since the cost of moving data from core
registers to Neon is high.

-mslow-flash-data
Assume loading data from flash is slower than fetching instruction.
Therefore literal load is minimized for better performance. This
option is only supported when compiling for ARMv7 M-profile and off
by default.

-masm-syntax-unified
Assume inline assembler is using unified asm syntax. The default
is currently off which implies divided syntax. Currently this
option is available only for Thumb1 and has no effect on ARM state
and Thumb2. However, this may change in future releases of GCC.
Divided syntax should be considered deprecated.

-mrestrict-it
Restricts generation of IT blocks to conform to the rules of ARMv8.
IT blocks can only contain a single 16-bit instruction from a
select set of instructions. This option is on by default for ARMv8
Thumb mode.

-mprint-tune-info
Print CPU tuning information as comment in assembler file. This is
an option used only for regression testing of the compiler and not
intended for ordinary use in compiling code. This option is
disabled by default.

AVR Options

These options are defined for AVR implementations:

-mmcu=mcu
Specify Atmel AVR instruction set architectures (ISA) or MCU type.

The default for this option is@tie{}avr2.

GCC supports the following AVR devices and ISAs:

“avr2”
“Classic” devices with up to 8@tie{}KiB of program memory.
mcu@tie{}= “attiny22”, “attiny26”, “at90c8534”, “at90s2313”,
“at90s2323”, “at90s2333”, “at90s2343”, “at90s4414”,
“at90s4433”, “at90s4434”, “at90s8515”, “at90s8535”.

“avr25”
“Classic” devices with up to 8@tie{}KiB of program memory and
with the “MOVW” instruction. mcu@tie{}= “ata5272”, “ata6616c”,
“attiny13”, “attiny13a”, “attiny2313”, “attiny2313a”,
“attiny24”, “attiny24a”, “attiny25”, “attiny261”, “attiny261a”,
“attiny43u”, “attiny4313”, “attiny44”, “attiny44a”,
“attiny441”, “attiny45”, “attiny461”, “attiny461a”, “attiny48”,
“attiny828”, “attiny84”, “attiny84a”, “attiny841”, “attiny85”,
“attiny861”, “attiny861a”, “attiny87”, “attiny88”, “at86rf401”.

“avr3”
“Classic” devices with 16@tie{}KiB up to 64@tie{}KiB of
program memory. mcu@tie{}= “at43usb355”, “at76c711”.

“avr31”
“Classic” devices with 128@tie{}KiB of program memory.
mcu@tie{}= “atmega103”, “at43usb320”.

“avr35”
“Classic” devices with 16@tie{}KiB up to 64@tie{}KiB of program
memory and with the “MOVW” instruction. mcu@tie{}= “ata5505”,
“ata6617c”, “ata664251”, “atmega16u2”, “atmega32u2”,
“atmega8u2”, “attiny1634”, “attiny167”, “at90usb162”,
“at90usb82”.

“avr4”
“Enhanced” devices with up to 8@tie{}KiB of program memory.
mcu@tie{}= “ata6285”, “ata6286”, “ata6289”, “ata6612c”,
“atmega48”, “atmega48a”, “atmega48p”, “atmega48pa”, “atmega8”,
“atmega8a”, “atmega8hva”, “atmega8515”, “atmega8535”,
“atmega88”, “atmega88a”, “atmega88p”, “atmega88pa”, “at90pwm1”,
“at90pwm2”, “at90pwm2b”, “at90pwm3”, “at90pwm3b”, “at90pwm81”.

“avr5”
“Enhanced” devices with 16@tie{}KiB up to 64@tie{}KiB of
program memory. mcu@tie{}= “ata5702m322”, “ata5782”,
“ata5790”, “ata5790n”, “ata5795”, “ata5831”, “ata6613c”,
“ata6614q”, “atmega16”, “atmega16a”, “atmega16hva”,
“atmega16hva2”, “atmega16hvb”, “atmega16hvbrevb”, “atmega16m1”,
“atmega16u4”, “atmega161”, “atmega162”, “atmega163”,
“atmega164a”, “atmega164p”, “atmega164pa”, “atmega165”,
“atmega165a”, “atmega165p”, “atmega165pa”, “atmega168”,
“atmega168a”, “atmega168p”, “atmega168pa”, “atmega169”,
“atmega169a”, “atmega169p”, “atmega169pa”, “atmega32”,
“atmega32a”, “atmega32c1”, “atmega32hvb”, “atmega32hvbrevb”,
“atmega32m1”, “atmega32u4”, “atmega32u6”, “atmega323”,
“atmega324a”, “atmega324p”, “atmega324pa”, “atmega325”,
“atmega325a”, “atmega325p”, “atmega325pa”, “atmega3250”,
“atmega3250a”, “atmega3250p”, “atmega3250pa”, “atmega328”,
“atmega328p”, “atmega329”, “atmega329a”, “atmega329p”,
“atmega329pa”, “atmega3290”, “atmega3290a”, “atmega3290p”,
“atmega3290pa”, “atmega406”, “atmega64”, “atmega64a”,
“atmega64c1”, “atmega64hve”, “atmega64hve2”, “atmega64m1”,
“atmega64rfr2”, “atmega640”, “atmega644”, “atmega644a”,
“atmega644p”, “atmega644pa”, “atmega644rfr2”, “atmega645”,
“atmega645a”, “atmega645p”, “atmega6450”, “atmega6450a”,
“atmega6450p”, “atmega649”, “atmega649a”, “atmega649p”,
“atmega6490”, “atmega6490a”, “atmega6490p”, “at90can32”,
“at90can64”, “at90pwm161”, “at90pwm216”, “at90pwm316”,
“at90scr100”, “at90usb646”, “at90usb647”, “at94k”, “m3000”.

“avr51”
“Enhanced” devices with 128@tie{}KiB of program memory.
mcu@tie{}= “atmega128”, “atmega128a”, “atmega128rfa1”,
“atmega128rfr2”, “atmega1280”, “atmega1281”, “atmega1284”,
“atmega1284p”, “atmega1284rfr2”, “at90can128”, “at90usb1286”,
“at90usb1287”.

“avr6”
“Enhanced” devices with 3-byte PC, i.e. with more than
128@tie{}KiB of program memory. mcu@tie{}= “atmega256rfr2”,
“atmega2560”, “atmega2561”, “atmega2564rfr2”.

“avrxmega2”
“XMEGA” devices with more than 8@tie{}KiB and up to 64@tie{}KiB
of program memory. mcu@tie{}= “atxmega16a4”, “atxmega16a4u”,
“atxmega16c4”, “atxmega16d4”, “atxmega16e5”, “atxmega32a4”,
“atxmega32a4u”, “atxmega32c3”, “atxmega32c4”, “atxmega32d3”,
“atxmega32d4”, “atxmega32e5”, “atxmega8e5”.

“avrxmega4”
“XMEGA” devices with more than 64@tie{}KiB and up to
128@tie{}KiB of program memory. mcu@tie{}= “atxmega64a3”,
“atxmega64a3u”, “atxmega64a4u”, “atxmega64b1”, “atxmega64b3”,
“atxmega64c3”, “atxmega64d3”, “atxmega64d4”.

“avrxmega5”
“XMEGA” devices with more than 64@tie{}KiB and up to
128@tie{}KiB of program memory and more than 64@tie{}KiB of
RAM. mcu@tie{}= “atxmega64a1”, “atxmega64a1u”.

“avrxmega6”
“XMEGA” devices with more than 128@tie{}KiB of program memory.
mcu@tie{}= “atxmega128a3”, “atxmega128a3u”, “atxmega128b1”,
“atxmega128b3”, “atxmega128c3”, “atxmega128d3”, “atxmega128d4”,
“atxmega192a3”, “atxmega192a3u”, “atxmega192c3”,
“atxmega192d3”, “atxmega256a3”, “atxmega256a3b”,
“atxmega256a3bu”, “atxmega256a3u”, “atxmega256c3”,
“atxmega256d3”, “atxmega384c3”, “atxmega384d3”.

“avrxmega7”
“XMEGA” devices with more than 128@tie{}KiB of program memory
and more than 64@tie{}KiB of RAM. mcu@tie{}= “atxmega128a1”,
“atxmega128a1u”, “atxmega128a4u”.

“avrtiny”
“TINY” Tiny core devices with 512@tie{}B up to 4@tie{}KiB of
program memory. mcu@tie{}= “attiny10”, “attiny20”, “attiny4”,
“attiny40”, “attiny5”, “attiny9”.

“avr1”
This ISA is implemented by the minimal AVR core and supported
for assembler only. mcu@tie{}= “attiny11”, “attiny12”,
“attiny15”, “attiny28”, “at90s1200”.

-maccumulate-args
Accumulate outgoing function arguments and acquire/release the
needed stack space for outgoing function arguments once in function
prologue/epilogue. Without this option, outgoing arguments are
pushed before calling a function and popped afterwards.

Popping the arguments after the function call can be expensive on
AVR so that accumulating the stack space might lead to smaller
executables because arguments need not to be removed from the stack
after such a function call.

This option can lead to reduced code size for functions that
perform several calls to functions that get their arguments on the
stack like calls to printf-like functions.

-mbranch-cost=cost
Set the branch costs for conditional branch instructions to cost.
Reasonable values for cost are small, non-negative integers. The
default branch cost is 0.

-mcall-prologues
Functions prologues/epilogues are expanded as calls to appropriate
subroutines. Code size is smaller.

-mint8
Assume “int” to be 8-bit integer. This affects the sizes of all
types: a “char” is 1 byte, an “int” is 1 byte, a “long” is 2 bytes,
and “long long” is 4 bytes. Please note that this option does not
conform to the C standards, but it results in smaller code size.

-mn-flash=num
Assume that the flash memory has a size of num times 64@tie{}KiB.

-mno-interrupts
Generated code is not compatible with hardware interrupts. Code
size is smaller.

-mrelax
Try to replace “CALL” resp. “JMP” instruction by the shorter
“RCALL” resp. “RJMP” instruction if applicable. Setting -mrelax
just adds the –mlink-relax option to the assembler’s command line
and the –relax option to the linker’s command line.

Jump relaxing is performed by the linker because jump offsets are
not known before code is located. Therefore, the assembler code
generated by the compiler is the same, but the instructions in the
executable may differ from instructions in the assembler code.

Relaxing must be turned on if linker stubs are needed, see the
section on “EIND” and linker stubs below.

-mrmw
Assume that the device supports the Read-Modify-Write instructions
“XCH”, “LAC”, “LAS” and “LAT”.

-msp8
Treat the stack pointer register as an 8-bit register, i.e. assume
the high byte of the stack pointer is zero. In general, you don’t
need to set this option by hand.

This option is used internally by the compiler to select and build
multilibs for architectures “avr2” and “avr25”. These
architectures mix devices with and without “SPH”. For any setting
other than -mmcu=avr2 or -mmcu=avr25 the compiler driver adds or
removes this option from the compiler proper’s command line,
because the compiler then knows if the device or architecture has
an 8-bit stack pointer and thus no “SPH” register or not.

-mstrict-X
Use address register “X” in a way proposed by the hardware. This
means that “X” is only used in indirect, post-increment or pre-
decrement addressing.

Without this option, the “X” register may be used in the same way
as “Y” or “Z” which then is emulated by additional instructions.
For example, loading a value with “X+const” addressing with a small
non-negative “const < 64" to a register Rn is performed as adiw r26, const ; X += const ld , X ; = *X
sbiw r26, const ; X -= const

-mtiny-stack
Only change the lower 8@tie{}bits of the stack pointer.

-nodevicelib
Don’t link against AVR-LibC’s device specific library “libdev.a”.

-Waddr-space-convert
Warn about conversions between address spaces in the case where the
resulting address space is not contained in the incoming address
space.

“EIND” and Devices with More Than 128 Ki Bytes of Flash

Pointers in the implementation are 16@tie{}bits wide. The address of a
function or label is represented as word address so that indirect jumps
and calls can target any code address in the range of 64@tie{}Ki words.

In order to facilitate indirect jump on devices with more than
128@tie{}Ki bytes of program memory space, there is a special function
register called “EIND” that serves as most significant part of the
target address when “EICALL” or “EIJMP” instructions are used.

Indirect jumps and calls on these devices are handled as follows by the
compiler and are subject to some limitations:

* The compiler never sets “EIND”.

* The compiler uses “EIND” implicitely in “EICALL”/”EIJMP”
instructions or might read “EIND” directly in order to emulate an
indirect call/jump by means of a “RET” instruction.

* The compiler assumes that “EIND” never changes during the startup
code or during the application. In particular, “EIND” is not
saved/restored in function or interrupt service routine
prologue/epilogue.

* For indirect calls to functions and computed goto, the linker
generates stubs. Stubs are jump pads sometimes also called
trampolines. Thus, the indirect call/jump jumps to such a stub.
The stub contains a direct jump to the desired address.

* Linker relaxation must be turned on so that the linker generates
the stubs correctly in all situations. See the compiler option
-mrelax and the linker option –relax. There are corner cases
where the linker is supposed to generate stubs but aborts without
relaxation and without a helpful error message.

* The default linker script is arranged for code with “EIND = 0”. If
code is supposed to work for a setup with “EIND != 0”, a custom
linker script has to be used in order to place the sections whose
name start with “.trampolines” into the segment where “EIND” points
to.

* The startup code from libgcc never sets “EIND”. Notice that
startup code is a blend of code from libgcc and AVR-LibC. For the
impact of AVR-LibC on “EIND”, see the AVR-LibC user manual
(“http://nongnu.org/avr-libc/user-manual/”).

* It is legitimate for user-specific startup code to set up “EIND”
early, for example by means of initialization code located in
section “.init3”. Such code runs prior to general startup code that
initializes RAM and calls constructors, but after the bit of
startup code from AVR-LibC that sets “EIND” to the segment where
the vector table is located.

#include

static void
__attribute__((section(“.init3”),naked,used,no_instrument_function))
init3_set_eind (void)
{
__asm volatile (“ldi r24,pm_hh8(__trampolines_start)\n\t”
“out %i0,r24” :: “n” (&EIND) : “r24″,”memory”);
}

The “__trampolines_start” symbol is defined in the linker script.

* Stubs are generated automatically by the linker if the following
two conditions are met:


(short for generate stubs) like so:

LDI r24, lo8(gs())
LDI r25, hi8(gs())


outside the segment where the stubs are located.

* The compiler emits such “gs” modifiers for code labels in the
following situations:




command-line option.


tables you can specify the -fno-jump-tables command-line
option.



* Jumping to non-symbolic addresses like so is not supported:

int main (void)
{
/* Call function at word address 0x2 */
return ((int(*)(void)) 0x2)();
}

Instead, a stub has to be set up, i.e. the function has to be
called through a symbol (“func_4” in the example):

int main (void)
{
extern int func_4 (void);

/* Call function at byte address 0x4 */
return func_4();
}

and the application be linked with -Wl,–defsym,func_4=0x4.
Alternatively, “func_4” can be defined in the linker script.

Handling of the “RAMPD”, “RAMPX”, “RAMPY” and “RAMPZ” Special Function
Registers

Some AVR devices support memories larger than the 64@tie{}KiB range
that can be accessed with 16-bit pointers. To access memory locations
outside this 64@tie{}KiB range, the contentent of a “RAMP” register is
used as high part of the address: The “X”, “Y”, “Z” address register is
concatenated with the “RAMPX”, “RAMPY”, “RAMPZ” special function
register, respectively, to get a wide address. Similarly, “RAMPD” is
used together with direct addressing.

* The startup code initializes the “RAMP” special function registers
with zero.

* If a AVR Named Address Spaces,named address space other than
generic or “__flash” is used, then “RAMPZ” is set as needed before
the operation.

* If the device supports RAM larger than 64@tie{}KiB and the compiler
needs to change “RAMPZ” to accomplish an operation, “RAMPZ” is
reset to zero after the operation.

* If the device comes with a specific “RAMP” register, the ISR
prologue/epilogue saves/restores that SFR and initializes it with
zero in case the ISR code might (implicitly) use it.

* RAM larger than 64@tie{}KiB is not supported by GCC for AVR
targets. If you use inline assembler to read from locations
outside the 16-bit address range and change one of the “RAMP”
registers, you must reset it to zero after the access.

AVR Built-in Macros

GCC defines several built-in macros so that the user code can test for
the presence or absence of features. Almost any of the following
built-in macros are deduced from device capabilities and thus triggered
by the -mmcu= command-line option.

For even more AVR-specific built-in macros see AVR Named Address Spaces
and AVR Built-in Functions.

“__AVR_ARCH__”
Build-in macro that resolves to a decimal number that identifies
the architecture and depends on the -mmcu=mcu option. Possible
values are:

2, 25, 3, 31, 35, 4, 5, 51, 6

for mcu=”avr2″, “avr25”, “avr3”, “avr31”, “avr35”, “avr4”, “avr5”,
“avr51”, “avr6″,

respectively and

100, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107

for mcu=”avrtiny”, “avrxmega2”, “avrxmega4”, “avrxmega5”,
“avrxmega6”, “avrxmega7”, respectively. If mcu specifies a device,
this built-in macro is set accordingly. For example, with
-mmcu=atmega8 the macro is defined to 4.

“__AVR_Device__”
Setting -mmcu=device defines this built-in macro which reflects the
device’s name. For example, -mmcu=atmega8 defines the built-in
macro “__AVR_ATmega8__”, -mmcu=attiny261a defines
“__AVR_ATtiny261A__”, etc.

The built-in macros’ names follow the scheme “__AVR_Device__” where
Device is the device name as from the AVR user manual. The
difference between Device in the built-in macro and device in
-mmcu=device is that the latter is always lowercase.

If device is not a device but only a core architecture like avr51,
this macro is not defined.

“__AVR_DEVICE_NAME__”
Setting -mmcu=device defines this built-in macro to the device’s
name. For example, with -mmcu=atmega8 the macro is defined to
“atmega8”.

If device is not a device but only a core architecture like avr51,
this macro is not defined.

“__AVR_XMEGA__”
The device / architecture belongs to the XMEGA family of devices.

“__AVR_HAVE_ELPM__”
The device has the the “ELPM” instruction.

“__AVR_HAVE_ELPMX__”
The device has the “ELPM Rn,Z” and “ELPM Rn,Z+” instructions.

“__AVR_HAVE_MOVW__”
The device has the “MOVW” instruction to perform 16-bit register-
register moves.

“__AVR_HAVE_LPMX__”
The device has the “LPM Rn,Z” and “LPM Rn,Z+” instructions.

“__AVR_HAVE_MUL__”
The device has a hardware multiplier.

“__AVR_HAVE_JMP_CALL__”
The device has the “JMP” and “CALL” instructions. This is the case
for devices with at least 16@tie{}KiB of program memory.

“__AVR_HAVE_EIJMP_EICALL__”
“__AVR_3_BYTE_PC__”
The device has the “EIJMP” and “EICALL” instructions. This is the
case for devices with more than 128@tie{}KiB of program memory.
This also means that the program counter (PC) is 3@tie{}bytes wide.

“__AVR_2_BYTE_PC__”
The program counter (PC) is 2@tie{}bytes wide. This is the case for
devices with up to 128@tie{}KiB of program memory.

“__AVR_HAVE_8BIT_SP__”
“__AVR_HAVE_16BIT_SP__”
The stack pointer (SP) register is treated as 8-bit respectively
16-bit register by the compiler. The definition of these macros is
affected by -mtiny-stack.

“__AVR_HAVE_SPH__”
“__AVR_SP8__”
The device has the SPH (high part of stack pointer) special
function register or has an 8-bit stack pointer, respectively. The
definition of these macros is affected by -mmcu= and in the cases
of -mmcu=avr2 and -mmcu=avr25 also by -msp8.

“__AVR_HAVE_RAMPD__”
“__AVR_HAVE_RAMPX__”
“__AVR_HAVE_RAMPY__”
“__AVR_HAVE_RAMPZ__”
The device has the “RAMPD”, “RAMPX”, “RAMPY”, “RAMPZ” special
function register, respectively.

“__NO_INTERRUPTS__”
This macro reflects the -mno-interrupts command-line option.

“__AVR_ERRATA_SKIP__”
“__AVR_ERRATA_SKIP_JMP_CALL__”
Some AVR devices (AT90S8515, ATmega103) must not skip 32-bit
instructions because of a hardware erratum. Skip instructions are
“SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBIS”, “SBIC” and “CPSE”. The second macro is
only defined if “__AVR_HAVE_JMP_CALL__” is also set.

“__AVR_ISA_RMW__”
The device has Read-Modify-Write instructions (XCH, LAC, LAS and
LAT).

“__AVR_SFR_OFFSET__=offset”
Instructions that can address I/O special function registers
directly like “IN”, “OUT”, “SBI”, etc. may use a different address
as if addressed by an instruction to access RAM like “LD” or “STS”.
This offset depends on the device architecture and has to be
subtracted from the RAM address in order to get the respective
I/O@tie{}address.

“__WITH_AVRLIBC__”
The compiler is configured to be used together with AVR-Libc. See
the –with-avrlibc configure option.

Blackfin Options

-mcpu=cpu[-sirevision] Specifies the name of the target Blackfin processor. Currently,
cpu can be one of bf512, bf514, bf516, bf518, bf522, bf523, bf524,
bf525, bf526, bf527, bf531, bf532, bf533, bf534, bf536, bf537,
bf538, bf539, bf542, bf544, bf547, bf548, bf549, bf542m, bf544m,
bf547m, bf548m, bf549m, bf561, bf592.

The optional sirevision specifies the silicon revision of the
target Blackfin processor. Any workarounds available for the
targeted silicon revision are enabled. If sirevision is none, no
workarounds are enabled. If sirevision is any, all workarounds for
the targeted processor are enabled. The “__SILICON_REVISION__”
macro is defined to two hexadecimal digits representing the major
and minor numbers in the silicon revision. If sirevision is none,
the “__SILICON_REVISION__” is not defined. If sirevision is any,
the “__SILICON_REVISION__” is defined to be 0xffff. If this
optional sirevision is not used, GCC assumes the latest known
silicon revision of the targeted Blackfin processor.

GCC defines a preprocessor macro for the specified cpu. For the
bfin-elf toolchain, this option causes the hardware BSP provided by
libgloss to be linked in if -msim is not given.

Without this option, bf532 is used as the processor by default.

Note that support for bf561 is incomplete. For bf561, only the
preprocessor macro is defined.

-msim
Specifies that the program will be run on the simulator. This
causes the simulator BSP provided by libgloss to be linked in.
This option has effect only for bfin-elf toolchain. Certain other
options, such as -mid-shared-library and -mfdpic, imply -msim.

-momit-leaf-frame-pointer
Don’t keep the frame pointer in a register for leaf functions.
This avoids the instructions to save, set up and restore frame
pointers and makes an extra register available in leaf functions.
The option -fomit-frame-pointer removes the frame pointer for all
functions, which might make debugging harder.

-mspecld-anomaly
When enabled, the compiler ensures that the generated code does not
contain speculative loads after jump instructions. If this option
is used, “__WORKAROUND_SPECULATIVE_LOADS” is defined.

-mno-specld-anomaly
Don’t generate extra code to prevent speculative loads from
occurring.

-mcsync-anomaly
When enabled, the compiler ensures that the generated code does not
contain CSYNC or SSYNC instructions too soon after conditional
branches. If this option is used, “__WORKAROUND_SPECULATIVE_SYNCS”
is defined.

-mno-csync-anomaly
Don’t generate extra code to prevent CSYNC or SSYNC instructions
from occurring too soon after a conditional branch.

-mlow-64k
When enabled, the compiler is free to take advantage of the
knowledge that the entire program fits into the low 64k of memory.

-mno-low-64k
Assume that the program is arbitrarily large. This is the default.

-mstack-check-l1
Do stack checking using information placed into L1 scratchpad
memory by the uClinux kernel.

-mid-shared-library
Generate code that supports shared libraries via the library ID
method. This allows for execute in place and shared libraries in
an environment without virtual memory management. This option
implies -fPIC. With a bfin-elf target, this option implies -msim.

-mno-id-shared-library
Generate code that doesn’t assume ID-based shared libraries are
being used. This is the default.

-mleaf-id-shared-library
Generate code that supports shared libraries via the library ID
method, but assumes that this library or executable won’t link
against any other ID shared libraries. That allows the compiler to
use faster code for jumps and calls.

-mno-leaf-id-shared-library
Do not assume that the code being compiled won’t link against any
ID shared libraries. Slower code is generated for jump and call
insns.

-mshared-library-id=n
Specifies the identification number of the ID-based shared library
being compiled. Specifying a value of 0 generates more compact
code; specifying other values forces the allocation of that number
to the current library but is no more space- or time-efficient than
omitting this option.

-msep-data
Generate code that allows the data segment to be located in a
different area of memory from the text segment. This allows for
execute in place in an environment without virtual memory
management by eliminating relocations against the text section.

-mno-sep-data
Generate code that assumes that the data segment follows the text
segment. This is the default.

-mlong-calls
-mno-long-calls
Tells the compiler to perform function calls by first loading the
address of the function into a register and then performing a
subroutine call on this register. This switch is needed if the
target function lies outside of the 24-bit addressing range of the
offset-based version of subroutine call instruction.

This feature is not enabled by default. Specifying -mno-long-calls
restores the default behavior. Note these switches have no effect
on how the compiler generates code to handle function calls via
function pointers.

-mfast-fp
Link with the fast floating-point library. This library relaxes
some of the IEEE floating-point standard’s rules for checking
inputs against Not-a-Number (NAN), in the interest of performance.

-minline-plt
Enable inlining of PLT entries in function calls to functions that
are not known to bind locally. It has no effect without -mfdpic.

-mmulticore
Build a standalone application for multicore Blackfin processors.
This option causes proper start files and link scripts supporting
multicore to be used, and defines the macro “__BFIN_MULTICORE”. It
can only be used with -mcpu=bf561[-sirevision].

This option can be used with -mcorea or -mcoreb, which selects the
one-application-per-core programming model. Without -mcorea or
-mcoreb, the single-application/dual-core programming model is
used. In this model, the main function of Core B should be named as
“coreb_main”.

If this option is not used, the single-core application programming
model is used.

-mcorea
Build a standalone application for Core A of BF561 when using the
one-application-per-core programming model. Proper start files and
link scripts are used to support Core A, and the macro
“__BFIN_COREA” is defined. This option can only be used in
conjunction with -mmulticore.

-mcoreb
Build a standalone application for Core B of BF561 when using the
one-application-per-core programming model. Proper start files and
link scripts are used to support Core B, and the macro
“__BFIN_COREB” is defined. When this option is used, “coreb_main”
should be used instead of “main”. This option can only be used in
conjunction with -mmulticore.

-msdram
Build a standalone application for SDRAM. Proper start files and
link scripts are used to put the application into SDRAM, and the
macro “__BFIN_SDRAM” is defined. The loader should initialize
SDRAM before loading the application.

-micplb
Assume that ICPLBs are enabled at run time. This has an effect on
certain anomaly workarounds. For Linux targets, the default is to
assume ICPLBs are enabled; for standalone applications the default
is off.

C6X Options

-march=name
This specifies the name of the target architecture. GCC uses this
name to determine what kind of instructions it can emit when
generating assembly code. Permissible names are: c62x, c64x,
c64x+, c67x, c67x+, c674x.

-mbig-endian
Generate code for a big-endian target.

-mlittle-endian
Generate code for a little-endian target. This is the default.

-msim
Choose startup files and linker script suitable for the simulator.

-msdata=default
Put small global and static data in the “.neardata” section, which
is pointed to by register “B14”. Put small uninitialized global
and static data in the “.bss” section, which is adjacent to the
“.neardata” section. Put small read-only data into the “.rodata”
section. The corresponding sections used for large pieces of data
are “.fardata”, “.far” and “.const”.

-msdata=all
Put all data, not just small objects, into the sections reserved
for small data, and use addressing relative to the “B14” register
to access them.

-msdata=none
Make no use of the sections reserved for small data, and use
absolute addresses to access all data. Put all initialized global
and static data in the “.fardata” section, and all uninitialized
data in the “.far” section. Put all constant data into the
“.const” section.

CRIS Options

These options are defined specifically for the CRIS ports.

-march=architecture-type
-mcpu=architecture-type
Generate code for the specified architecture. The choices for
architecture-type are v3, v8 and v10 for respectively ETRAX 4,
ETRAX 100, and ETRAX 100 LX. Default is v0 except for cris-axis-
linux-gnu, where the default is v10.

-mtune=architecture-type
Tune to architecture-type everything applicable about the generated
code, except for the ABI and the set of available instructions.
The choices for architecture-type are the same as for
-march=architecture-type.

-mmax-stack-frame=n
Warn when the stack frame of a function exceeds n bytes.

-metrax4
-metrax100
The options -metrax4 and -metrax100 are synonyms for -march=v3 and
-march=v8 respectively.

-mmul-bug-workaround
-mno-mul-bug-workaround
Work around a bug in the “muls” and “mulu” instructions for CPU
models where it applies. This option is active by default.

-mpdebug
Enable CRIS-specific verbose debug-related information in the
assembly code. This option also has the effect of turning off the
#NO_APP formatted-code indicator to the assembler at the beginning
of the assembly file.

-mcc-init
Do not use condition-code results from previous instruction; always
emit compare and test instructions before use of condition codes.

-mno-side-effects
Do not emit instructions with side effects in addressing modes
other than post-increment.

-mstack-align
-mno-stack-align
-mdata-align
-mno-data-align
-mconst-align
-mno-const-align
These options (no- options) arrange (eliminate arrangements) for
the stack frame, individual data and constants to be aligned for
the maximum single data access size for the chosen CPU model. The
default is to arrange for 32-bit alignment. ABI details such as
structure layout are not affected by these options.

-m32-bit
-m16-bit
-m8-bit
Similar to the stack- data- and const-align options above, these
options arrange for stack frame, writable data and constants to all
be 32-bit, 16-bit or 8-bit aligned. The default is 32-bit
alignment.

-mno-prologue-epilogue
-mprologue-epilogue
With -mno-prologue-epilogue, the normal function prologue and
epilogue which set up the stack frame are omitted and no return
instructions or return sequences are generated in the code. Use
this option only together with visual inspection of the compiled
code: no warnings or errors are generated when call-saved registers
must be saved, or storage for local variables needs to be
allocated.

-mno-gotplt
-mgotplt
With -fpic and -fPIC, don’t generate (do generate) instruction
sequences that load addresses for functions from the PLT part of
the GOT rather than (traditional on other architectures) calls to
the PLT. The default is -mgotplt.

-melf
Legacy no-op option only recognized with the cris-axis-elf and
cris-axis-linux-gnu targets.

-mlinux
Legacy no-op option only recognized with the cris-axis-linux-gnu
target.

-sim
This option, recognized for the cris-axis-elf, arranges to link
with input-output functions from a simulator library. Code,
initialized data and zero-initialized data are allocated
consecutively.

-sim2
Like -sim, but pass linker options to locate initialized data at
0x40000000 and zero-initialized data at 0x80000000.

CR16 Options

These options are defined specifically for the CR16 ports.

-mmac
Enable the use of multiply-accumulate instructions. Disabled by
default.

-mcr16cplus
-mcr16c
Generate code for CR16C or CR16C+ architecture. CR16C+ architecture
is default.

-msim
Links the library libsim.a which is in compatible with simulator.
Applicable to ELF compiler only.

-mint32
Choose integer type as 32-bit wide.

-mbit-ops
Generates “sbit”/”cbit” instructions for bit manipulations.

-mdata-model=model
Choose a data model. The choices for model are near, far or medium.
medium is default. However, far is not valid with -mcr16c, as the
CR16C architecture does not support the far data model.

Darwin Options

These options are defined for all architectures running the Darwin
operating system.

FSF GCC on Darwin does not create “fat” object files; it creates an
object file for the single architecture that GCC was built to target.
Apple’s GCC on Darwin does create “fat” files if multiple -arch options
are used; it does so by running the compiler or linker multiple times
and joining the results together with lipo.

The subtype of the file created (like ppc7400 or ppc970 or i686) is
determined by the flags that specify the ISA that GCC is targeting,
like -mcpu or -march. The -force_cpusubtype_ALL option can be used to
override this.

The Darwin tools vary in their behavior when presented with an ISA
mismatch. The assembler, as, only permits instructions to be used that
are valid for the subtype of the file it is generating, so you cannot
put 64-bit instructions in a ppc750 object file. The linker for shared
libraries, /usr/bin/libtool, fails and prints an error if asked to
create a shared library with a less restrictive subtype than its input
files (for instance, trying to put a ppc970 object file in a ppc7400
library). The linker for executables, ld, quietly gives the executable
the most restrictive subtype of any of its input files.

-Fdir
Add the framework directory dir to the head of the list of
directories to be searched for header files. These directories are
interleaved with those specified by -I options and are scanned in a
left-to-right order.

A framework directory is a directory with frameworks in it. A
framework is a directory with a Headers and/or PrivateHeaders
directory contained directly in it that ends in .framework. The
name of a framework is the name of this directory excluding the
.framework. Headers associated with the framework are found in one
of those two directories, with Headers being searched first. A
subframework is a framework directory that is in a framework’s
Frameworks directory. Includes of subframework headers can only
appear in a header of a framework that contains the subframework,
or in a sibling subframework header. Two subframeworks are
siblings if they occur in the same framework. A subframework
should not have the same name as a framework; a warning is issued
if this is violated. Currently a subframework cannot have
subframeworks; in the future, the mechanism may be extended to
support this. The standard frameworks can be found in
/System/Library/Frameworks and /Library/Frameworks. An example
include looks like “#include “, where Framework
denotes the name of the framework and header.h is found in the
PrivateHeaders or Headers directory.

-iframeworkdir
Like -F except the directory is a treated as a system directory.
The main difference between this -iframework and -F is that with
-iframework the compiler does not warn about constructs contained
within header files found via dir. This option is valid only for
the C family of languages.

-gused
Emit debugging information for symbols that are used. For stabs
debugging format, this enables -feliminate-unused-debug-symbols.
This is by default ON.

-gfull
Emit debugging information for all symbols and types.

-mmacosx-version-min=version
The earliest version of MacOS X that this executable will run on is
version. Typical values of version include 10.1, 10.2, and 10.3.9.

If the compiler was built to use the system’s headers by default,
then the default for this option is the system version on which the
compiler is running, otherwise the default is to make choices that
are compatible with as many systems and code bases as possible.

-mkernel
Enable kernel development mode. The -mkernel option sets -static,
-fno-common, -fno-use-cxa-atexit, -fno-exceptions,
-fno-non-call-exceptions, -fapple-kext, -fno-weak and -fno-rtti
where applicable. This mode also sets -mno-altivec, -msoft-float,
-fno-builtin and -mlong-branch for PowerPC targets.

-mone-byte-bool
Override the defaults for “bool” so that “sizeof(bool)==1”. By
default “sizeof(bool)” is 4 when compiling for Darwin/PowerPC and 1
when compiling for Darwin/x86, so this option has no effect on x86.

Warning: The -mone-byte-bool switch causes GCC to generate code
that is not binary compatible with code generated without that
switch. Using this switch may require recompiling all other
modules in a program, including system libraries. Use this switch
to conform to a non-default data model.

-mfix-and-continue
-ffix-and-continue
-findirect-data
Generate code suitable for fast turnaround development, such as to
allow GDB to dynamically load .o files into already-running
programs. -findirect-data and -ffix-and-continue are provided for
backwards compatibility.

-all_load
Loads all members of static archive libraries. See man ld for
more information.

-arch_errors_fatal
Cause the errors having to do with files that have the wrong
architecture to be fatal.

-bind_at_load
Causes the output file to be marked such that the dynamic linker
will bind all undefined references when the file is loaded or
launched.

-bundle
Produce a Mach-o bundle format file. See man ld for more
information.

-bundle_loader executable
This option specifies the executable that will load the build
output file being linked. See man ld for more information.

-dynamiclib
When passed this option, GCC produces a dynamic library instead of
an executable when linking, using the Darwin libtool command.

-force_cpusubtype_ALL
This causes GCC’s output file to have the ALL subtype, instead of
one controlled by the -mcpu or -march option.

-allowable_client client_name
-client_name
-compatibility_version
-current_version
-dead_strip
-dependency-file
-dylib_file
-dylinker_install_name
-dynamic
-exported_symbols_list
-filelist
-flat_namespace
-force_flat_namespace
-headerpad_max_install_names
-image_base
-init
-install_name
-keep_private_externs
-multi_module
-multiply_defined
-multiply_defined_unused
-noall_load
-no_dead_strip_inits_and_terms
-nofixprebinding
-nomultidefs
-noprebind
-noseglinkedit
-pagezero_size
-prebind
-prebind_all_twolevel_modules
-private_bundle
-read_only_relocs
-sectalign
-sectobjectsymbols
-whyload
-seg1addr
-sectcreate
-sectobjectsymbols
-sectorder
-segaddr
-segs_read_only_addr
-segs_read_write_addr
-seg_addr_table
-seg_addr_table_filename
-seglinkedit
-segprot
-segs_read_only_addr
-segs_read_write_addr
-single_module
-static
-sub_library
-sub_umbrella
-twolevel_namespace
-umbrella
-undefined
-unexported_symbols_list
-weak_reference_mismatches
-whatsloaded
These options are passed to the Darwin linker. The Darwin linker
man page describes them in detail.

DEC Alpha Options

These -m options are defined for the DEC Alpha implementations:

-mno-soft-float
-msoft-float
Use (do not use) the hardware floating-point instructions for
floating-point operations. When -msoft-float is specified,
functions in libgcc.a are used to perform floating-point
operations. Unless they are replaced by routines that emulate the
floating-point operations, or compiled in such a way as to call
such emulations routines, these routines issue floating-point
operations. If you are compiling for an Alpha without floating-
point operations, you must ensure that the library is built so as
not to call them.

Note that Alpha implementations without floating-point operations
are required to have floating-point registers.

-mfp-reg
-mno-fp-regs
Generate code that uses (does not use) the floating-point register
set. -mno-fp-regs implies -msoft-float. If the floating-point
register set is not used, floating-point operands are passed in
integer registers as if they were integers and floating-point
results are passed in $0 instead of $f0. This is a non-standard
calling sequence, so any function with a floating-point argument or
return value called by code compiled with -mno-fp-regs must also be
compiled with that option.

A typical use of this option is building a kernel that does not
use, and hence need not save and restore, any floating-point
registers.

-mieee
The Alpha architecture implements floating-point hardware optimized
for maximum performance. It is mostly compliant with the IEEE
floating-point standard. However, for full compliance, software
assistance is required. This option generates code fully IEEE-
compliant code except that the inexact-flag is not maintained (see
below). If this option is turned on, the preprocessor macro
“_IEEE_FP” is defined during compilation. The resulting code is
less efficient but is able to correctly support denormalized
numbers and exceptional IEEE values such as not-a-number and
plus/minus infinity. Other Alpha compilers call this option
-ieee_with_no_inexact.

-mieee-with-inexact
This is like -mieee except the generated code also maintains the
IEEE inexact-flag. Turning on this option causes the generated
code to implement fully-compliant IEEE math. In addition to
“_IEEE_FP”, “_IEEE_FP_EXACT” is defined as a preprocessor macro.
On some Alpha implementations the resulting code may execute
significantly slower than the code generated by default. Since
there is very little code that depends on the inexact-flag, you
should normally not specify this option. Other Alpha compilers
call this option -ieee_with_inexact.

-mfp-trap-mode=trap-mode
This option controls what floating-point related traps are enabled.
Other Alpha compilers call this option -fptm trap-mode. The trap
mode can be set to one of four values:

n This is the default (normal) setting. The only traps that are
enabled are the ones that cannot be disabled in software (e.g.,
division by zero trap).

u In addition to the traps enabled by n, underflow traps are
enabled as well.

su Like u, but the instructions are marked to be safe for software
completion (see Alpha architecture manual for details).

sui Like su, but inexact traps are enabled as well.

-mfp-rounding-mode=rounding-mode
Selects the IEEE rounding mode. Other Alpha compilers call this
option -fprm rounding-mode. The rounding-mode can be one of:

n Normal IEEE rounding mode. Floating-point numbers are rounded
towards the nearest machine number or towards the even machine
number in case of a tie.

m Round towards minus infinity.

c Chopped rounding mode. Floating-point numbers are rounded
towards zero.

d Dynamic rounding mode. A field in the floating-point control
register (fpcr, see Alpha architecture reference manual)
controls the rounding mode in effect. The C library
initializes this register for rounding towards plus infinity.
Thus, unless your program modifies the fpcr, d corresponds to
round towards plus infinity.

-mtrap-precision=trap-precision
In the Alpha architecture, floating-point traps are imprecise.
This means without software assistance it is impossible to recover
from a floating trap and program execution normally needs to be
terminated. GCC can generate code that can assist operating system
trap handlers in determining the exact location that caused a
floating-point trap. Depending on the requirements of an
application, different levels of precisions can be selected:

p Program precision. This option is the default and means a trap
handler can only identify which program caused a floating-point
exception.

f Function precision. The trap handler can determine the
function that caused a floating-point exception.

i Instruction precision. The trap handler can determine the
exact instruction that caused a floating-point exception.

Other Alpha compilers provide the equivalent options called
-scope_safe and -resumption_safe.

-mieee-conformant
This option marks the generated code as IEEE conformant. You must
not use this option unless you also specify -mtrap-precision=i and
either -mfp-trap-mode=su or -mfp-trap-mode=sui. Its only effect is
to emit the line .eflag 48 in the function prologue of the
generated assembly file.

-mbuild-constants
Normally GCC examines a 32- or 64-bit integer constant to see if it
can construct it from smaller constants in two or three
instructions. If it cannot, it outputs the constant as a literal
and generates code to load it from the data segment at run time.

Use this option to require GCC to construct all integer constants
using code, even if it takes more instructions (the maximum is
six).

You typically use this option to build a shared library dynamic
loader. Itself a shared library, it must relocate itself in memory
before it can find the variables and constants in its own data
segment.

-mbwx
-mno-bwx
-mcix
-mno-cix
-mfix
-mno-fix
-mmax
-mno-max
Indicate whether GCC should generate code to use the optional BWX,
CIX, FIX and MAX instruction sets. The default is to use the
instruction sets supported by the CPU type specified via -mcpu=
option or that of the CPU on which GCC was built if none is
specified.

-mfloat-vax
-mfloat-ieee
Generate code that uses (does not use) VAX F and G floating-point
arithmetic instead of IEEE single and double precision.

-mexplicit-relocs
-mno-explicit-relocs
Older Alpha assemblers provided no way to generate symbol
relocations except via assembler macros. Use of these macros does
not allow optimal instruction scheduling. GNU binutils as of
version 2.12 supports a new syntax that allows the compiler to
explicitly mark which relocations should apply to which
instructions. This option is mostly useful for debugging, as GCC
detects the capabilities of the assembler when it is built and sets
the default accordingly.

-msmall-data
-mlarge-data
When -mexplicit-relocs is in effect, static data is accessed via
gp-relative relocations. When -msmall-data is used, objects 8
bytes long or smaller are placed in a small data area (the “.sdata”
and “.sbss” sections) and are accessed via 16-bit relocations off
of the $gp register. This limits the size of the small data area
to 64KB, but allows the variables to be directly accessed via a
single instruction.

The default is -mlarge-data. With this option the data area is
limited to just below 2GB. Programs that require more than 2GB of
data must use “malloc” or “mmap” to allocate the data in the heap
instead of in the program’s data segment.

When generating code for shared libraries, -fpic implies
-msmall-data and -fPIC implies -mlarge-data.

-msmall-text
-mlarge-text
When -msmall-text is used, the compiler assumes that the code of
the entire program (or shared library) fits in 4MB, and is thus
reachable with a branch instruction. When -msmall-data is used,
the compiler can assume that all local symbols share the same $gp
value, and thus reduce the number of instructions required for a
function call from 4 to 1.

The default is -mlarge-text.

-mcpu=cpu_type
Set the instruction set and instruction scheduling parameters for
machine type cpu_type. You can specify either the EV style name or
the corresponding chip number. GCC supports scheduling parameters
for the EV4, EV5 and EV6 family of processors and chooses the
default values for the instruction set from the processor you
specify. If you do not specify a processor type, GCC defaults to
the processor on which the compiler was built.

Supported values for cpu_type are

ev4
ev45
21064
Schedules as an EV4 and has no instruction set extensions.

ev5
21164
Schedules as an EV5 and has no instruction set extensions.

ev56
21164a
Schedules as an EV5 and supports the BWX extension.

pca56
21164pc
21164PC
Schedules as an EV5 and supports the BWX and MAX extensions.

ev6
21264
Schedules as an EV6 and supports the BWX, FIX, and MAX
extensions.

ev67
21264a
Schedules as an EV6 and supports the BWX, CIX, FIX, and MAX
extensions.

Native toolchains also support the value native, which selects the
best architecture option for the host processor. -mcpu=native has
no effect if GCC does not recognize the processor.

-mtune=cpu_type
Set only the instruction scheduling parameters for machine type
cpu_type. The instruction set is not changed.

Native toolchains also support the value native, which selects the
best architecture option for the host processor. -mtune=native has
no effect if GCC does not recognize the processor.

-mmemory-latency=time
Sets the latency the scheduler should assume for typical memory
references as seen by the application. This number is highly
dependent on the memory access patterns used by the application and
the size of the external cache on the machine.

Valid options for time are

number
A decimal number representing clock cycles.

L1
L2
L3
main
The compiler contains estimates of the number of clock cycles
for “typical” EV4 & EV5 hardware for the Level 1, 2 & 3 caches
(also called Dcache, Scache, and Bcache), as well as to main
memory. Note that L3 is only valid for EV5.

FR30 Options

These options are defined specifically for the FR30 port.

-msmall-model
Use the small address space model. This can produce smaller code,
but it does assume that all symbolic values and addresses fit into
a 20-bit range.

-mno-lsim
Assume that runtime support has been provided and so there is no
need to include the simulator library (libsim.a) on the linker
command line.

FRV Options

-mgpr-32
Only use the first 32 general-purpose registers.

-mgpr-64
Use all 64 general-purpose registers.

-mfpr-32
Use only the first 32 floating-point registers.

-mfpr-64
Use all 64 floating-point registers.

-mhard-float
Use hardware instructions for floating-point operations.

-msoft-float
Use library routines for floating-point operations.

-malloc-cc
Dynamically allocate condition code registers.

-mfixed-cc
Do not try to dynamically allocate condition code registers, only
use “icc0” and “fcc0”.

-mdword
Change ABI to use double word insns.

-mno-dword
Do not use double word instructions.

-mdouble
Use floating-point double instructions.

-mno-double
Do not use floating-point double instructions.

-mmedia
Use media instructions.

-mno-media
Do not use media instructions.

-mmuladd
Use multiply and add/subtract instructions.

-mno-muladd
Do not use multiply and add/subtract instructions.

-mfdpic
Select the FDPIC ABI, which uses function descriptors to represent
pointers to functions. Without any PIC/PIE-related options, it
implies -fPIE. With -fpic or -fpie, it assumes GOT entries and
small data are within a 12-bit range from the GOT base address;
with -fPIC or -fPIE, GOT offsets are computed with 32 bits. With a
bfin-elf target, this option implies -msim.

-minline-plt
Enable inlining of PLT entries in function calls to functions that
are not known to bind locally. It has no effect without -mfdpic.
It’s enabled by default if optimizing for speed and compiling for
shared libraries (i.e., -fPIC or -fpic), or when an optimization
option such as -O3 or above is present in the command line.

-mTLS
Assume a large TLS segment when generating thread-local code.

-mtls
Do not assume a large TLS segment when generating thread-local
code.

-mgprel-ro
Enable the use of “GPREL” relocations in the FDPIC ABI for data
that is known to be in read-only sections. It’s enabled by
default, except for -fpic or -fpie: even though it may help make
the global offset table smaller, it trades 1 instruction for 4.
With -fPIC or -fPIE, it trades 3 instructions for 4, one of which
may be shared by multiple symbols, and it avoids the need for a GOT
entry for the referenced symbol, so it’s more likely to be a win.
If it is not, -mno-gprel-ro can be used to disable it.

-multilib-library-pic
Link with the (library, not FD) pic libraries. It’s implied by
-mlibrary-pic, as well as by -fPIC and -fpic without -mfdpic. You
should never have to use it explicitly.

-mlinked-fp
Follow the EABI requirement of always creating a frame pointer
whenever a stack frame is allocated. This option is enabled by
default and can be disabled with -mno-linked-fp.

-mlong-calls
Use indirect addressing to call functions outside the current
compilation unit. This allows the functions to be placed anywhere
within the 32-bit address space.

-malign-labels
Try to align labels to an 8-byte boundary by inserting NOPs into
the previous packet. This option only has an effect when VLIW
packing is enabled. It doesn’t create new packets; it merely adds
NOPs to existing ones.

-mlibrary-pic
Generate position-independent EABI code.

-macc-4
Use only the first four media accumulator registers.

-macc-8
Use all eight media accumulator registers.

-mpack
Pack VLIW instructions.

-mno-pack
Do not pack VLIW instructions.

-mno-eflags
Do not mark ABI switches in e_flags.

-mcond-move
Enable the use of conditional-move instructions (default).

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be
removed in a future version.

-mno-cond-move
Disable the use of conditional-move instructions.

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be
removed in a future version.

-mscc
Enable the use of conditional set instructions (default).

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be
removed in a future version.

-mno-scc
Disable the use of conditional set instructions.

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be
removed in a future version.

-mcond-exec
Enable the use of conditional execution (default).

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be
removed in a future version.

-mno-cond-exec
Disable the use of conditional execution.

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be
removed in a future version.

-mvliw-branch
Run a pass to pack branches into VLIW instructions (default).

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be
removed in a future version.

-mno-vliw-branch
Do not run a pass to pack branches into VLIW instructions.

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be
removed in a future version.

-mmulti-cond-exec
Enable optimization of “&&” and “||” in conditional execution
(default).

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be
removed in a future version.

-mno-multi-cond-exec
Disable optimization of “&&” and “||” in conditional execution.

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be
removed in a future version.

-mnested-cond-exec
Enable nested conditional execution optimizations (default).

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be
removed in a future version.

-mno-nested-cond-exec
Disable nested conditional execution optimizations.

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be
removed in a future version.

-moptimize-membar
This switch removes redundant “membar” instructions from the
compiler-generated code. It is enabled by default.

-mno-optimize-membar
This switch disables the automatic removal of redundant “membar”
instructions from the generated code.

-mtomcat-stats
Cause gas to print out tomcat statistics.

-mcpu=cpu
Select the processor type for which to generate code. Possible
values are frv, fr550, tomcat, fr500, fr450, fr405, fr400, fr300
and simple.

GNU/Linux Options

These -m options are defined for GNU/Linux targets:

-mglibc
Use the GNU C library. This is the default except on
*-*-linux-*uclibc* and *-*-linux-*android* targets.

-muclibc
Use uClibc C library. This is the default on *-*-linux-*uclibc*
targets.

-mbionic
Use Bionic C library. This is the default on *-*-linux-*android*
targets.

-mandroid
Compile code compatible with Android platform. This is the default
on *-*-linux-*android* targets.

When compiling, this option enables -mbionic, -fPIC,
-fno-exceptions and -fno-rtti by default. When linking, this
option makes the GCC driver pass Android-specific options to the
linker. Finally, this option causes the preprocessor macro
“__ANDROID__” to be defined.

-tno-android-cc
Disable compilation effects of -mandroid, i.e., do not enable
-mbionic, -fPIC, -fno-exceptions and -fno-rtti by default.

-tno-android-ld
Disable linking effects of -mandroid, i.e., pass standard Linux
linking options to the linker.

H8/300 Options

These -m options are defined for the H8/300 implementations:

-mrelax
Shorten some address references at link time, when possible; uses
the linker option -relax.

-mh Generate code for the H8/300H.

-ms Generate code for the H8S.

-mn Generate code for the H8S and H8/300H in the normal mode. This
switch must be used either with -mh or -ms.

-ms2600
Generate code for the H8S/2600. This switch must be used with -ms.

-mexr
Extended registers are stored on stack before execution of function
with monitor attribute. Default option is -mexr. This option is
valid only for H8S targets.

-mno-exr
Extended registers are not stored on stack before execution of
function with monitor attribute. Default option is -mno-exr. This
option is valid only for H8S targets.

-mint32
Make “int” data 32 bits by default.

-malign-300
On the H8/300H and H8S, use the same alignment rules as for the
H8/300. The default for the H8/300H and H8S is to align longs and
floats on 4-byte boundaries. -malign-300 causes them to be aligned
on 2-byte boundaries. This option has no effect on the H8/300.

HPPA Options

These -m options are defined for the HPPA family of computers:

-march=architecture-type
Generate code for the specified architecture. The choices for
architecture-type are 1.0 for PA 1.0, 1.1 for PA 1.1, and 2.0 for
PA 2.0 processors. Refer to /usr/lib/sched.models on an HP-UX
system to determine the proper architecture option for your
machine. Code compiled for lower numbered architectures runs on
higher numbered architectures, but not the other way around.

-mpa-risc-1-0
-mpa-risc-1-1
-mpa-risc-2-0
Synonyms for -march=1.0, -march=1.1, and -march=2.0 respectively.

-mjump-in-delay
This option is ignored and provided for compatibility purposes
only.

-mdisable-fpregs
Prevent floating-point registers from being used in any manner.
This is necessary for compiling kernels that perform lazy context
switching of floating-point registers. If you use this option and
attempt to perform floating-point operations, the compiler aborts.

-mdisable-indexing
Prevent the compiler from using indexing address modes. This
avoids some rather obscure problems when compiling MIG generated
code under MACH.

-mno-space-regs
Generate code that assumes the target has no space registers. This
allows GCC to generate faster indirect calls and use unscaled index
address modes.

Such code is suitable for level 0 PA systems and kernels.

-mfast-indirect-calls
Generate code that assumes calls never cross space boundaries.
This allows GCC to emit code that performs faster indirect calls.

This option does not work in the presence of shared libraries or
nested functions.

-mfixed-range=register-range
Generate code treating the given register range as fixed registers.
A fixed register is one that the register allocator cannot use.
This is useful when compiling kernel code. A register range is
specified as two registers separated by a dash. Multiple register
ranges can be specified separated by a comma.

-mlong-load-store
Generate 3-instruction load and store sequences as sometimes
required by the HP-UX 10 linker. This is equivalent to the +k
option to the HP compilers.

-mportable-runtime
Use the portable calling conventions proposed by HP for ELF
systems.

-mgas
Enable the use of assembler directives only GAS understands.

-mschedule=cpu-type
Schedule code according to the constraints for the machine type
cpu-type. The choices for cpu-type are 700 7100, 7100LC, 7200,
7300 and 8000. Refer to /usr/lib/sched.models on an HP-UX system
to determine the proper scheduling option for your machine. The
default scheduling is 8000.

-mlinker-opt
Enable the optimization pass in the HP-UX linker. Note this makes
symbolic debugging impossible. It also triggers a bug in the HP-UX
8 and HP-UX 9 linkers in which they give bogus error messages when
linking some programs.

-msoft-float
Generate output containing library calls for floating point.
Warning: the requisite libraries are not available for all HPPA
targets. Normally the facilities of the machine’s usual C compiler
are used, but this cannot be done directly in cross-compilation.
You must make your own arrangements to provide suitable library
functions for cross-compilation.

-msoft-float changes the calling convention in the output file;
therefore, it is only useful if you compile all of a program with
this option. In particular, you need to compile libgcc.a, the
library that comes with GCC, with -msoft-float in order for this to
work.

-msio
Generate the predefine, “_SIO”, for server IO. The default is
-mwsio. This generates the predefines, “__hp9000s700”,
“__hp9000s700__” and “_WSIO”, for workstation IO. These options
are available under HP-UX and HI-UX.

-mgnu-ld
Use options specific to GNU ld. This passes -shared to ld when
building a shared library. It is the default when GCC is
configured, explicitly or implicitly, with the GNU linker. This
option does not affect which ld is called; it only changes what
parameters are passed to that ld. The ld that is called is
determined by the –with-ld configure option, GCC’s program search
path, and finally by the user’s PATH. The linker used by GCC can
be printed using which `gcc -print-prog-name=ld`. This option is
only available on the 64-bit HP-UX GCC, i.e. configured with
hppa*64*-*-hpux*.

-mhp-ld
Use options specific to HP ld. This passes -b to ld when building
a shared library and passes +Accept TypeMismatch to ld on all
links. It is the default when GCC is configured, explicitly or
implicitly, with the HP linker. This option does not affect which
ld is called; it only changes what parameters are passed to that
ld. The ld that is called is determined by the –with-ld configure
option, GCC’s program search path, and finally by the user’s PATH.
The linker used by GCC can be printed using which `gcc
-print-prog-name=ld`. This option is only available on the 64-bit
HP-UX GCC, i.e. configured with hppa*64*-*-hpux*.

-mlong-calls
Generate code that uses long call sequences. This ensures that a
call is always able to reach linker generated stubs. The default
is to generate long calls only when the distance from the call site
to the beginning of the function or translation unit, as the case
may be, exceeds a predefined limit set by the branch type being
used. The limits for normal calls are 7,600,000 and 240,000 bytes,
respectively for the PA 2.0 and PA 1.X architectures. Sibcalls are
always limited at 240,000 bytes.

Distances are measured from the beginning of functions when using
the -ffunction-sections option, or when using the -mgas and
-mno-portable-runtime options together under HP-UX with the SOM
linker.

It is normally not desirable to use this option as it degrades
performance. However, it may be useful in large applications,
particularly when partial linking is used to build the application.

The types of long calls used depends on the capabilities of the
assembler and linker, and the type of code being generated. The
impact on systems that support long absolute calls, and long pic
symbol-difference or pc-relative calls should be relatively small.
However, an indirect call is used on 32-bit ELF systems in pic code
and it is quite long.

-munix=unix-std
Generate compiler predefines and select a startfile for the
specified UNIX standard. The choices for unix-std are 93, 95 and
98. 93 is supported on all HP-UX versions. 95 is available on HP-
UX 10.10 and later. 98 is available on HP-UX 11.11 and later. The
default values are 93 for HP-UX 10.00, 95 for HP-UX 10.10 though to
11.00, and 98 for HP-UX 11.11 and later.

-munix=93 provides the same predefines as GCC 3.3 and 3.4.
-munix=95 provides additional predefines for “XOPEN_UNIX” and
“_XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED”, and the startfile unix95.o. -munix=98
provides additional predefines for “_XOPEN_UNIX”,
“_XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED”, “_INCLUDE__STDC_A1_SOURCE” and
“_INCLUDE_XOPEN_SOURCE_500”, and the startfile unix98.o.

It is important to note that this option changes the interfaces for
various library routines. It also affects the operational behavior
of the C library. Thus, extreme care is needed in using this
option.

Library code that is intended to operate with more than one UNIX
standard must test, set and restore the variable
“__xpg4_extended_mask” as appropriate. Most GNU software doesn’t
provide this capability.

-nolibdld
Suppress the generation of link options to search libdld.sl when
the -static option is specified on HP-UX 10 and later.

-static
The HP-UX implementation of setlocale in libc has a dependency on
libdld.sl. There isn’t an archive version of libdld.sl. Thus,
when the -static option is specified, special link options are
needed to resolve this dependency.

On HP-UX 10 and later, the GCC driver adds the necessary options to
link with libdld.sl when the -static option is specified. This
causes the resulting binary to be dynamic. On the 64-bit port, the
linkers generate dynamic binaries by default in any case. The
-nolibdld option can be used to prevent the GCC driver from adding
these link options.

-threads
Add support for multithreading with the dce thread library under
HP-UX. This option sets flags for both the preprocessor and
linker.

IA-64 Options

These are the -m options defined for the Intel IA-64 architecture.

-mbig-endian
Generate code for a big-endian target. This is the default for HP-
UX.

-mlittle-endian
Generate code for a little-endian target. This is the default for
AIX5 and GNU/Linux.

-mgnu-as
-mno-gnu-as
Generate (or don’t) code for the GNU assembler. This is the
default.

-mgnu-ld
-mno-gnu-ld
Generate (or don’t) code for the GNU linker. This is the default.

-mno-pic
Generate code that does not use a global pointer register. The
result is not position independent code, and violates the IA-64
ABI.

-mvolatile-asm-stop
-mno-volatile-asm-stop
Generate (or don’t) a stop bit immediately before and after
volatile asm statements.

-mregister-names
-mno-register-names
Generate (or don’t) in, loc, and out register names for the stacked
registers. This may make assembler output more readable.

-mno-sdata
-msdata
Disable (or enable) optimizations that use the small data section.
This may be useful for working around optimizer bugs.

-mconstant-gp
Generate code that uses a single constant global pointer value.
This is useful when compiling kernel code.

-mauto-pic
Generate code that is self-relocatable. This implies
-mconstant-gp. This is useful when compiling firmware code.

-minline-float-divide-min-latency
Generate code for inline divides of floating-point values using the
minimum latency algorithm.

-minline-float-divide-max-throughput
Generate code for inline divides of floating-point values using the
maximum throughput algorithm.

-mno-inline-float-divide
Do not generate inline code for divides of floating-point values.

-minline-int-divide-min-latency
Generate code for inline divides of integer values using the
minimum latency algorithm.

-minline-int-divide-max-throughput
Generate code for inline divides of integer values using the
maximum throughput algorithm.

-mno-inline-int-divide
Do not generate inline code for divides of integer values.

-minline-sqrt-min-latency
Generate code for inline square roots using the minimum latency
algorithm.

-minline-sqrt-max-throughput
Generate code for inline square roots using the maximum throughput
algorithm.

-mno-inline-sqrt
Do not generate inline code for “sqrt”.

-mfused-madd
-mno-fused-madd
Do (don’t) generate code that uses the fused multiply/add or
multiply/subtract instructions. The default is to use these
instructions.

-mno-dwarf2-asm
-mdwarf2-asm
Don’t (or do) generate assembler code for the DWARF 2 line number
debugging info. This may be useful when not using the GNU
assembler.

-mearly-stop-bits
-mno-early-stop-bits
Allow stop bits to be placed earlier than immediately preceding the
instruction that triggered the stop bit. This can improve
instruction scheduling, but does not always do so.

-mfixed-range=register-range
Generate code treating the given register range as fixed registers.
A fixed register is one that the register allocator cannot use.
This is useful when compiling kernel code. A register range is
specified as two registers separated by a dash. Multiple register
ranges can be specified separated by a comma.

-mtls-size=tls-size
Specify bit size of immediate TLS offsets. Valid values are 14,
22, and 64.

-mtune=cpu-type
Tune the instruction scheduling for a particular CPU, Valid values
are itanium, itanium1, merced, itanium2, and mckinley.

-milp32
-mlp64
Generate code for a 32-bit or 64-bit environment. The 32-bit
environment sets int, long and pointer to 32 bits. The 64-bit
environment sets int to 32 bits and long and pointer to 64 bits.
These are HP-UX specific flags.

-mno-sched-br-data-spec
-msched-br-data-spec
(Dis/En)able data speculative scheduling before reload. This
results in generation of “ld.a” instructions and the corresponding
check instructions (“ld.c” / “chk.a”). The default is ‘disable’.

-msched-ar-data-spec
-mno-sched-ar-data-spec
(En/Dis)able data speculative scheduling after reload. This
results in generation of “ld.a” instructions and the corresponding
check instructions (“ld.c” / “chk.a”). The default is ‘enable’.

-mno-sched-control-spec
-msched-control-spec
(Dis/En)able control speculative scheduling. This feature is
available only during region scheduling (i.e. before reload). This
results in generation of the “ld.s” instructions and the
corresponding check instructions “chk.s”. The default is
‘disable’.

-msched-br-in-data-spec
-mno-sched-br-in-data-spec
(En/Dis)able speculative scheduling of the instructions that are
dependent on the data speculative loads before reload. This is
effective only with -msched-br-data-spec enabled. The default is
‘enable’.

-msched-ar-in-data-spec
-mno-sched-ar-in-data-spec
(En/Dis)able speculative scheduling of the instructions that are
dependent on the data speculative loads after reload. This is
effective only with -msched-ar-data-spec enabled. The default is
‘enable’.

-msched-in-control-spec
-mno-sched-in-control-spec
(En/Dis)able speculative scheduling of the instructions that are
dependent on the control speculative loads. This is effective only
with -msched-control-spec enabled. The default is ‘enable’.

-mno-sched-prefer-non-data-spec-insns
-msched-prefer-non-data-spec-insns
If enabled, data-speculative instructions are chosen for schedule
only if there are no other choices at the moment. This makes the
use of the data speculation much more conservative. The default is
‘disable’.

-mno-sched-prefer-non-control-spec-insns
-msched-prefer-non-control-spec-insns
If enabled, control-speculative instructions are chosen for
schedule only if there are no other choices at the moment. This
makes the use of the control speculation much more conservative.
The default is ‘disable’.

-mno-sched-count-spec-in-critical-path
-msched-count-spec-in-critical-path
If enabled, speculative dependencies are considered during
computation of the instructions priorities. This makes the use of
the speculation a bit more conservative. The default is ‘disable’.

-msched-spec-ldc
Use a simple data speculation check. This option is on by default.

-msched-control-spec-ldc
Use a simple check for control speculation. This option is on by
default.

-msched-stop-bits-after-every-cycle
Place a stop bit after every cycle when scheduling. This option is
on by default.

-msched-fp-mem-deps-zero-cost
Assume that floating-point stores and loads are not likely to cause
a conflict when placed into the same instruction group. This
option is disabled by default.

-msel-sched-dont-check-control-spec
Generate checks for control speculation in selective scheduling.
This flag is disabled by default.

-msched-max-memory-insns=max-insns
Limit on the number of memory insns per instruction group, giving
lower priority to subsequent memory insns attempting to schedule in
the same instruction group. Frequently useful to prevent cache bank
conflicts. The default value is 1.

-msched-max-memory-insns-hard-limit
Makes the limit specified by msched-max-memory-insns a hard limit,
disallowing more than that number in an instruction group.
Otherwise, the limit is “soft”, meaning that non-memory operations
are preferred when the limit is reached, but memory operations may
still be scheduled.

LM32 Options

These -m options are defined for the LatticeMico32 architecture:

-mbarrel-shift-enabled
Enable barrel-shift instructions.

-mdivide-enabled
Enable divide and modulus instructions.

-mmultiply-enabled
Enable multiply instructions.

-msign-extend-enabled
Enable sign extend instructions.

-muser-enabled
Enable user-defined instructions.

M32C Options

-mcpu=name
Select the CPU for which code is generated. name may be one of r8c
for the R8C/Tiny series, m16c for the M16C (up to /60) series,
m32cm for the M16C/80 series, or m32c for the M32C/80 series.

-msim
Specifies that the program will be run on the simulator. This
causes an alternate runtime library to be linked in which supports,
for example, file I/O. You must not use this option when
generating programs that will run on real hardware; you must
provide your own runtime library for whatever I/O functions are
needed.

-memregs=number
Specifies the number of memory-based pseudo-registers GCC uses
during code generation. These pseudo-registers are used like real
registers, so there is a tradeoff between GCC’s ability to fit the
code into available registers, and the performance penalty of using
memory instead of registers. Note that all modules in a program
must be compiled with the same value for this option. Because of
that, you must not use this option with GCC’s default runtime
libraries.

M32R/D Options

These -m options are defined for Renesas M32R/D architectures:

-m32r2
Generate code for the M32R/2.

-m32rx
Generate code for the M32R/X.

-m32r
Generate code for the M32R. This is the default.

-mmodel=small
Assume all objects live in the lower 16MB of memory (so that their
addresses can be loaded with the “ld24” instruction), and assume
all subroutines are reachable with the “bl” instruction. This is
the default.

The addressability of a particular object can be set with the
“model” attribute.

-mmodel=medium
Assume objects may be anywhere in the 32-bit address space (the
compiler generates “seth/add3” instructions to load their
addresses), and assume all subroutines are reachable with the “bl”
instruction.

-mmodel=large
Assume objects may be anywhere in the 32-bit address space (the
compiler generates “seth/add3” instructions to load their
addresses), and assume subroutines may not be reachable with the
“bl” instruction (the compiler generates the much slower
“seth/add3/jl” instruction sequence).

-msdata=none
Disable use of the small data area. Variables are put into one of
“.data”, “.bss”, or “.rodata” (unless the “section” attribute has
been specified). This is the default.

The small data area consists of sections “.sdata” and “.sbss”.
Objects may be explicitly put in the small data area with the
“section” attribute using one of these sections.

-msdata=sdata
Put small global and static data in the small data area, but do not
generate special code to reference them.

-msdata=use
Put small global and static data in the small data area, and
generate special instructions to reference them.

-G num
Put global and static objects less than or equal to num bytes into
the small data or BSS sections instead of the normal data or BSS
sections. The default value of num is 8. The -msdata option must
be set to one of sdata or use for this option to have any effect.

All modules should be compiled with the same -G num value.
Compiling with different values of num may or may not work; if it
doesn’t the linker gives an error message—incorrect code is not
generated.

-mdebug
Makes the M32R-specific code in the compiler display some
statistics that might help in debugging programs.

-malign-loops
Align all loops to a 32-byte boundary.

-mno-align-loops
Do not enforce a 32-byte alignment for loops. This is the default.

-missue-rate=number
Issue number instructions per cycle. number can only be 1 or 2.

-mbranch-cost=number
number can only be 1 or 2. If it is 1 then branches are preferred
over conditional code, if it is 2, then the opposite applies.

-mflush-trap=number
Specifies the trap number to use to flush the cache. The default
is 12. Valid numbers are between 0 and 15 inclusive.

-mno-flush-trap
Specifies that the cache cannot be flushed by using a trap.

-mflush-func=name
Specifies the name of the operating system function to call to
flush the cache. The default is _flush_cache, but a function call
is only used if a trap is not available.

-mno-flush-func
Indicates that there is no OS function for flushing the cache.

M680x0 Options

These are the -m options defined for M680x0 and ColdFire processors.
The default settings depend on which architecture was selected when the
compiler was configured; the defaults for the most common choices are
given below.

-march=arch
Generate code for a specific M680x0 or ColdFire instruction set
architecture. Permissible values of arch for M680x0 architectures
are: 68000, 68010, 68020, 68030, 68040, 68060 and cpu32. ColdFire
architectures are selected according to Freescale’s ISA
classification and the permissible values are: isaa, isaaplus, isab
and isac.

GCC defines a macro “__mcfarch__” whenever it is generating code
for a ColdFire target. The arch in this macro is one of the -march
arguments given above.

When used together, -march and -mtune select code that runs on a
family of similar processors but that is optimized for a particular
microarchitecture.

-mcpu=cpu
Generate code for a specific M680x0 or ColdFire processor. The
M680x0 cpus are: 68000, 68010, 68020, 68030, 68040, 68060, 68302,
68332 and cpu32. The ColdFire cpus are given by the table below,
which also classifies the CPUs into families:

Family : -mcpu arguments
51 : 51 51ac 51ag 51cn 51em 51je 51jf 51jg 51jm 51mm 51qe 51qm
5206 : 5202 5204 5206
5206e : 5206e
5208 : 5207 5208
5211a : 5210a 5211a
5213 : 5211 5212 5213
5216 : 5214 5216
52235 : 52230 52231 52232 52233 52234 52235
5225 : 5224 5225
52259 : 52252 52254 52255 52256 52258 52259
5235 : 5232 5233 5234 5235 523x
5249 : 5249
5250 : 5250
5271 : 5270 5271
5272 : 5272
5275 : 5274 5275
5282 : 5280 5281 5282 528x
53017 : 53011 53012 53013 53014 53015 53016 53017
5307 : 5307
5329 : 5327 5328 5329 532x
5373 : 5372 5373 537x
5407 : 5407
5475 : 5470 5471 5472 5473 5474 5475 547x 5480 5481 5482 5483 5484
5485

-mcpu=cpu overrides -march=arch if arch is compatible with cpu.
Other combinations of -mcpu and -march are rejected.

GCC defines the macro “__mcf_cpu_cpu” when ColdFire target cpu is
selected. It also defines “__mcf_family_family”, where the value
of family is given by the table above.

-mtune=tune
Tune the code for a particular microarchitecture within the
constraints set by -march and -mcpu. The M680x0 microarchitectures
are: 68000, 68010, 68020, 68030, 68040, 68060 and cpu32. The
ColdFire microarchitectures are: cfv1, cfv2, cfv3, cfv4 and cfv4e.

You can also use -mtune=68020-40 for code that needs to run
relatively well on 68020, 68030 and 68040 targets. -mtune=68020-60
is similar but includes 68060 targets as well. These two options
select the same tuning decisions as -m68020-40 and -m68020-60
respectively.

GCC defines the macros “__mcarch” and “__mcarch__” when tuning for
680×0 architecture arch. It also defines “mcarch” unless either
-ansi or a non-GNU -std option is used. If GCC is tuning for a
range of architectures, as selected by -mtune=68020-40 or
-mtune=68020-60, it defines the macros for every architecture in
the range.

GCC also defines the macro “__muarch__” when tuning for ColdFire
microarchitecture uarch, where uarch is one of the arguments given
above.

-m68000
-mc68000
Generate output for a 68000. This is the default when the compiler
is configured for 68000-based systems. It is equivalent to
-march=68000.

Use this option for microcontrollers with a 68000 or EC000 core,
including the 68008, 68302, 68306, 68307, 68322, 68328 and 68356.

-m68010
Generate output for a 68010. This is the default when the compiler
is configured for 68010-based systems. It is equivalent to
-march=68010.

-m68020
-mc68020
Generate output for a 68020. This is the default when the compiler
is configured for 68020-based systems. It is equivalent to
-march=68020.

-m68030
Generate output for a 68030. This is the default when the compiler
is configured for 68030-based systems. It is equivalent to
-march=68030.

-m68040
Generate output for a 68040. This is the default when the compiler
is configured for 68040-based systems. It is equivalent to
-march=68040.

This option inhibits the use of 68881/68882 instructions that have
to be emulated by software on the 68040. Use this option if your
68040 does not have code to emulate those instructions.

-m68060
Generate output for a 68060. This is the default when the compiler
is configured for 68060-based systems. It is equivalent to
-march=68060.

This option inhibits the use of 68020 and 68881/68882 instructions
that have to be emulated by software on the 68060. Use this option
if your 68060 does not have code to emulate those instructions.

-mcpu32
Generate output for a CPU32. This is the default when the compiler
is configured for CPU32-based systems. It is equivalent to
-march=cpu32.

Use this option for microcontrollers with a CPU32 or CPU32+ core,
including the 68330, 68331, 68332, 68333, 68334, 68336, 68340,
68341, 68349 and 68360.

-m5200
Generate output for a 520X ColdFire CPU. This is the default when
the compiler is configured for 520X-based systems. It is
equivalent to -mcpu=5206, and is now deprecated in favor of that
option.

Use this option for microcontroller with a 5200 core, including the
MCF5202, MCF5203, MCF5204 and MCF5206.

-m5206e
Generate output for a 5206e ColdFire CPU. The option is now
deprecated in favor of the equivalent -mcpu=5206e.

-m528x
Generate output for a member of the ColdFire 528X family. The
option is now deprecated in favor of the equivalent -mcpu=528x.

-m5307
Generate output for a ColdFire 5307 CPU. The option is now
deprecated in favor of the equivalent -mcpu=5307.

-m5407
Generate output for a ColdFire 5407 CPU. The option is now
deprecated in favor of the equivalent -mcpu=5407.

-mcfv4e
Generate output for a ColdFire V4e family CPU (e.g. 547x/548x).
This includes use of hardware floating-point instructions. The
option is equivalent to -mcpu=547x, and is now deprecated in favor
of that option.

-m68020-40
Generate output for a 68040, without using any of the new
instructions. This results in code that can run relatively
efficiently on either a 68020/68881 or a 68030 or a 68040. The
generated code does use the 68881 instructions that are emulated on
the 68040.

The option is equivalent to -march=68020 -mtune=68020-40.

-m68020-60
Generate output for a 68060, without using any of the new
instructions. This results in code that can run relatively
efficiently on either a 68020/68881 or a 68030 or a 68040. The
generated code does use the 68881 instructions that are emulated on
the 68060.

The option is equivalent to -march=68020 -mtune=68020-60.

-mhard-float
-m68881
Generate floating-point instructions. This is the default for
68020 and above, and for ColdFire devices that have an FPU. It
defines the macro “__HAVE_68881__” on M680x0 targets and
“__mcffpu__” on ColdFire targets.

-msoft-float
Do not generate floating-point instructions; use library calls
instead. This is the default for 68000, 68010, and 68832 targets.
It is also the default for ColdFire devices that have no FPU.

-mdiv
-mno-div
Generate (do not generate) ColdFire hardware divide and remainder
instructions. If -march is used without -mcpu, the default is “on”
for ColdFire architectures and “off” for M680x0 architectures.
Otherwise, the default is taken from the target CPU (either the
default CPU, or the one specified by -mcpu). For example, the
default is “off” for -mcpu=5206 and “on” for -mcpu=5206e.

GCC defines the macro “__mcfhwdiv__” when this option is enabled.

-mshort
Consider type “int” to be 16 bits wide, like “short int”.
Additionally, parameters passed on the stack are also aligned to a
16-bit boundary even on targets whose API mandates promotion to
32-bit.

-mno-short
Do not consider type “int” to be 16 bits wide. This is the
default.

-mnobitfield
-mno-bitfield
Do not use the bit-field instructions. The -m68000, -mcpu32 and
-m5200 options imply -mnobitfield.

-mbitfield
Do use the bit-field instructions. The -m68020 option implies
-mbitfield. This is the default if you use a configuration
designed for a 68020.

-mrtd
Use a different function-calling convention, in which functions
that take a fixed number of arguments return with the “rtd”
instruction, which pops their arguments while returning. This
saves one instruction in the caller since there is no need to pop
the arguments there.

This calling convention is incompatible with the one normally used
on Unix, so you cannot use it if you need to call libraries
compiled with the Unix compiler.

Also, you must provide function prototypes for all functions that
take variable numbers of arguments (including “printf”); otherwise
incorrect code is generated for calls to those functions.

In addition, seriously incorrect code results if you call a
function with too many arguments. (Normally, extra arguments are
harmlessly ignored.)

The “rtd” instruction is supported by the 68010, 68020, 68030,
68040, 68060 and CPU32 processors, but not by the 68000 or 5200.

-mno-rtd
Do not use the calling conventions selected by -mrtd. This is the
default.

-malign-int
-mno-align-int
Control whether GCC aligns “int”, “long”, “long long”, “float”,
“double”, and “long double” variables on a 32-bit boundary
(-malign-int) or a 16-bit boundary (-mno-align-int). Aligning
variables on 32-bit boundaries produces code that runs somewhat
faster on processors with 32-bit busses at the expense of more
memory.

Warning: if you use the -malign-int switch, GCC aligns structures
containing the above types differently than most published
application binary interface specifications for the m68k.

-mpcrel
Use the pc-relative addressing mode of the 68000 directly, instead
of using a global offset table. At present, this option implies
-fpic, allowing at most a 16-bit offset for pc-relative addressing.
-fPIC is not presently supported with -mpcrel, though this could be
supported for 68020 and higher processors.

-mno-strict-align
-mstrict-align
Do not (do) assume that unaligned memory references are handled by
the system.

-msep-data
Generate code that allows the data segment to be located in a
different area of memory from the text segment. This allows for
execute-in-place in an environment without virtual memory
management. This option implies -fPIC.

-mno-sep-data
Generate code that assumes that the data segment follows the text
segment. This is the default.

-mid-shared-library
Generate code that supports shared libraries via the library ID
method. This allows for execute-in-place and shared libraries in
an environment without virtual memory management. This option
implies -fPIC.

-mno-id-shared-library
Generate code that doesn’t assume ID-based shared libraries are
being used. This is the default.

-mshared-library-id=n
Specifies the identification number of the ID-based shared library
being compiled. Specifying a value of 0 generates more compact
code; specifying other values forces the allocation of that number
to the current library, but is no more space- or time-efficient
than omitting this option.

-mxgot
-mno-xgot
When generating position-independent code for ColdFire, generate
code that works if the GOT has more than 8192 entries. This code
is larger and slower than code generated without this option. On
M680x0 processors, this option is not needed; -fPIC suffices.

GCC normally uses a single instruction to load values from the GOT.
While this is relatively efficient, it only works if the GOT is
smaller than about 64k. Anything larger causes the linker to
report an error such as:

relocation truncated to fit: R_68K_GOT16O foobar

If this happens, you should recompile your code with -mxgot. It
should then work with very large GOTs. However, code generated
with -mxgot is less efficient, since it takes 4 instructions to
fetch the value of a global symbol.

Note that some linkers, including newer versions of the GNU linker,
can create multiple GOTs and sort GOT entries. If you have such a
linker, you should only need to use -mxgot when compiling a single
object file that accesses more than 8192 GOT entries. Very few do.

These options have no effect unless GCC is generating position-
independent code.

MCore Options

These are the -m options defined for the Motorola M*Core processors.

-mhardlit
-mno-hardlit
Inline constants into the code stream if it can be done in two
instructions or less.

-mdiv
-mno-div
Use the divide instruction. (Enabled by default).

-mrelax-immediate
-mno-relax-immediate
Allow arbitrary-sized immediates in bit operations.

-mwide-bitfields
-mno-wide-bitfields
Always treat bit-fields as “int”-sized.

-m4byte-functions
-mno-4byte-functions
Force all functions to be aligned to a 4-byte boundary.

-mcallgraph-data
-mno-callgraph-data
Emit callgraph information.

-mslow-bytes
-mno-slow-bytes
Prefer word access when reading byte quantities.

-mlittle-endian
-mbig-endian
Generate code for a little-endian target.

-m210
-m340
Generate code for the 210 processor.

-mno-lsim
Assume that runtime support has been provided and so omit the
simulator library (libsim.a) from the linker command line.

-mstack-increment=size
Set the maximum amount for a single stack increment operation.
Large values can increase the speed of programs that contain
functions that need a large amount of stack space, but they can
also trigger a segmentation fault if the stack is extended too
much. The default value is 0x1000.

MeP Options

-mabsdiff
Enables the “abs” instruction, which is the absolute difference
between two registers.

-mall-opts
Enables all the optional instructions—average, multiply, divide,
bit operations, leading zero, absolute difference, min/max, clip,
and saturation.

-maverage
Enables the “ave” instruction, which computes the average of two
registers.

-mbased=n
Variables of size n bytes or smaller are placed in the “.based”
section by default. Based variables use the $tp register as a base
register, and there is a 128-byte limit to the “.based” section.

-mbitops
Enables the bit operation instructions—bit test (“btstm”), set
(“bsetm”), clear (“bclrm”), invert (“bnotm”), and test-and-set
(“tas”).

-mc=name
Selects which section constant data is placed in. name may be
tiny, near, or far.

-mclip
Enables the “clip” instruction. Note that -mclip is not useful
unless you also provide -mminmax.

-mconfig=name
Selects one of the built-in core configurations. Each MeP chip has
one or more modules in it; each module has a core CPU and a variety
of coprocessors, optional instructions, and peripherals. The
“MeP-Integrator” tool, not part of GCC, provides these
configurations through this option; using this option is the same
as using all the corresponding command-line options. The default
configuration is default.

-mcop
Enables the coprocessor instructions. By default, this is a 32-bit
coprocessor. Note that the coprocessor is normally enabled via the
-mconfig= option.

-mcop32
Enables the 32-bit coprocessor’s instructions.

-mcop64
Enables the 64-bit coprocessor’s instructions.

-mivc2
Enables IVC2 scheduling. IVC2 is a 64-bit VLIW coprocessor.

-mdc
Causes constant variables to be placed in the “.near” section.

-mdiv
Enables the “div” and “divu” instructions.

-meb
Generate big-endian code.

-mel
Generate little-endian code.

-mio-volatile
Tells the compiler that any variable marked with the “io” attribute
is to be considered volatile.

-ml Causes variables to be assigned to the “.far” section by default.

-mleadz
Enables the “leadz” (leading zero) instruction.

-mm Causes variables to be assigned to the “.near” section by default.

-mminmax
Enables the “min” and “max” instructions.

-mmult
Enables the multiplication and multiply-accumulate instructions.

-mno-opts
Disables all the optional instructions enabled by -mall-opts.

-mrepeat
Enables the “repeat” and “erepeat” instructions, used for low-
overhead looping.

-ms Causes all variables to default to the “.tiny” section. Note that
there is a 65536-byte limit to this section. Accesses to these
variables use the %gp base register.

-msatur
Enables the saturation instructions. Note that the compiler does
not currently generate these itself, but this option is included
for compatibility with other tools, like “as”.

-msdram
Link the SDRAM-based runtime instead of the default ROM-based
runtime.

-msim
Link the simulator run-time libraries.

-msimnovec
Link the simulator runtime libraries, excluding built-in support
for reset and exception vectors and tables.

-mtf
Causes all functions to default to the “.far” section. Without
this option, functions default to the “.near” section.

-mtiny=n
Variables that are n bytes or smaller are allocated to the “.tiny”
section. These variables use the $gp base register. The default
for this option is 4, but note that there’s a 65536-byte limit to
the “.tiny” section.

MicroBlaze Options

-msoft-float
Use software emulation for floating point (default).

-mhard-float
Use hardware floating-point instructions.

-mmemcpy
Do not optimize block moves, use “memcpy”.

-mno-clearbss
This option is deprecated. Use -fno-zero-initialized-in-bss
instead.

-mcpu=cpu-type
Use features of, and schedule code for, the given CPU. Supported
values are in the format vX.YY.Z, where X is a major version, YY is
the minor version, and Z is compatibility code. Example values are
v3.00.a, v4.00.b, v5.00.a, v5.00.b, v5.00.b, v6.00.a.

-mxl-soft-mul
Use software multiply emulation (default).

-mxl-soft-div
Use software emulation for divides (default).

-mxl-barrel-shift
Use the hardware barrel shifter.

-mxl-pattern-compare
Use pattern compare instructions.

-msmall-divides
Use table lookup optimization for small signed integer divisions.

-mxl-stack-check
This option is deprecated. Use -fstack-check instead.

-mxl-gp-opt
Use GP-relative “.sdata”/”.sbss” sections.

-mxl-multiply-high
Use multiply high instructions for high part of 32×32 multiply.

-mxl-float-convert
Use hardware floating-point conversion instructions.

-mxl-float-sqrt
Use hardware floating-point square root instruction.

-mbig-endian
Generate code for a big-endian target.

-mlittle-endian
Generate code for a little-endian target.

-mxl-reorder
Use reorder instructions (swap and byte reversed load/store).

-mxl-mode-app-model
Select application model app-model. Valid models are

executable
normal executable (default), uses startup code crt0.o.

xmdstub
for use with Xilinx Microprocessor Debugger (XMD) based
software intrusive debug agent called xmdstub. This uses
startup file crt1.o and sets the start address of the program
to 0x800.

bootstrap
for applications that are loaded using a bootloader. This
model uses startup file crt2.o which does not contain a
processor reset vector handler. This is suitable for
transferring control on a processor reset to the bootloader
rather than the application.

novectors
for applications that do not require any of the MicroBlaze
vectors. This option may be useful for applications running
within a monitoring application. This model uses crt3.o as a
startup file.

Option -xl-mode-app-model is a deprecated alias for -mxl-mode-app-
model.

MIPS Options

-EB Generate big-endian code.

-EL Generate little-endian code. This is the default for mips*el-*-*
configurations.

-march=arch
Generate code that runs on arch, which can be the name of a generic
MIPS ISA, or the name of a particular processor. The ISA names
are: mips1, mips2, mips3, mips4, mips32, mips32r2, mips32r3,
mips32r5, mips32r6, mips64, mips64r2, mips64r3, mips64r5 and
mips64r6. The processor names are: 4kc, 4km, 4kp, 4ksc, 4kec,
4kem, 4kep, 4ksd, 5kc, 5kf, 20kc, 24kc, 24kf2_1, 24kf1_1, 24kec,
24kef2_1, 24kef1_1, 34kc, 34kf2_1, 34kf1_1, 34kn, 74kc, 74kf2_1,
74kf1_1, 74kf3_2, 1004kc, 1004kf2_1, 1004kf1_1, loongson2e,
loongson2f, loongson3a, m4k, m14k, m14kc, m14ke, m14kec, octeon,
octeon+, octeon2, octeon3, orion, p5600, r2000, r3000, r3900,
r4000, r4400, r4600, r4650, r4700, r6000, r8000, rm7000, rm9000,
r10000, r12000, r14000, r16000, sb1, sr71000, vr4100, vr4111,
vr4120, vr4130, vr4300, vr5000, vr5400, vr5500, xlr and xlp. The
special value from-abi selects the most compatible architecture for
the selected ABI (that is, mips1 for 32-bit ABIs and mips3 for
64-bit ABIs).

The native Linux/GNU toolchain also supports the value native,
which selects the best architecture option for the host processor.
-march=native has no effect if GCC does not recognize the
processor.

In processor names, a final 000 can be abbreviated as k (for
example, -march=r2k). Prefixes are optional, and vr may be written
r.

Names of the form nf2_1 refer to processors with FPUs clocked at
half the rate of the core, names of the form nf1_1 refer to
processors with FPUs clocked at the same rate as the core, and
names of the form nf3_2 refer to processors with FPUs clocked a
ratio of 3:2 with respect to the core. For compatibility reasons,
nf is accepted as a synonym for nf2_1 while nx and bfx are accepted
as synonyms for nf1_1.

GCC defines two macros based on the value of this option. The
first is “_MIPS_ARCH”, which gives the name of target architecture,
as a string. The second has the form “_MIPS_ARCH_foo”, where foo
is the capitalized value of “_MIPS_ARCH”. For example,
-march=r2000 sets “_MIPS_ARCH” to “r2000” and defines the macro
“_MIPS_ARCH_R2000”.

Note that the “_MIPS_ARCH” macro uses the processor names given
above. In other words, it has the full prefix and does not
abbreviate 000 as k. In the case of from-abi, the macro names the
resolved architecture (either “mips1” or “mips3”). It names the
default architecture when no -march option is given.

-mtune=arch
Optimize for arch. Among other things, this option controls the
way instructions are scheduled, and the perceived cost of
arithmetic operations. The list of arch values is the same as for
-march.

When this option is not used, GCC optimizes for the processor
specified by -march. By using -march and -mtune together, it is
possible to generate code that runs on a family of processors, but
optimize the code for one particular member of that family.

-mtune defines the macros “_MIPS_TUNE” and “_MIPS_TUNE_foo”, which
work in the same way as the -march ones described above.

-mips1
Equivalent to -march=mips1.

-mips2
Equivalent to -march=mips2.

-mips3
Equivalent to -march=mips3.

-mips4
Equivalent to -march=mips4.

-mips32
Equivalent to -march=mips32.

-mips32r3
Equivalent to -march=mips32r3.

-mips32r5
Equivalent to -march=mips32r5.

-mips32r6
Equivalent to -march=mips32r6.

-mips64
Equivalent to -march=mips64.

-mips64r2
Equivalent to -march=mips64r2.

-mips64r3
Equivalent to -march=mips64r3.

-mips64r5
Equivalent to -march=mips64r5.

-mips64r6
Equivalent to -march=mips64r6.

-mips16
-mno-mips16
Generate (do not generate) MIPS16 code. If GCC is targeting a
MIPS32 or MIPS64 architecture, it makes use of the MIPS16e ASE.

MIPS16 code generation can also be controlled on a per-function
basis by means of “mips16” and “nomips16” attributes.

-mflip-mips16
Generate MIPS16 code on alternating functions. This option is
provided for regression testing of mixed MIPS16/non-MIPS16 code
generation, and is not intended for ordinary use in compiling user
code.

-minterlink-compressed
-mno-interlink-compressed
Require (do not require) that code using the standard
(uncompressed) MIPS ISA be link-compatible with MIPS16 and
microMIPS code, and vice versa.

For example, code using the standard ISA encoding cannot jump
directly to MIPS16 or microMIPS code; it must either use a call or
an indirect jump. -minterlink-compressed therefore disables direct
jumps unless GCC knows that the target of the jump is not
compressed.

-minterlink-mips16
-mno-interlink-mips16
Aliases of -minterlink-compressed and -mno-interlink-compressed.
These options predate the microMIPS ASE and are retained for
backwards compatibility.

-mabi=32
-mabi=o64
-mabi=n32
-mabi=64
-mabi=eabi
Generate code for the given ABI.

Note that the EABI has a 32-bit and a 64-bit variant. GCC normally
generates 64-bit code when you select a 64-bit architecture, but
you can use -mgp32 to get 32-bit code instead.

For information about the O64 ABI, see
.

GCC supports a variant of the o32 ABI in which floating-point
registers are 64 rather than 32 bits wide. You can select this
combination with -mabi=32 -mfp64. This ABI relies on the “mthc1”
and “mfhc1” instructions and is therefore only supported for
MIPS32R2, MIPS32R3 and MIPS32R5 processors.

The register assignments for arguments and return values remain the
same, but each scalar value is passed in a single 64-bit register
rather than a pair of 32-bit registers. For example, scalar
floating-point values are returned in $f0 only, not a $f0/$f1 pair.
The set of call-saved registers also remains the same in that the
even-numbered double-precision registers are saved.

Two additional variants of the o32 ABI are supported to enable a
transition from 32-bit to 64-bit registers. These are FPXX
(-mfpxx) and FP64A (-mfp64 -mno-odd-spreg). The FPXX extension
mandates that all code must execute correctly when run using 32-bit
or 64-bit registers. The code can be interlinked with either FP32
or FP64, but not both. The FP64A extension is similar to the FP64
extension but forbids the use of odd-numbered single-precision
registers. This can be used in conjunction with the “FRE” mode of
FPUs in MIPS32R5 processors and allows both FP32 and FP64A code to
interlink and run in the same process without changing FPU modes.

-mabicalls
-mno-abicalls
Generate (do not generate) code that is suitable for SVR4-style
dynamic objects. -mabicalls is the default for SVR4-based systems.

-mshared
-mno-shared
Generate (do not generate) code that is fully position-independent,
and that can therefore be linked into shared libraries. This
option only affects -mabicalls.

All -mabicalls code has traditionally been position-independent,
regardless of options like -fPIC and -fpic. However, as an
extension, the GNU toolchain allows executables to use absolute
accesses for locally-binding symbols. It can also use shorter GP
initialization sequences and generate direct calls to locally-
defined functions. This mode is selected by -mno-shared.

-mno-shared depends on binutils 2.16 or higher and generates
objects that can only be linked by the GNU linker. However, the
option does not affect the ABI of the final executable; it only
affects the ABI of relocatable objects. Using -mno-shared
generally makes executables both smaller and quicker.

-mshared is the default.

-mplt
-mno-plt
Assume (do not assume) that the static and dynamic linkers support
PLTs and copy relocations. This option only affects -mno-shared
-mabicalls. For the n64 ABI, this option has no effect without
-msym32.

You can make -mplt the default by configuring GCC with
–with-mips-plt. The default is -mno-plt otherwise.

-mxgot
-mno-xgot
Lift (do not lift) the usual restrictions on the size of the global
offset table.

GCC normally uses a single instruction to load values from the GOT.
While this is relatively efficient, it only works if the GOT is
smaller than about 64k. Anything larger causes the linker to
report an error such as:

relocation truncated to fit: R_MIPS_GOT16 foobar

If this happens, you should recompile your code with -mxgot. This
works with very large GOTs, although the code is also less
efficient, since it takes three instructions to fetch the value of
a global symbol.

Note that some linkers can create multiple GOTs. If you have such
a linker, you should only need to use -mxgot when a single object
file accesses more than 64k’s worth of GOT entries. Very few do.

These options have no effect unless GCC is generating position
independent code.

-mgp32
Assume that general-purpose registers are 32 bits wide.

-mgp64
Assume that general-purpose registers are 64 bits wide.

-mfp32
Assume that floating-point registers are 32 bits wide.

-mfp64
Assume that floating-point registers are 64 bits wide.

-mfpxx
Do not assume the width of floating-point registers.

-mhard-float
Use floating-point coprocessor instructions.

-msoft-float
Do not use floating-point coprocessor instructions. Implement
floating-point calculations using library calls instead.

-mno-float
Equivalent to -msoft-float, but additionally asserts that the
program being compiled does not perform any floating-point
operations. This option is presently supported only by some bare-
metal MIPS configurations, where it may select a special set of
libraries that lack all floating-point support (including, for
example, the floating-point “printf” formats). If code compiled
with -mno-float accidentally contains floating-point operations, it
is likely to suffer a link-time or run-time failure.

-msingle-float
Assume that the floating-point coprocessor only supports single-
precision operations.

-mdouble-float
Assume that the floating-point coprocessor supports double-
precision operations. This is the default.

-modd-spreg
-mno-odd-spreg
Enable the use of odd-numbered single-precision floating-point
registers for the o32 ABI. This is the default for processors that
are known to support these registers. When using the o32 FPXX ABI,
-mno-odd-spreg is set by default.

-mabs=2008
-mabs=legacy
These options control the treatment of the special not-a-number
(NaN) IEEE 754 floating-point data with the “abs.fmt” and “neg.fmt”
machine instructions.

By default or when -mabs=legacy is used the legacy treatment is
selected. In this case these instructions are considered
arithmetic and avoided where correct operation is required and the
input operand might be a NaN. A longer sequence of instructions
that manipulate the sign bit of floating-point datum manually is
used instead unless the -ffinite-math-only option has also been
specified.

The -mabs=2008 option selects the IEEE 754-2008 treatment. In this
case these instructions are considered non-arithmetic and therefore
operating correctly in all cases, including in particular where the
input operand is a NaN. These instructions are therefore always
used for the respective operations.

-mnan=2008
-mnan=legacy
These options control the encoding of the special not-a-number
(NaN) IEEE 754 floating-point data.

The -mnan=legacy option selects the legacy encoding. In this case
quiet NaNs (qNaNs) are denoted by the first bit of their trailing
significand field being 0, whereas signalling NaNs (sNaNs) are
denoted by the first bit of their trailing significand field being
1.

The -mnan=2008 option selects the IEEE 754-2008 encoding. In this
case qNaNs are denoted by the first bit of their trailing
significand field being 1, whereas sNaNs are denoted by the first
bit of their trailing significand field being 0.

The default is -mnan=legacy unless GCC has been configured with
–with-nan=2008.

-mllsc
-mno-llsc
Use (do not use) ll, sc, and sync instructions to implement atomic
memory built-in functions. When neither option is specified, GCC
uses the instructions if the target architecture supports them.

-mllsc is useful if the runtime environment can emulate the
instructions and -mno-llsc can be useful when compiling for
nonstandard ISAs. You can make either option the default by
configuring GCC with –with-llsc and –without-llsc respectively.
–with-llsc is the default for some configurations; see the
installation documentation for details.

-mdsp
-mno-dsp
Use (do not use) revision 1 of the MIPS DSP ASE.
This option defines the preprocessor macro “__mips_dsp”. It also
defines “__mips_dsp_rev” to 1.

-mdspr2
-mno-dspr2
Use (do not use) revision 2 of the MIPS DSP ASE.
This option defines the preprocessor macros “__mips_dsp” and
“__mips_dspr2”. It also defines “__mips_dsp_rev” to 2.

-msmartmips
-mno-smartmips
Use (do not use) the MIPS SmartMIPS ASE.

-mpaired-single
-mno-paired-single
Use (do not use) paired-single floating-point instructions.
This option requires hardware floating-point support to be
enabled.

-mdmx
-mno-mdmx
Use (do not use) MIPS Digital Media Extension instructions. This
option can only be used when generating 64-bit code and requires
hardware floating-point support to be enabled.

-mips3d
-mno-mips3d
Use (do not use) the MIPS-3D ASE. The option -mips3d implies
-mpaired-single.

-mmicromips
-mno-micromips
Generate (do not generate) microMIPS code.

MicroMIPS code generation can also be controlled on a per-function
basis by means of “micromips” and “nomicromips” attributes.

-mmt
-mno-mt
Use (do not use) MT Multithreading instructions.

-mmcu
-mno-mcu
Use (do not use) the MIPS MCU ASE instructions.

-meva
-mno-eva
Use (do not use) the MIPS Enhanced Virtual Addressing instructions.

-mvirt
-mno-virt
Use (do not use) the MIPS Virtualization Application Specific
instructions.

-mxpa
-mno-xpa
Use (do not use) the MIPS eXtended Physical Address (XPA)
instructions.

-mlong64
Force “long” types to be 64 bits wide. See -mlong32 for an
explanation of the default and the way that the pointer size is
determined.

-mlong32
Force “long”, “int”, and pointer types to be 32 bits wide.

The default size of “int”s, “long”s and pointers depends on the
ABI. All the supported ABIs use 32-bit “int”s. The n64 ABI uses
64-bit “long”s, as does the 64-bit EABI; the others use 32-bit
“long”s. Pointers are the same size as “long”s, or the same size
as integer registers, whichever is smaller.

-msym32
-mno-sym32
Assume (do not assume) that all symbols have 32-bit values,
regardless of the selected ABI. This option is useful in
combination with -mabi=64 and -mno-abicalls because it allows GCC
to generate shorter and faster references to symbolic addresses.

-G num
Put definitions of externally-visible data in a small data section
if that data is no bigger than num bytes. GCC can then generate
more efficient accesses to the data; see -mgpopt for details.

The default -G option depends on the configuration.

-mlocal-sdata
-mno-local-sdata
Extend (do not extend) the -G behavior to local data too, such as
to static variables in C. -mlocal-sdata is the default for all
configurations.

If the linker complains that an application is using too much small
data, you might want to try rebuilding the less performance-
critical parts with -mno-local-sdata. You might also want to build
large libraries with -mno-local-sdata, so that the libraries leave
more room for the main program.

-mextern-sdata
-mno-extern-sdata
Assume (do not assume) that externally-defined data is in a small
data section if the size of that data is within the -G limit.
-mextern-sdata is the default for all configurations.

If you compile a module Mod with -mextern-sdata -G num -mgpopt, and
Mod references a variable Var that is no bigger than num bytes, you
must make sure that Var is placed in a small data section. If Var
is defined by another module, you must either compile that module
with a high-enough -G setting or attach a “section” attribute to
Var’s definition. If Var is common, you must link the application
with a high-enough -G setting.

The easiest way of satisfying these restrictions is to compile and
link every module with the same -G option. However, you may wish
to build a library that supports several different small data
limits. You can do this by compiling the library with the highest
supported -G setting and additionally using -mno-extern-sdata to
stop the library from making assumptions about externally-defined
data.

-mgpopt
-mno-gpopt
Use (do not use) GP-relative accesses for symbols that are known to
be in a small data section; see -G, -mlocal-sdata and
-mextern-sdata. -mgpopt is the default for all configurations.

-mno-gpopt is useful for cases where the $gp register might not
hold the value of “_gp”. For example, if the code is part of a
library that might be used in a boot monitor, programs that call
boot monitor routines pass an unknown value in $gp. (In such
situations, the boot monitor itself is usually compiled with -G0.)

-mno-gpopt implies -mno-local-sdata and -mno-extern-sdata.

-membedded-data
-mno-embedded-data
Allocate variables to the read-only data section first if possible,
then next in the small data section if possible, otherwise in data.
This gives slightly slower code than the default, but reduces the
amount of RAM required when executing, and thus may be preferred
for some embedded systems.

-muninit-const-in-rodata
-mno-uninit-const-in-rodata
Put uninitialized “const” variables in the read-only data section.
This option is only meaningful in conjunction with -membedded-data.

-mcode-readable=setting
Specify whether GCC may generate code that reads from executable
sections. There are three possible settings:

-mcode-readable=yes
Instructions may freely access executable sections. This is
the default setting.

-mcode-readable=pcrel
MIPS16 PC-relative load instructions can access executable
sections, but other instructions must not do so. This option
is useful on 4KSc and 4KSd processors when the code TLBs have
the Read Inhibit bit set. It is also useful on processors that
can be configured to have a dual instruction/data SRAM
interface and that, like the M4K, automatically redirect PC-
relative loads to the instruction RAM.

-mcode-readable=no
Instructions must not access executable sections. This option
can be useful on targets that are configured to have a dual
instruction/data SRAM interface but that (unlike the M4K) do
not automatically redirect PC-relative loads to the instruction
RAM.

-msplit-addresses
-mno-split-addresses
Enable (disable) use of the “%hi()” and “%lo()” assembler
relocation operators. This option has been superseded by
-mexplicit-relocs but is retained for backwards compatibility.

-mexplicit-relocs
-mno-explicit-relocs
Use (do not use) assembler relocation operators when dealing with
symbolic addresses. The alternative, selected by
-mno-explicit-relocs, is to use assembler macros instead.

-mexplicit-relocs is the default if GCC was configured to use an
assembler that supports relocation operators.

-mcheck-zero-division
-mno-check-zero-division
Trap (do not trap) on integer division by zero.

The default is -mcheck-zero-division.

-mdivide-traps
-mdivide-breaks
MIPS systems check for division by zero by generating either a
conditional trap or a break instruction. Using traps results in
smaller code, but is only supported on MIPS II and later. Also,
some versions of the Linux kernel have a bug that prevents trap
from generating the proper signal (“SIGFPE”). Use -mdivide-traps
to allow conditional traps on architectures that support them and
-mdivide-breaks to force the use of breaks.

The default is usually -mdivide-traps, but this can be overridden
at configure time using –with-divide=breaks. Divide-by-zero
checks can be completely disabled using -mno-check-zero-division.

-mmemcpy
-mno-memcpy
Force (do not force) the use of “memcpy” for non-trivial block
moves. The default is -mno-memcpy, which allows GCC to inline most
constant-sized copies.

-mlong-calls
-mno-long-calls
Disable (do not disable) use of the “jal” instruction. Calling
functions using “jal” is more efficient but requires the caller and
callee to be in the same 256 megabyte segment.

This option has no effect on abicalls code. The default is
-mno-long-calls.

-mmad
-mno-mad
Enable (disable) use of the “mad”, “madu” and “mul” instructions,
as provided by the R4650 ISA.

-mimadd
-mno-imadd
Enable (disable) use of the “madd” and “msub” integer instructions.
The default is -mimadd on architectures that support “madd” and
“msub” except for the 74k architecture where it was found to
generate slower code.

-mfused-madd
-mno-fused-madd
Enable (disable) use of the floating-point multiply-accumulate
instructions, when they are available. The default is
-mfused-madd.

On the R8000 CPU when multiply-accumulate instructions are used,
the intermediate product is calculated to infinite precision and is
not subject to the FCSR Flush to Zero bit. This may be undesirable
in some circumstances. On other processors the result is
numerically identical to the equivalent computation using separate
multiply, add, subtract and negate instructions.

-nocpp
Tell the MIPS assembler to not run its preprocessor over user
assembler files (with a .s suffix) when assembling them.

-mfix-24k
-mno-fix-24k
Work around the 24K E48 (lost data on stores during refill) errata.
The workarounds are implemented by the assembler rather than by
GCC.

-mfix-r4000
-mno-fix-r4000
Work around certain R4000 CPU errata:

– A double-word or a variable shift may give an incorrect result
if executed immediately after starting an integer division.

– A double-word or a variable shift may give an incorrect result
if executed while an integer multiplication is in progress.

– An integer division may give an incorrect result if started in
a delay slot of a taken branch or a jump.

-mfix-r4400
-mno-fix-r4400
Work around certain R4400 CPU errata:

– A double-word or a variable shift may give an incorrect result
if executed immediately after starting an integer division.

-mfix-r10000
-mno-fix-r10000
Work around certain R10000 errata:

– “ll”/”sc” sequences may not behave atomically on revisions
prior to 3.0. They may deadlock on revisions 2.6 and earlier.

This option can only be used if the target architecture supports
branch-likely instructions. -mfix-r10000 is the default when
-march=r10000 is used; -mno-fix-r10000 is the default otherwise.

-mfix-rm7000
-mno-fix-rm7000
Work around the RM7000 “dmult”/”dmultu” errata. The workarounds
are implemented by the assembler rather than by GCC.

-mfix-vr4120
-mno-fix-vr4120
Work around certain VR4120 errata:

– “dmultu” does not always produce the correct result.

– “div” and “ddiv” do not always produce the correct result if
one of the operands is negative.

The workarounds for the division errata rely on special functions
in libgcc.a. At present, these functions are only provided by the
“mips64vr*-elf” configurations.

Other VR4120 errata require a NOP to be inserted between certain
pairs of instructions. These errata are handled by the assembler,
not by GCC itself.

-mfix-vr4130
Work around the VR4130 “mflo”/”mfhi” errata. The workarounds are
implemented by the assembler rather than by GCC, although GCC
avoids using “mflo” and “mfhi” if the VR4130 “macc”, “macchi”,
“dmacc” and “dmacchi” instructions are available instead.

-mfix-sb1
-mno-fix-sb1
Work around certain SB-1 CPU core errata. (This flag currently
works around the SB-1 revision 2 “F1” and “F2” floating-point
errata.)

-mr10k-cache-barrier=setting
Specify whether GCC should insert cache barriers to avoid the side-
effects of speculation on R10K processors.

In common with many processors, the R10K tries to predict the
outcome of a conditional branch and speculatively executes
instructions from the “taken” branch. It later aborts these
instructions if the predicted outcome is wrong. However, on the
R10K, even aborted instructions can have side effects.

This problem only affects kernel stores and, depending on the
system, kernel loads. As an example, a speculatively-executed
store may load the target memory into cache and mark the cache line
as dirty, even if the store itself is later aborted. If a DMA
operation writes to the same area of memory before the “dirty” line
is flushed, the cached data overwrites the DMA-ed data. See the
R10K processor manual for a full description, including other
potential problems.

One workaround is to insert cache barrier instructions before every
memory access that might be speculatively executed and that might
have side effects even if aborted. -mr10k-cache-barrier=setting
controls GCC’s implementation of this workaround. It assumes that
aborted accesses to any byte in the following regions does not have
side effects:

1. the memory occupied by the current function’s stack frame;

2. the memory occupied by an incoming stack argument;

3. the memory occupied by an object with a link-time-constant
address.

It is the kernel’s responsibility to ensure that speculative
accesses to these regions are indeed safe.

If the input program contains a function declaration such as:

void foo (void);

then the implementation of “foo” must allow “j foo” and “jal foo”
to be executed speculatively. GCC honors this restriction for
functions it compiles itself. It expects non-GCC functions (such
as hand-written assembly code) to do the same.

The option has three forms:

-mr10k-cache-barrier=load-store
Insert a cache barrier before a load or store that might be
speculatively executed and that might have side effects even if
aborted.

-mr10k-cache-barrier=store
Insert a cache barrier before a store that might be
speculatively executed and that might have side effects even if
aborted.

-mr10k-cache-barrier=none
Disable the insertion of cache barriers. This is the default
setting.

-mflush-func=func
-mno-flush-func
Specifies the function to call to flush the I and D caches, or to
not call any such function. If called, the function must take the
same arguments as the common “_flush_func”, that is, the address of
the memory range for which the cache is being flushed, the size of
the memory range, and the number 3 (to flush both caches). The
default depends on the target GCC was configured for, but commonly
is either “_flush_func” or “__cpu_flush”.

mbranch-cost=num
Set the cost of branches to roughly num “simple” instructions.
This cost is only a heuristic and is not guaranteed to produce
consistent results across releases. A zero cost redundantly
selects the default, which is based on the -mtune setting.

-mbranch-likely
-mno-branch-likely
Enable or disable use of Branch Likely instructions, regardless of
the default for the selected architecture. By default, Branch
Likely instructions may be generated if they are supported by the
selected architecture. An exception is for the MIPS32 and MIPS64
architectures and processors that implement those architectures;
for those, Branch Likely instructions are not be generated by
default because the MIPS32 and MIPS64 architectures specifically
deprecate their use.

-mfp-exceptions
-mno-fp-exceptions
Specifies whether FP exceptions are enabled. This affects how FP
instructions are scheduled for some processors. The default is
that FP exceptions are enabled.

For instance, on the SB-1, if FP exceptions are disabled, and we
are emitting 64-bit code, then we can use both FP pipes.
Otherwise, we can only use one FP pipe.

-mvr4130-align
-mno-vr4130-align
The VR4130 pipeline is two-way superscalar, but can only issue two
instructions together if the first one is 8-byte aligned. When
this option is enabled, GCC aligns pairs of instructions that it
thinks should execute in parallel.

This option only has an effect when optimizing for the VR4130. It
normally makes code faster, but at the expense of making it bigger.
It is enabled by default at optimization level -O3.

-msynci
-mno-synci
Enable (disable) generation of “synci” instructions on
architectures that support it. The “synci” instructions (if
enabled) are generated when “__builtin___clear_cache” is compiled.

This option defaults to -mno-synci, but the default can be
overridden by configuring GCC with –with-synci.

When compiling code for single processor systems, it is generally
safe to use “synci”. However, on many multi-core (SMP) systems, it
does not invalidate the instruction caches on all cores and may
lead to undefined behavior.

-mrelax-pic-calls
-mno-relax-pic-calls
Try to turn PIC calls that are normally dispatched via register $25
into direct calls. This is only possible if the linker can resolve
the destination at link-time and if the destination is within range
for a direct call.

-mrelax-pic-calls is the default if GCC was configured to use an
assembler and a linker that support the “.reloc” assembly directive
and -mexplicit-relocs is in effect. With -mno-explicit-relocs,
this optimization can be performed by the assembler and the linker
alone without help from the compiler.

-mmcount-ra-address
-mno-mcount-ra-address
Emit (do not emit) code that allows “_mcount” to modify the calling
function’s return address. When enabled, this option extends the
usual “_mcount” interface with a new ra-address parameter, which
has type “intptr_t *” and is passed in register $12. “_mcount” can
then modify the return address by doing both of the following:

* Returning the new address in register $31.

* Storing the new address in “*ra-address”, if ra-address is
nonnull.

The default is -mno-mcount-ra-address.

MMIX Options

These options are defined for the MMIX:

-mlibfuncs
-mno-libfuncs
Specify that intrinsic library functions are being compiled,
passing all values in registers, no matter the size.

-mepsilon
-mno-epsilon
Generate floating-point comparison instructions that compare with
respect to the “rE” epsilon register.

-mabi=mmixware
-mabi=gnu
Generate code that passes function parameters and return values
that (in the called function) are seen as registers $0 and up, as
opposed to the GNU ABI which uses global registers $231 and up.

-mzero-extend
-mno-zero-extend
When reading data from memory in sizes shorter than 64 bits, use
(do not use) zero-extending load instructions by default, rather
than sign-extending ones.

-mknuthdiv
-mno-knuthdiv
Make the result of a division yielding a remainder have the same
sign as the divisor. With the default, -mno-knuthdiv, the sign of
the remainder follows the sign of the dividend. Both methods are
arithmetically valid, the latter being almost exclusively used.

-mtoplevel-symbols
-mno-toplevel-symbols
Prepend (do not prepend) a : to all global symbols, so the assembly
code can be used with the “PREFIX” assembly directive.

-melf
Generate an executable in the ELF format, rather than the default
mmo format used by the mmix simulator.

-mbranch-predict
-mno-branch-predict
Use (do not use) the probable-branch instructions, when static
branch prediction indicates a probable branch.

-mbase-addresses
-mno-base-addresses
Generate (do not generate) code that uses base addresses. Using a
base address automatically generates a request (handled by the
assembler and the linker) for a constant to be set up in a global
register. The register is used for one or more base address
requests within the range 0 to 255 from the value held in the
register. The generally leads to short and fast code, but the
number of different data items that can be addressed is limited.
This means that a program that uses lots of static data may require
-mno-base-addresses.

-msingle-exit
-mno-single-exit
Force (do not force) generated code to have a single exit point in
each function.

MN10300 Options

These -m options are defined for Matsushita MN10300 architectures:

-mmult-bug
Generate code to avoid bugs in the multiply instructions for the
MN10300 processors. This is the default.

-mno-mult-bug
Do not generate code to avoid bugs in the multiply instructions for
the MN10300 processors.

-mam33
Generate code using features specific to the AM33 processor.

-mno-am33
Do not generate code using features specific to the AM33 processor.
This is the default.

-mam33-2
Generate code using features specific to the AM33/2.0 processor.

-mam34
Generate code using features specific to the AM34 processor.

-mtune=cpu-type
Use the timing characteristics of the indicated CPU type when
scheduling instructions. This does not change the targeted
processor type. The CPU type must be one of mn10300, am33, am33-2
or am34.

-mreturn-pointer-on-d0
When generating a function that returns a pointer, return the
pointer in both “a0” and “d0”. Otherwise, the pointer is returned
only in “a0”, and attempts to call such functions without a
prototype result in errors. Note that this option is on by
default; use -mno-return-pointer-on-d0 to disable it.

-mno-crt0
Do not link in the C run-time initialization object file.

-mrelax
Indicate to the linker that it should perform a relaxation
optimization pass to shorten branches, calls and absolute memory
addresses. This option only has an effect when used on the command
line for the final link step.

This option makes symbolic debugging impossible.

-mliw
Allow the compiler to generate Long Instruction Word instructions
if the target is the AM33 or later. This is the default. This
option defines the preprocessor macro “__LIW__”.

-mnoliw
Do not allow the compiler to generate Long Instruction Word
instructions. This option defines the preprocessor macro
“__NO_LIW__”.

-msetlb
Allow the compiler to generate the SETLB and Lcc instructions if
the target is the AM33 or later. This is the default. This option
defines the preprocessor macro “__SETLB__”.

-mnosetlb
Do not allow the compiler to generate SETLB or Lcc instructions.
This option defines the preprocessor macro “__NO_SETLB__”.

Moxie Options

-meb
Generate big-endian code. This is the default for moxie-*-*
configurations.

-mel
Generate little-endian code.

-mmul.x
Generate mul.x and umul.x instructions. This is the default for
moxiebox-*-* configurations.

-mno-crt0
Do not link in the C run-time initialization object file.

MSP430 Options

These options are defined for the MSP430:

-masm-hex
Force assembly output to always use hex constants. Normally such
constants are signed decimals, but this option is available for
testsuite and/or aesthetic purposes.

-mmcu=
Select the MCU to target. This is used to create a C preprocessor
symbol based upon the MCU name, converted to upper case and pre-
and post-fixed with __. This in turn is used by the msp430.h
header file to select an MCU-specific supplementary header file.

The option also sets the ISA to use. If the MCU name is one that
is known to only support the 430 ISA then that is selected,
otherwise the 430X ISA is selected. A generic MCU name of msp430
can also be used to select the 430 ISA. Similarly the generic
msp430x MCU name selects the 430X ISA.

In addition an MCU-specific linker script is added to the linker
command line. The script’s name is the name of the MCU with .ld
appended. Thus specifying -mmcu=xxx on the gcc command line
defines the C preprocessor symbol “__XXX__” and cause the linker to
search for a script called xxx.ld.

This option is also passed on to the assembler.

-mcpu=
Specifies the ISA to use. Accepted values are msp430, msp430x and
msp430xv2. This option is deprecated. The -mmcu= option should be
used to select the ISA.

-msim
Link to the simulator runtime libraries and linker script.
Overrides any scripts that would be selected by the -mmcu= option.

-mlarge
Use large-model addressing (20-bit pointers, 32-bit “size_t”).

-msmall
Use small-model addressing (16-bit pointers, 16-bit “size_t”).

-mrelax
This option is passed to the assembler and linker, and allows the
linker to perform certain optimizations that cannot be done until
the final link.

mhwmult=
Describes the type of hardware multiply supported by the target.
Accepted values are none for no hardware multiply, 16bit for the
original 16-bit-only multiply supported by early MCUs. 32bit for
the 16/32-bit multiply supported by later MCUs and f5series for the
16/32-bit multiply supported by F5-series MCUs. A value of auto
can also be given. This tells GCC to deduce the hardware multiply
support based upon the MCU name provided by the -mmcu option. If
no -mmcu option is specified then 32bit hardware multiply support
is assumed. auto is the default setting.

Hardware multiplies are normally performed by calling a library
routine. This saves space in the generated code. When compiling
at -O3 or higher however the hardware multiplier is invoked inline.
This makes for bigger, but faster code.

The hardware multiply routines disable interrupts whilst running
and restore the previous interrupt state when they finish. This
makes them safe to use inside interrupt handlers as well as in
normal code.

-minrt
Enable the use of a minimum runtime environment – no static
initializers or constructors. This is intended for memory-
constrained devices. The compiler includes special symbols in some
objects that tell the linker and runtime which code fragments are
required.

NDS32 Options

These options are defined for NDS32 implementations:

-mbig-endian
Generate code in big-endian mode.

-mlittle-endian
Generate code in little-endian mode.

-mreduced-regs
Use reduced-set registers for register allocation.

-mfull-regs
Use full-set registers for register allocation.

-mcmov
Generate conditional move instructions.

-mno-cmov
Do not generate conditional move instructions.

-mperf-ext
Generate performance extension instructions.

-mno-perf-ext
Do not generate performance extension instructions.

-mv3push
Generate v3 push25/pop25 instructions.

-mno-v3push
Do not generate v3 push25/pop25 instructions.

-m16-bit
Generate 16-bit instructions.

-mno-16-bit
Do not generate 16-bit instructions.

-misr-vector-size=num
Specify the size of each interrupt vector, which must be 4 or 16.

-mcache-block-size=num
Specify the size of each cache block, which must be a power of 2
between 4 and 512.

-march=arch
Specify the name of the target architecture.

-mcmodel=code-model
Set the code model to one of

small
All the data and read-only data segments must be within 512KB
addressing space. The text segment must be within 16MB
addressing space.

medium
The data segment must be within 512KB while the read-only data
segment can be within 4GB addressing space. The text segment
should be still within 16MB addressing space.

large
All the text and data segments can be within 4GB addressing
space.

-mctor-dtor
Enable constructor/destructor feature.

-mrelax
Guide linker to relax instructions.

Nios II Options

These are the options defined for the Altera Nios II processor.

-G num
Put global and static objects less than or equal to num bytes into
the small data or BSS sections instead of the normal data or BSS
sections. The default value of num is 8.

-mgpopt=option
-mgpopt
-mno-gpopt
Generate (do not generate) GP-relative accesses. The following
option names are recognized:

none
Do not generate GP-relative accesses.

local
Generate GP-relative accesses for small data objects that are
not external or weak. Also use GP-relative addressing for
objects that have been explicitly placed in a small data
section via a “section” attribute.

global
As for local, but also generate GP-relative accesses for small
data objects that are external or weak. If you use this
option, you must ensure that all parts of your program
(including libraries) are compiled with the same -G setting.

data
Generate GP-relative accesses for all data objects in the
program. If you use this option, the entire data and BSS
segments of your program must fit in 64K of memory and you must
use an appropriate linker script to allocate them within the
addressible range of the global pointer.

all Generate GP-relative addresses for function pointers as well as
data pointers. If you use this option, the entire text, data,
and BSS segments of your program must fit in 64K of memory and
you must use an appropriate linker script to allocate them
within the addressible range of the global pointer.

-mgpopt is equivalent to -mgpopt=local, and -mno-gpopt is
equivalent to -mgpopt=none.

The default is -mgpopt except when -fpic or -fPIC is specified to
generate position-independent code. Note that the Nios II ABI does
not permit GP-relative accesses from shared libraries.

You may need to specify -mno-gpopt explicitly when building
programs that include large amounts of small data, including large
GOT data sections. In this case, the 16-bit offset for GP-relative
addressing may not be large enough to allow access to the entire
small data section.

-mel
-meb
Generate little-endian (default) or big-endian (experimental) code,
respectively.

-mbypass-cache
-mno-bypass-cache
Force all load and store instructions to always bypass cache by
using I/O variants of the instructions. The default is not to
bypass the cache.

-mno-cache-volatile
-mcache-volatile
Volatile memory access bypass the cache using the I/O variants of
the load and store instructions. The default is not to bypass the
cache.

-mno-fast-sw-div
-mfast-sw-div
Do not use table-based fast divide for small numbers. The default
is to use the fast divide at -O3 and above.

-mno-hw-mul
-mhw-mul
-mno-hw-mulx
-mhw-mulx
-mno-hw-div
-mhw-div
Enable or disable emitting “mul”, “mulx” and “div” family of
instructions by the compiler. The default is to emit “mul” and not
emit “div” and “mulx”.

-mcustom-insn=N
-mno-custom-insn
Each -mcustom-insn=N option enables use of a custom instruction
with encoding N when generating code that uses insn. For example,
-mcustom-fadds=253 generates custom instruction 253 for single-
precision floating-point add operations instead of the default
behavior of using a library call.

The following values of insn are supported. Except as otherwise
noted, floating-point operations are expected to be implemented
with normal IEEE 754 semantics and correspond directly to the C
operators or the equivalent GCC built-in functions.

Single-precision floating point:

fadds, fsubs, fdivs, fmuls
Binary arithmetic operations.

fnegs
Unary negation.

fabss
Unary absolute value.

fcmpeqs, fcmpges, fcmpgts, fcmples, fcmplts, fcmpnes
Comparison operations.

fmins, fmaxs
Floating-point minimum and maximum. These instructions are
only generated if -ffinite-math-only is specified.

fsqrts
Unary square root operation.

fcoss, fsins, ftans, fatans, fexps, flogs
Floating-point trigonometric and exponential functions. These
instructions are only generated if -funsafe-math-optimizations
is also specified.

Double-precision floating point:

faddd, fsubd, fdivd, fmuld
Binary arithmetic operations.

fnegd
Unary negation.

fabsd
Unary absolute value.

fcmpeqd, fcmpged, fcmpgtd, fcmpled, fcmpltd, fcmpned
Comparison operations.

fmind, fmaxd
Double-precision minimum and maximum. These instructions are
only generated if -ffinite-math-only is specified.

fsqrtd
Unary square root operation.

fcosd, fsind, ftand, fatand, fexpd, flogd
Double-precision trigonometric and exponential functions.
These instructions are only generated if
-funsafe-math-optimizations is also specified.

Conversions:

fextsd
Conversion from single precision to double precision.

ftruncds
Conversion from double precision to single precision.

fixsi, fixsu, fixdi, fixdu
Conversion from floating point to signed or unsigned integer
types, with truncation towards zero.

round
Conversion from single-precision floating point to signed
integer, rounding to the nearest integer and ties away from
zero. This corresponds to the “__builtin_lroundf” function
when -fno-math-errno is used.

floatis, floatus, floatid, floatud
Conversion from signed or unsigned integer types to floating-
point types.

In addition, all of the following transfer instructions for
internal registers X and Y must be provided to use any of the
double-precision floating-point instructions. Custom instructions
taking two double-precision source operands expect the first
operand in the 64-bit register X. The other operand (or only
operand of a unary operation) is given to the custom arithmetic
instruction with the least significant half in source register src1
and the most significant half in src2. A custom instruction that
returns a double-precision result returns the most significant 32
bits in the destination register and the other half in 32-bit
register Y. GCC automatically generates the necessary code
sequences to write register X and/or read register Y when double-
precision floating-point instructions are used.

fwrx
Write src1 into the least significant half of X and src2 into
the most significant half of X.

fwry
Write src1 into Y.

frdxhi, frdxlo
Read the most or least (respectively) significant half of X and
store it in dest.

frdy
Read the value of Y and store it into dest.

Note that you can gain more local control over generation of Nios
II custom instructions by using the “target(“custom-insn=N”)” and
“target(“no-custom-insn”)” function attributes or pragmas.

-mcustom-fpu-cfg=name
This option enables a predefined, named set of custom instruction
encodings (see -mcustom-insn above). Currently, the following sets
are defined:

-mcustom-fpu-cfg=60-1 is equivalent to: -mcustom-fmuls=252
-mcustom-fadds=253 -mcustom-fsubs=254 -fsingle-precision-constant

-mcustom-fpu-cfg=60-2 is equivalent to: -mcustom-fmuls=252
-mcustom-fadds=253 -mcustom-fsubs=254 -mcustom-fdivs=255
-fsingle-precision-constant

-mcustom-fpu-cfg=72-3 is equivalent to: -mcustom-floatus=243
-mcustom-fixsi=244 -mcustom-floatis=245 -mcustom-fcmpgts=246
-mcustom-fcmples=249 -mcustom-fcmpeqs=250 -mcustom-fcmpnes=251
-mcustom-fmuls=252 -mcustom-fadds=253 -mcustom-fsubs=254
-mcustom-fdivs=255 -fsingle-precision-constant

Custom instruction assignments given by individual -mcustom-insn=
options override those given by -mcustom-fpu-cfg=, regardless of
the order of the options on the command line.

Note that you can gain more local control over selection of a FPU
configuration by using the “target(“custom-fpu-cfg=name”)” function
attribute or pragma.

These additional -m options are available for the Altera Nios II ELF
(bare-metal) target:

-mhal
Link with HAL BSP. This suppresses linking with the GCC-provided C
runtime startup and termination code, and is typically used in
conjunction with -msys-crt0= to specify the location of the
alternate startup code provided by the HAL BSP.

-msmallc
Link with a limited version of the C library, -lsmallc, rather than
Newlib.

-msys-crt0=startfile
startfile is the file name of the startfile (crt0) to use when
linking. This option is only useful in conjunction with -mhal.

-msys-lib=systemlib
systemlib is the library name of the library that provides low-
level system calls required by the C library, e.g. “read” and
“write”. This option is typically used to link with a library
provided by a HAL BSP.

Nvidia PTX Options

These options are defined for Nvidia PTX:

-m32
-m64
Generate code for 32-bit or 64-bit ABI.

-mmainkernel
Link in code for a __main kernel. This is for stand-alone instead
of offloading execution.

PDP-11 Options

These options are defined for the PDP-11:

-mfpu
Use hardware FPP floating point. This is the default. (FIS
floating point on the PDP-11/40 is not supported.)

-msoft-float
Do not use hardware floating point.

-mac0
Return floating-point results in ac0 (fr0 in Unix assembler
syntax).

-mno-ac0
Return floating-point results in memory. This is the default.

-m40
Generate code for a PDP-11/40.

-m45
Generate code for a PDP-11/45. This is the default.

-m10
Generate code for a PDP-11/10.

-mbcopy-builtin
Use inline “movmemhi” patterns for copying memory. This is the
default.

-mbcopy
Do not use inline “movmemhi” patterns for copying memory.

-mint16
-mno-int32
Use 16-bit “int”. This is the default.

-mint32
-mno-int16
Use 32-bit “int”.

-mfloat64
-mno-float32
Use 64-bit “float”. This is the default.

-mfloat32
-mno-float64
Use 32-bit “float”.

-mabshi
Use “abshi2” pattern. This is the default.

-mno-abshi
Do not use “abshi2” pattern.

-mbranch-expensive
Pretend that branches are expensive. This is for experimenting
with code generation only.

-mbranch-cheap
Do not pretend that branches are expensive. This is the default.

-munix-asm
Use Unix assembler syntax. This is the default when configured for
pdp11-*-bsd.

-mdec-asm
Use DEC assembler syntax. This is the default when configured for
any PDP-11 target other than pdp11-*-bsd.

picoChip Options

These -m options are defined for picoChip implementations:

-mae=ae_type
Set the instruction set, register set, and instruction scheduling
parameters for array element type ae_type. Supported values for
ae_type are ANY, MUL, and MAC.

-mae=ANY selects a completely generic AE type. Code generated with
this option runs on any of the other AE types. The code is not as
efficient as it would be if compiled for a specific AE type, and
some types of operation (e.g., multiplication) do not work properly
on all types of AE.

-mae=MUL selects a MUL AE type. This is the most useful AE type
for compiled code, and is the default.

-mae=MAC selects a DSP-style MAC AE. Code compiled with this
option may suffer from poor performance of byte (char)
manipulation, since the DSP AE does not provide hardware support
for byte load/stores.

-msymbol-as-address
Enable the compiler to directly use a symbol name as an address in
a load/store instruction, without first loading it into a register.
Typically, the use of this option generates larger programs, which
run faster than when the option isn’t used. However, the results
vary from program to program, so it is left as a user option,
rather than being permanently enabled.

-mno-inefficient-warnings
Disables warnings about the generation of inefficient code. These
warnings can be generated, for example, when compiling code that
performs byte-level memory operations on the MAC AE type. The MAC
AE has no hardware support for byte-level memory operations, so all
byte load/stores must be synthesized from word load/store
operations. This is inefficient and a warning is generated to
indicate that you should rewrite the code to avoid byte operations,
or to target an AE type that has the necessary hardware support.
This option disables these warnings.

PowerPC Options

These are listed under

RL78 Options

-msim
Links in additional target libraries to support operation within a
simulator.

-mmul=none
-mmul=g13
-mmul=rl78
Specifies the type of hardware multiplication support to be used.
The default is none, which uses software multiplication functions.
The g13 option is for the hardware multiply/divide peripheral only
on the RL78/G13 targets. The rl78 option is for the standard
hardware multiplication defined in the RL78 software manual.

-m64bit-doubles
-m32bit-doubles
Make the “double” data type be 64 bits (-m64bit-doubles) or 32 bits
(-m32bit-doubles) in size. The default is -m32bit-doubles.

IBM RS/6000 and PowerPC Options

These -m options are defined for the IBM RS/6000 and PowerPC:

-mpowerpc-gpopt
-mno-powerpc-gpopt
-mpowerpc-gfxopt
-mno-powerpc-gfxopt
-mpowerpc64
-mno-powerpc64
-mmfcrf
-mno-mfcrf
-mpopcntb
-mno-popcntb
-mpopcntd
-mno-popcntd
-mfprnd
-mno-fprnd
-mcmpb
-mno-cmpb
-mmfpgpr
-mno-mfpgpr
-mhard-dfp
-mno-hard-dfp
You use these options to specify which instructions are available
on the processor you are using. The default value of these options
is determined when configuring GCC. Specifying the -mcpu=cpu_type
overrides the specification of these options. We recommend you use
the -mcpu=cpu_type option rather than the options listed above.

Specifying -mpowerpc-gpopt allows GCC to use the optional PowerPC
architecture instructions in the General Purpose group, including
floating-point square root. Specifying -mpowerpc-gfxopt allows GCC
to use the optional PowerPC architecture instructions in the
Graphics group, including floating-point select.

The -mmfcrf option allows GCC to generate the move from condition
register field instruction implemented on the POWER4 processor and
other processors that support the PowerPC V2.01 architecture. The
-mpopcntb option allows GCC to generate the popcount and double-
precision FP reciprocal estimate instruction implemented on the
POWER5 processor and other processors that support the PowerPC
V2.02 architecture. The -mpopcntd option allows GCC to generate
the popcount instruction implemented on the POWER7 processor and
other processors that support the PowerPC V2.06 architecture. The
-mfprnd option allows GCC to generate the FP round to integer
instructions implemented on the POWER5+ processor and other
processors that support the PowerPC V2.03 architecture. The -mcmpb
option allows GCC to generate the compare bytes instruction
implemented on the POWER6 processor and other processors that
support the PowerPC V2.05 architecture. The -mmfpgpr option allows
GCC to generate the FP move to/from general-purpose register
instructions implemented on the POWER6X processor and other
processors that support the extended PowerPC V2.05 architecture.
The -mhard-dfp option allows GCC to generate the decimal floating-
point instructions implemented on some POWER processors.

The -mpowerpc64 option allows GCC to generate the additional 64-bit
instructions that are found in the full PowerPC64 architecture and
to treat GPRs as 64-bit, doubleword quantities. GCC defaults to
-mno-powerpc64.

-mcpu=cpu_type
Set architecture type, register usage, and instruction scheduling
parameters for machine type cpu_type. Supported values for
cpu_type are 401, 403, 405, 405fp, 440, 440fp, 464, 464fp, 476,
476fp, 505, 601, 602, 603, 603e, 604, 604e, 620, 630, 740, 7400,
7450, 750, 801, 821, 823, 860, 970, 8540, a2, e300c2, e300c3,
e500mc, e500mc64, e5500, e6500, ec603e, G3, G4, G5, titan, power3,
power4, power5, power5+, power6, power6x, power7, power8, powerpc,
powerpc64, powerpc64le, and rs64.

-mcpu=powerpc, -mcpu=powerpc64, and -mcpu=powerpc64le specify pure
32-bit PowerPC (either endian), 64-bit big endian PowerPC and
64-bit little endian PowerPC architecture machine types, with an
appropriate, generic processor model assumed for scheduling
purposes.

The other options specify a specific processor. Code generated
under those options runs best on that processor, and may not run at
all on others.

The -mcpu options automatically enable or disable the following
options:

-maltivec -mfprnd -mhard-float -mmfcrf -mmultiple -mpopcntb
-mpopcntd -mpowerpc64 -mpowerpc-gpopt -mpowerpc-gfxopt
-msingle-float -mdouble-float -msimple-fpu -mstring -mmulhw
-mdlmzb -mmfpgpr -mvsx -mcrypto -mdirect-move -mpower8-fusion
-mpower8-vector -mquad-memory -mquad-memory-atomic

The particular options set for any particular CPU varies between
compiler versions, depending on what setting seems to produce
optimal code for that CPU; it doesn’t necessarily reflect the
actual hardware’s capabilities. If you wish to set an individual
option to a particular value, you may specify it after the -mcpu
option, like -mcpu=970 -mno-altivec.

On AIX, the -maltivec and -mpowerpc64 options are not enabled or
disabled by the -mcpu option at present because AIX does not have
full support for these options. You may still enable or disable
them individually if you’re sure it’ll work in your environment.

-mtune=cpu_type
Set the instruction scheduling parameters for machine type
cpu_type, but do not set the architecture type or register usage,
as -mcpu=cpu_type does. The same values for cpu_type are used for
-mtune as for -mcpu. If both are specified, the code generated
uses the architecture and registers set by -mcpu, but the
scheduling parameters set by -mtune.

-mcmodel=small
Generate PowerPC64 code for the small model: The TOC is limited to
64k.

-mcmodel=medium
Generate PowerPC64 code for the medium model: The TOC and other
static data may be up to a total of 4G in size.

-mcmodel=large
Generate PowerPC64 code for the large model: The TOC may be up to
4G in size. Other data and code is only limited by the 64-bit
address space.

-maltivec
-mno-altivec
Generate code that uses (does not use) AltiVec instructions, and
also enable the use of built-in functions that allow more direct
access to the AltiVec instruction set. You may also need to set
-mabi=altivec to adjust the current ABI with AltiVec ABI
enhancements.

When -maltivec is used, rather than -maltivec=le or -maltivec=be,
the element order for Altivec intrinsics such as “vec_splat”,
“vec_extract”, and “vec_insert” match array element order
corresponding to the endianness of the target. That is, element
zero identifies the leftmost element in a vector register when
targeting a big-endian platform, and identifies the rightmost
element in a vector register when targeting a little-endian
platform.

-maltivec=be
Generate Altivec instructions using big-endian element order,
regardless of whether the target is big- or little-endian. This is
the default when targeting a big-endian platform.

The element order is used to interpret element numbers in Altivec
intrinsics such as “vec_splat”, “vec_extract”, and “vec_insert”.
By default, these match array element order corresponding to the
endianness for the target.

-maltivec=le
Generate Altivec instructions using little-endian element order,
regardless of whether the target is big- or little-endian. This is
the default when targeting a little-endian platform. This option
is currently ignored when targeting a big-endian platform.

The element order is used to interpret element numbers in Altivec
intrinsics such as “vec_splat”, “vec_extract”, and “vec_insert”.
By default, these match array element order corresponding to the
endianness for the target.

-mvrsave
-mno-vrsave
Generate VRSAVE instructions when generating AltiVec code.

-mgen-cell-microcode
Generate Cell microcode instructions.

-mwarn-cell-microcode
Warn when a Cell microcode instruction is emitted. An example of a
Cell microcode instruction is a variable shift.

-msecure-plt
Generate code that allows ld and ld.so to build executables and
shared libraries with non-executable “.plt” and “.got” sections.
This is a PowerPC 32-bit SYSV ABI option.

-mbss-plt
Generate code that uses a BSS “.plt” section that ld.so fills in,
and requires “.plt” and “.got” sections that are both writable and
executable. This is a PowerPC 32-bit SYSV ABI option.

-misel
-mno-isel
This switch enables or disables the generation of ISEL
instructions.

-misel=yes/no
This switch has been deprecated. Use -misel and -mno-isel instead.

-mspe
-mno-spe
This switch enables or disables the generation of SPE simd
instructions.

-mpaired
-mno-paired
This switch enables or disables the generation of PAIRED simd
instructions.

-mspe=yes/no
This option has been deprecated. Use -mspe and -mno-spe instead.

-mvsx
-mno-vsx
Generate code that uses (does not use) vector/scalar (VSX)
instructions, and also enable the use of built-in functions that
allow more direct access to the VSX instruction set.

-mcrypto
-mno-crypto
Enable the use (disable) of the built-in functions that allow
direct access to the cryptographic instructions that were added in
version 2.07 of the PowerPC ISA.

-mdirect-move
-mno-direct-move
Generate code that uses (does not use) the instructions to move
data between the general purpose registers and the vector/scalar
(VSX) registers that were added in version 2.07 of the PowerPC ISA.

-mpower8-fusion
-mno-power8-fusion
Generate code that keeps (does not keeps) some integer operations
adjacent so that the instructions can be fused together on power8
and later processors.

-mpower8-vector
-mno-power8-vector
Generate code that uses (does not use) the vector and scalar
instructions that were added in version 2.07 of the PowerPC ISA.
Also enable the use of built-in functions that allow more direct
access to the vector instructions.

-mquad-memory
-mno-quad-memory
Generate code that uses (does not use) the non-atomic quad word
memory instructions. The -mquad-memory option requires use of
64-bit mode.

-mquad-memory-atomic
-mno-quad-memory-atomic
Generate code that uses (does not use) the atomic quad word memory
instructions. The -mquad-memory-atomic option requires use of
64-bit mode.

-mupper-regs-df
-mno-upper-regs-df
Generate code that uses (does not use) the scalar double precision
instructions that target all 64 registers in the vector/scalar
floating point register set that were added in version 2.06 of the
PowerPC ISA. -mupper-regs-df is turned on by default if you use
any of the -mcpu=power7, -mcpu=power8, or -mvsx options.

-mupper-regs-sf
-mno-upper-regs-sf
Generate code that uses (does not use) the scalar single precision
instructions that target all 64 registers in the vector/scalar
floating point register set that were added in version 2.07 of the
PowerPC ISA. -mupper-regs-sf is turned on by default if you use
either of the -mcpu=power8 or -mpower8-vector options.

-mupper-regs
-mno-upper-regs
Generate code that uses (does not use) the scalar instructions that
target all 64 registers in the vector/scalar floating point
register set, depending on the model of the machine.

If the -mno-upper-regs option is used, it turns off both
-mupper-regs-sf and -mupper-regs-df options.

-mfloat-gprs=yes/single/double/no
-mfloat-gprs
This switch enables or disables the generation of floating-point
operations on the general-purpose registers for architectures that
support it.

The argument yes or single enables the use of single-precision
floating-point operations.

The argument double enables the use of single and double-precision
floating-point operations.

The argument no disables floating-point operations on the general-
purpose registers.

This option is currently only available on the MPC854x.

-m32
-m64
Generate code for 32-bit or 64-bit environments of Darwin and SVR4
targets (including GNU/Linux). The 32-bit environment sets int,
long and pointer to 32 bits and generates code that runs on any
PowerPC variant. The 64-bit environment sets int to 32 bits and
long and pointer to 64 bits, and generates code for PowerPC64, as
for -mpowerpc64.

-mfull-toc
-mno-fp-in-toc
-mno-sum-in-toc
-mminimal-toc
Modify generation of the TOC (Table Of Contents), which is created
for every executable file. The -mfull-toc option is selected by
default. In that case, GCC allocates at least one TOC entry for
each unique non-automatic variable reference in your program. GCC
also places floating-point constants in the TOC. However, only
16,384 entries are available in the TOC.

If you receive a linker error message that saying you have
overflowed the available TOC space, you can reduce the amount of
TOC space used with the -mno-fp-in-toc and -mno-sum-in-toc options.
-mno-fp-in-toc prevents GCC from putting floating-point constants
in the TOC and -mno-sum-in-toc forces GCC to generate code to
calculate the sum of an address and a constant at run time instead
of putting that sum into the TOC. You may specify one or both of
these options. Each causes GCC to produce very slightly slower and
larger code at the expense of conserving TOC space.

If you still run out of space in the TOC even when you specify both
of these options, specify -mminimal-toc instead. This option
causes GCC to make only one TOC entry for every file. When you
specify this option, GCC produces code that is slower and larger
but which uses extremely little TOC space. You may wish to use
this option only on files that contain less frequently-executed
code.

-maix64
-maix32
Enable 64-bit AIX ABI and calling convention: 64-bit pointers,
64-bit “long” type, and the infrastructure needed to support them.
Specifying -maix64 implies -mpowerpc64, while -maix32 disables the
64-bit ABI and implies -mno-powerpc64. GCC defaults to -maix32.

-mxl-compat
-mno-xl-compat
Produce code that conforms more closely to IBM XL compiler
semantics when using AIX-compatible ABI. Pass floating-point
arguments to prototyped functions beyond the register save area
(RSA) on the stack in addition to argument FPRs. Do not assume
that most significant double in 128-bit long double value is
properly rounded when comparing values and converting to double.
Use XL symbol names for long double support routines.

The AIX calling convention was extended but not initially
documented to handle an obscure K&R C case of calling a function
that takes the address of its arguments with fewer arguments than
declared. IBM XL compilers access floating-point arguments that do
not fit in the RSA from the stack when a subroutine is compiled
without optimization. Because always storing floating-point
arguments on the stack is inefficient and rarely needed, this
option is not enabled by default and only is necessary when calling
subroutines compiled by IBM XL compilers without optimization.

-mpe
Support IBM RS/6000 SP Parallel Environment (PE). Link an
application written to use message passing with special startup
code to enable the application to run. The system must have PE
installed in the standard location (/usr/lpp/ppe.poe/), or the
specs file must be overridden with the -specs= option to specify
the appropriate directory location. The Parallel Environment does
not support threads, so the -mpe option and the -pthread option are
incompatible.

-malign-natural
-malign-power
On AIX, 32-bit Darwin, and 64-bit PowerPC GNU/Linux, the option
-malign-natural overrides the ABI-defined alignment of larger
types, such as floating-point doubles, on their natural size-based
boundary. The option -malign-power instructs GCC to follow the
ABI-specified alignment rules. GCC defaults to the standard
alignment defined in the ABI.

On 64-bit Darwin, natural alignment is the default, and
-malign-power is not supported.

-msoft-float
-mhard-float
Generate code that does not use (uses) the floating-point register
set. Software floating-point emulation is provided if you use the
-msoft-float option, and pass the option to GCC when linking.

-msingle-float
-mdouble-float
Generate code for single- or double-precision floating-point
operations. -mdouble-float implies -msingle-float.

-msimple-fpu
Do not generate “sqrt” and “div” instructions for hardware
floating-point unit.

-mfpu=name
Specify type of floating-point unit. Valid values for name are
sp_lite (equivalent to -msingle-float -msimple-fpu), dp_lite
(equivalent to -mdouble-float -msimple-fpu), sp_full (equivalent to
-msingle-float), and dp_full (equivalent to -mdouble-float).

-mxilinx-fpu
Perform optimizations for the floating-point unit on Xilinx PPC
405/440.

-mmultiple
-mno-multiple
Generate code that uses (does not use) the load multiple word
instructions and the store multiple word instructions. These
instructions are generated by default on POWER systems, and not
generated on PowerPC systems. Do not use -mmultiple on little-
endian PowerPC systems, since those instructions do not work when
the processor is in little-endian mode. The exceptions are PPC740
and PPC750 which permit these instructions in little-endian mode.

-mstring
-mno-string
Generate code that uses (does not use) the load string instructions
and the store string word instructions to save multiple registers
and do small block moves. These instructions are generated by
default on POWER systems, and not generated on PowerPC systems. Do
not use -mstring on little-endian PowerPC systems, since those
instructions do not work when the processor is in little-endian
mode. The exceptions are PPC740 and PPC750 which permit these
instructions in little-endian mode.

-mupdate
-mno-update
Generate code that uses (does not use) the load or store
instructions that update the base register to the address of the
calculated memory location. These instructions are generated by
default. If you use -mno-update, there is a small window between
the time that the stack pointer is updated and the address of the
previous frame is stored, which means code that walks the stack
frame across interrupts or signals may get corrupted data.

-mavoid-indexed-addresses
-mno-avoid-indexed-addresses
Generate code that tries to avoid (not avoid) the use of indexed
load or store instructions. These instructions can incur a
performance penalty on Power6 processors in certain situations,
such as when stepping through large arrays that cross a 16M
boundary. This option is enabled by default when targeting Power6
and disabled otherwise.

-mfused-madd
-mno-fused-madd
Generate code that uses (does not use) the floating-point multiply
and accumulate instructions. These instructions are generated by
default if hardware floating point is used. The machine-dependent
-mfused-madd option is now mapped to the machine-independent
-ffp-contract=fast option, and -mno-fused-madd is mapped to
-ffp-contract=off.

-mmulhw
-mno-mulhw
Generate code that uses (does not use) the half-word multiply and
multiply-accumulate instructions on the IBM 405, 440, 464 and 476
processors. These instructions are generated by default when
targeting those processors.

-mdlmzb
-mno-dlmzb
Generate code that uses (does not use) the string-search dlmzb
instruction on the IBM 405, 440, 464 and 476 processors. This
instruction is generated by default when targeting those
processors.

-mno-bit-align
-mbit-align
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems do not (do) force
structures and unions that contain bit-fields to be aligned to the
base type of the bit-field.

For example, by default a structure containing nothing but 8
“unsigned” bit-fields of length 1 is aligned to a 4-byte boundary
and has a size of 4 bytes. By using -mno-bit-align, the structure
is aligned to a 1-byte boundary and is 1 byte in size.

-mno-strict-align
-mstrict-align
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems do not (do) assume that
unaligned memory references are handled by the system.

-mrelocatable
-mno-relocatable
Generate code that allows (does not allow) a static executable to
be relocated to a different address at run time. A simple embedded
PowerPC system loader should relocate the entire contents of
“.got2” and 4-byte locations listed in the “.fixup” section, a
table of 32-bit addresses generated by this option. For this to
work, all objects linked together must be compiled with
-mrelocatable or -mrelocatable-lib. -mrelocatable code aligns the
stack to an 8-byte boundary.

-mrelocatable-lib
-mno-relocatable-lib
Like -mrelocatable, -mrelocatable-lib generates a “.fixup” section
to allow static executables to be relocated at run time, but
-mrelocatable-lib does not use the smaller stack alignment of
-mrelocatable. Objects compiled with -mrelocatable-lib may be
linked with objects compiled with any combination of the
-mrelocatable options.

-mno-toc
-mtoc
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems do not (do) assume that
register 2 contains a pointer to a global area pointing to the
addresses used in the program.

-mlittle
-mlittle-endian
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the
processor in little-endian mode. The -mlittle-endian option is the
same as -mlittle.

-mbig
-mbig-endian
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the
processor in big-endian mode. The -mbig-endian option is the same
as -mbig.

-mdynamic-no-pic
On Darwin and Mac OS X systems, compile code so that it is not
relocatable, but that its external references are relocatable. The
resulting code is suitable for applications, but not shared
libraries.

-msingle-pic-base
Treat the register used for PIC addressing as read-only, rather
than loading it in the prologue for each function. The runtime
system is responsible for initializing this register with an
appropriate value before execution begins.

-mprioritize-restricted-insns=priority
This option controls the priority that is assigned to dispatch-slot
restricted instructions during the second scheduling pass. The
argument priority takes the value 0, 1, or 2 to assign no, highest,
or second-highest (respectively) priority to dispatch-slot
restricted instructions.

-msched-costly-dep=dependence_type
This option controls which dependences are considered costly by the
target during instruction scheduling. The argument dependence_type
takes one of the following values:

no No dependence is costly.

all All dependences are costly.

true_store_to_load
A true dependence from store to load is costly.

store_to_load
Any dependence from store to load is costly.

number
Any dependence for which the latency is greater than or equal
to number is costly.

-minsert-sched-nops=scheme
This option controls which NOP insertion scheme is used during the
second scheduling pass. The argument scheme takes one of the
following values:

no Don’t insert NOPs.

pad Pad with NOPs any dispatch group that has vacant issue slots,
according to the scheduler’s grouping.

regroup_exact
Insert NOPs to force costly dependent insns into separate
groups. Insert exactly as many NOPs as needed to force an insn
to a new group, according to the estimated processor grouping.

number
Insert NOPs to force costly dependent insns into separate
groups. Insert number NOPs to force an insn to a new group.

-mcall-sysv
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code using
calling conventions that adhere to the March 1995 draft of the
System V Application Binary Interface, PowerPC processor
supplement. This is the default unless you configured GCC using
powerpc-*-eabiaix.

-mcall-sysv-eabi
-mcall-eabi
Specify both -mcall-sysv and -meabi options.

-mcall-sysv-noeabi
Specify both -mcall-sysv and -mno-eabi options.

-mcall-aixdesc
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the AIX
operating system.

-mcall-linux
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the
Linux-based GNU system.

-mcall-freebsd
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the
FreeBSD operating system.

-mcall-netbsd
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the
NetBSD operating system.

-mcall-openbsd
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the
OpenBSD operating system.

-maix-struct-return
Return all structures in memory (as specified by the AIX ABI).

-msvr4-struct-return
Return structures smaller than 8 bytes in registers (as specified
by the SVR4 ABI).

-mabi=abi-type
Extend the current ABI with a particular extension, or remove such
extension. Valid values are altivec, no-altivec, spe, no-spe,
ibmlongdouble, ieeelongdouble, elfv1, elfv2.

-mabi=spe
Extend the current ABI with SPE ABI extensions. This does not
change the default ABI, instead it adds the SPE ABI extensions to
the current ABI.

-mabi=no-spe
Disable Book-E SPE ABI extensions for the current ABI.

-mabi=ibmlongdouble
Change the current ABI to use IBM extended-precision long double.
This is a PowerPC 32-bit SYSV ABI option.

-mabi=ieeelongdouble
Change the current ABI to use IEEE extended-precision long double.
This is a PowerPC 32-bit Linux ABI option.

-mabi=elfv1
Change the current ABI to use the ELFv1 ABI. This is the default
ABI for big-endian PowerPC 64-bit Linux. Overriding the default
ABI requires special system support and is likely to fail in
spectacular ways.

-mabi=elfv2
Change the current ABI to use the ELFv2 ABI. This is the default
ABI for little-endian PowerPC 64-bit Linux. Overriding the default
ABI requires special system support and is likely to fail in
spectacular ways.

-mprototype
-mno-prototype
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems assume that all calls to
variable argument functions are properly prototyped. Otherwise,
the compiler must insert an instruction before every non-prototyped
call to set or clear bit 6 of the condition code register (“CR”) to
indicate whether floating-point values are passed in the floating-
point registers in case the function takes variable arguments.
With -mprototype, only calls to prototyped variable argument
functions set or clear the bit.

-msim
On embedded PowerPC systems, assume that the startup module is
called sim-crt0.o and that the standard C libraries are libsim.a
and libc.a. This is the default for powerpc-*-eabisim
configurations.

-mmvme
On embedded PowerPC systems, assume that the startup module is
called crt0.o and the standard C libraries are libmvme.a and
libc.a.

-mads
On embedded PowerPC systems, assume that the startup module is
called crt0.o and the standard C libraries are libads.a and libc.a.

-myellowknife
On embedded PowerPC systems, assume that the startup module is
called crt0.o and the standard C libraries are libyk.a and libc.a.

-mvxworks
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems, specify that you are
compiling for a VxWorks system.

-memb
On embedded PowerPC systems, set the “PPC_EMB” bit in the ELF flags
header to indicate that eabi extended relocations are used.

-meabi
-mno-eabi
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems do (do not) adhere to
the Embedded Applications Binary Interface (EABI), which is a set
of modifications to the System V.4 specifications. Selecting
-meabi means that the stack is aligned to an 8-byte boundary, a
function “__eabi” is called from “main” to set up the EABI
environment, and the -msdata option can use both “r2” and “r13” to
point to two separate small data areas. Selecting -mno-eabi means
that the stack is aligned to a 16-byte boundary, no EABI
initialization function is called from “main”, and the -msdata
option only uses “r13” to point to a single small data area. The
-meabi option is on by default if you configured GCC using one of
the powerpc*-*-eabi* options.

-msdata=eabi
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems, put small initialized
“const” global and static data in the “.sdata2” section, which is
pointed to by register “r2”. Put small initialized non-“const”
global and static data in the “.sdata” section, which is pointed to
by register “r13”. Put small uninitialized global and static data
in the “.sbss” section, which is adjacent to the “.sdata” section.
The -msdata=eabi option is incompatible with the -mrelocatable
option. The -msdata=eabi option also sets the -memb option.

-msdata=sysv
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems, put small global and
static data in the “.sdata” section, which is pointed to by
register “r13”. Put small uninitialized global and static data in
the “.sbss” section, which is adjacent to the “.sdata” section.
The -msdata=sysv option is incompatible with the -mrelocatable
option.

-msdata=default
-msdata
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems, if -meabi is used,
compile code the same as -msdata=eabi, otherwise compile code the
same as -msdata=sysv.

-msdata=data
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems, put small global data
in the “.sdata” section. Put small uninitialized global data in
the “.sbss” section. Do not use register “r13” to address small
data however. This is the default behavior unless other -msdata
options are used.

-msdata=none
-mno-sdata
On embedded PowerPC systems, put all initialized global and static
data in the “.data” section, and all uninitialized data in the
“.bss” section.

-mblock-move-inline-limit=num
Inline all block moves (such as calls to “memcpy” or structure
copies) less than or equal to num bytes. The minimum value for num
is 32 bytes on 32-bit targets and 64 bytes on 64-bit targets. The
default value is target-specific.

-G num
On embedded PowerPC systems, put global and static items less than
or equal to num bytes into the small data or BSS sections instead
of the normal data or BSS section. By default, num is 8. The -G
num switch is also passed to the linker. All modules should be
compiled with the same -G num value.

-mregnames
-mno-regnames
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems do (do not) emit
register names in the assembly language output using symbolic
forms.

-mlongcall
-mno-longcall
By default assume that all calls are far away so that a longer and
more expensive calling sequence is required. This is required for
calls farther than 32 megabytes (33,554,432 bytes) from the current
location. A short call is generated if the compiler knows the call
cannot be that far away. This setting can be overridden by the
“shortcall” function attribute, or by “#pragma longcall(0)”.

Some linkers are capable of detecting out-of-range calls and
generating glue code on the fly. On these systems, long calls are
unnecessary and generate slower code. As of this writing, the AIX
linker can do this, as can the GNU linker for PowerPC/64. It is
planned to add this feature to the GNU linker for 32-bit PowerPC
systems as well.

On Darwin/PPC systems, “#pragma longcall” generates “jbsr callee,
L42”, plus a branch island (glue code). The two target addresses
represent the callee and the branch island. The Darwin/PPC linker
prefers the first address and generates a “bl callee” if the PPC
“bl” instruction reaches the callee directly; otherwise, the linker
generates “bl L42” to call the branch island. The branch island is
appended to the body of the calling function; it computes the full
32-bit address of the callee and jumps to it.

On Mach-O (Darwin) systems, this option directs the compiler emit
to the glue for every direct call, and the Darwin linker decides
whether to use or discard it.

In the future, GCC may ignore all longcall specifications when the
linker is known to generate glue.

-mtls-markers
-mno-tls-markers
Mark (do not mark) calls to “__tls_get_addr” with a relocation
specifying the function argument. The relocation allows the linker
to reliably associate function call with argument setup
instructions for TLS optimization, which in turn allows GCC to
better schedule the sequence.

-pthread
Adds support for multithreading with the pthreads library. This
option sets flags for both the preprocessor and linker.

-mrecip
-mno-recip
This option enables use of the reciprocal estimate and reciprocal
square root estimate instructions with additional Newton-Raphson
steps to increase precision instead of doing a divide or square
root and divide for floating-point arguments. You should use the
-ffast-math option when using -mrecip (or at least
-funsafe-math-optimizations, -finite-math-only, -freciprocal-math
and -fno-trapping-math). Note that while the throughput of the
sequence is generally higher than the throughput of the non-
reciprocal instruction, the precision of the sequence can be
decreased by up to 2 ulp (i.e. the inverse of 1.0 equals
0.99999994) for reciprocal square roots.

-mrecip=opt
This option controls which reciprocal estimate instructions may be
used. opt is a comma-separated list of options, which may be
preceded by a “!” to invert the option:

all Enable all estimate instructions.

default
Enable the default instructions, equivalent to -mrecip.

none
Disable all estimate instructions, equivalent to -mno-recip.

div Enable the reciprocal approximation instructions for both
single and double precision.

divf
Enable the single-precision reciprocal approximation
instructions.

divd
Enable the double-precision reciprocal approximation
instructions.

rsqrt
Enable the reciprocal square root approximation instructions
for both single and double precision.

rsqrtf
Enable the single-precision reciprocal square root
approximation instructions.

rsqrtd
Enable the double-precision reciprocal square root
approximation instructions.

So, for example, -mrecip=all,!rsqrtd enables all of the reciprocal
estimate instructions, except for the “FRSQRTE”, “XSRSQRTEDP”, and
“XVRSQRTEDP” instructions which handle the double-precision
reciprocal square root calculations.

-mrecip-precision
-mno-recip-precision
Assume (do not assume) that the reciprocal estimate instructions
provide higher-precision estimates than is mandated by the PowerPC
ABI. Selecting -mcpu=power6, -mcpu=power7 or -mcpu=power8
automatically selects -mrecip-precision. The double-precision
square root estimate instructions are not generated by default on
low-precision machines, since they do not provide an estimate that
converges after three steps.

-mveclibabi=type
Specifies the ABI type to use for vectorizing intrinsics using an
external library. The only type supported at present is mass,
which specifies to use IBM’s Mathematical Acceleration Subsystem
(MASS) libraries for vectorizing intrinsics using external
libraries. GCC currently emits calls to “acosd2”, “acosf4”,
“acoshd2”, “acoshf4”, “asind2”, “asinf4”, “asinhd2”, “asinhf4”,
“atan2d2”, “atan2f4”, “atand2”, “atanf4”, “atanhd2”, “atanhf4”,
“cbrtd2”, “cbrtf4”, “cosd2”, “cosf4”, “coshd2”, “coshf4”, “erfcd2”,
“erfcf4”, “erfd2”, “erff4”, “exp2d2”, “exp2f4”, “expd2”, “expf4”,
“expm1d2”, “expm1f4”, “hypotd2”, “hypotf4”, “lgammad2”, “lgammaf4”,
“log10d2”, “log10f4”, “log1pd2”, “log1pf4”, “log2d2”, “log2f4”,
“logd2”, “logf4”, “powd2”, “powf4”, “sind2”, “sinf4”, “sinhd2”,
“sinhf4”, “sqrtd2”, “sqrtf4”, “tand2”, “tanf4”, “tanhd2”, and
“tanhf4” when generating code for power7. Both -ftree-vectorize
and -funsafe-math-optimizations must also be enabled. The MASS
libraries must be specified at link time.

-mfriz
-mno-friz
Generate (do not generate) the “friz” instruction when the
-funsafe-math-optimizations option is used to optimize rounding of
floating-point values to 64-bit integer and back to floating point.
The “friz” instruction does not return the same value if the
floating-point number is too large to fit in an integer.

-mpointers-to-nested-functions
-mno-pointers-to-nested-functions
Generate (do not generate) code to load up the static chain
register (“r11”) when calling through a pointer on AIX and 64-bit
Linux systems where a function pointer points to a 3-word
descriptor giving the function address, TOC value to be loaded in
register “r2”, and static chain value to be loaded in register
“r11”. The -mpointers-to-nested-functions is on by default. You
cannot call through pointers to nested functions or pointers to
functions compiled in other languages that use the static chain if
you use -mno-pointers-to-nested-functions.

-msave-toc-indirect
-mno-save-toc-indirect
Generate (do not generate) code to save the TOC value in the
reserved stack location in the function prologue if the function
calls through a pointer on AIX and 64-bit Linux systems. If the
TOC value is not saved in the prologue, it is saved just before the
call through the pointer. The -mno-save-toc-indirect option is the
default.

-mcompat-align-parm
-mno-compat-align-parm
Generate (do not generate) code to pass structure parameters with a
maximum alignment of 64 bits, for compatibility with older versions
of GCC.

Older versions of GCC (prior to 4.9.0) incorrectly did not align a
structure parameter on a 128-bit boundary when that structure
contained a member requiring 128-bit alignment. This is corrected
in more recent versions of GCC. This option may be used to
generate code that is compatible with functions compiled with older
versions of GCC.

The -mno-compat-align-parm option is the default.

RX Options

These command-line options are defined for RX targets:

-m64bit-doubles
-m32bit-doubles
Make the “double” data type be 64 bits (-m64bit-doubles) or 32 bits
(-m32bit-doubles) in size. The default is -m32bit-doubles. Note
RX floating-point hardware only works on 32-bit values, which is
why the default is -m32bit-doubles.

-fpu
-nofpu
Enables (-fpu) or disables (-nofpu) the use of RX floating-point
hardware. The default is enabled for the RX600 series and disabled
for the RX200 series.

Floating-point instructions are only generated for 32-bit floating-
point values, however, so the FPU hardware is not used for doubles
if the -m64bit-doubles option is used.

Note If the -fpu option is enabled then -funsafe-math-optimizations
is also enabled automatically. This is because the RX FPU
instructions are themselves unsafe.

-mcpu=name
Selects the type of RX CPU to be targeted. Currently three types
are supported, the generic RX600 and RX200 series hardware and the
specific RX610 CPU. The default is RX600.

The only difference between RX600 and RX610 is that the RX610 does
not support the “MVTIPL” instruction.

The RX200 series does not have a hardware floating-point unit and
so -nofpu is enabled by default when this type is selected.

-mbig-endian-data
-mlittle-endian-data
Store data (but not code) in the big-endian format. The default is
-mlittle-endian-data, i.e. to store data in the little-endian
format.

-msmall-data-limit=N
Specifies the maximum size in bytes of global and static variables
which can be placed into the small data area. Using the small data
area can lead to smaller and faster code, but the size of area is
limited and it is up to the programmer to ensure that the area does
not overflow. Also when the small data area is used one of the
RX’s registers (usually “r13”) is reserved for use pointing to this
area, so it is no longer available for use by the compiler. This
could result in slower and/or larger code if variables are pushed
onto the stack instead of being held in this register.

Note, common variables (variables that have not been initialized)
and constants are not placed into the small data area as they are
assigned to other sections in the output executable.

The default value is zero, which disables this feature. Note, this
feature is not enabled by default with higher optimization levels
(-O2 etc) because of the potentially detrimental effects of
reserving a register. It is up to the programmer to experiment and
discover whether this feature is of benefit to their program. See
the description of the -mpid option for a description of how the
actual register to hold the small data area pointer is chosen.

-msim
-mno-sim
Use the simulator runtime. The default is to use the libgloss
board-specific runtime.

-mas100-syntax
-mno-as100-syntax
When generating assembler output use a syntax that is compatible
with Renesas’s AS100 assembler. This syntax can also be handled by
the GAS assembler, but it has some restrictions so it is not
generated by default.

-mmax-constant-size=N
Specifies the maximum size, in bytes, of a constant that can be
used as an operand in a RX instruction. Although the RX
instruction set does allow constants of up to 4 bytes in length to
be used in instructions, a longer value equates to a longer
instruction. Thus in some circumstances it can be beneficial to
restrict the size of constants that are used in instructions.
Constants that are too big are instead placed into a constant pool
and referenced via register indirection.

The value N can be between 0 and 4. A value of 0 (the default) or
4 means that constants of any size are allowed.

-mrelax
Enable linker relaxation. Linker relaxation is a process whereby
the linker attempts to reduce the size of a program by finding
shorter versions of various instructions. Disabled by default.

-mint-register=N
Specify the number of registers to reserve for fast interrupt
handler functions. The value N can be between 0 and 4. A value of
1 means that register “r13” is reserved for the exclusive use of
fast interrupt handlers. A value of 2 reserves “r13” and “r12”. A
value of 3 reserves “r13”, “r12” and “r11”, and a value of 4
reserves “r13” through “r10”. A value of 0, the default, does not
reserve any registers.

-msave-acc-in-interrupts
Specifies that interrupt handler functions should preserve the
accumulator register. This is only necessary if normal code might
use the accumulator register, for example because it performs
64-bit multiplications. The default is to ignore the accumulator
as this makes the interrupt handlers faster.

-mpid
-mno-pid
Enables the generation of position independent data. When enabled
any access to constant data is done via an offset from a base
address held in a register. This allows the location of constant
data to be determined at run time without requiring the executable
to be relocated, which is a benefit to embedded applications with
tight memory constraints. Data that can be modified is not
affected by this option.

Note, using this feature reserves a register, usually “r13”, for
the constant data base address. This can result in slower and/or
larger code, especially in complicated functions.

The actual register chosen to hold the constant data base address
depends upon whether the -msmall-data-limit and/or the
-mint-register command-line options are enabled. Starting with
register “r13” and proceeding downwards, registers are allocated
first to satisfy the requirements of -mint-register, then -mpid and
finally -msmall-data-limit. Thus it is possible for the small data
area register to be “r8” if both -mint-register=4 and -mpid are
specified on the command line.

By default this feature is not enabled. The default can be
restored via the -mno-pid command-line option.

-mno-warn-multiple-fast-interrupts
-mwarn-multiple-fast-interrupts
Prevents GCC from issuing a warning message if it finds more than
one fast interrupt handler when it is compiling a file. The
default is to issue a warning for each extra fast interrupt handler
found, as the RX only supports one such interrupt.

Note: The generic GCC command-line option -ffixed-reg has special
significance to the RX port when used with the “interrupt” function
attribute. This attribute indicates a function intended to process
fast interrupts. GCC ensures that it only uses the registers “r10”,
“r11”, “r12” and/or “r13” and only provided that the normal use of the
corresponding registers have been restricted via the -ffixed-reg or
-mint-register command-line options.

S/390 and zSeries Options

These are the -m options defined for the S/390 and zSeries
architecture.

-mhard-float
-msoft-float
Use (do not use) the hardware floating-point instructions and
registers for floating-point operations. When -msoft-float is
specified, functions in libgcc.a are used to perform floating-point
operations. When -mhard-float is specified, the compiler generates
IEEE floating-point instructions. This is the default.

-mhard-dfp
-mno-hard-dfp
Use (do not use) the hardware decimal-floating-point instructions
for decimal-floating-point operations. When -mno-hard-dfp is
specified, functions in libgcc.a are used to perform decimal-
floating-point operations. When -mhard-dfp is specified, the
compiler generates decimal-floating-point hardware instructions.
This is the default for -march=z9-ec or higher.

-mlong-double-64
-mlong-double-128
These switches control the size of “long double” type. A size of 64
bits makes the “long double” type equivalent to the “double” type.
This is the default.

-mbackchain
-mno-backchain
Store (do not store) the address of the caller’s frame as backchain
pointer into the callee’s stack frame. A backchain may be needed
to allow debugging using tools that do not understand DWARF 2 call
frame information. When -mno-packed-stack is in effect, the
backchain pointer is stored at the bottom of the stack frame; when
-mpacked-stack is in effect, the backchain is placed into the
topmost word of the 96/160 byte register save area.

In general, code compiled with -mbackchain is call-compatible with
code compiled with -mmo-backchain; however, use of the backchain
for debugging purposes usually requires that the whole binary is
built with -mbackchain. Note that the combination of -mbackchain,
-mpacked-stack and -mhard-float is not supported. In order to
build a linux kernel use -msoft-float.

The default is to not maintain the backchain.

-mpacked-stack
-mno-packed-stack
Use (do not use) the packed stack layout. When -mno-packed-stack
is specified, the compiler uses the all fields of the 96/160 byte
register save area only for their default purpose; unused fields
still take up stack space. When -mpacked-stack is specified,
register save slots are densely packed at the top of the register
save area; unused space is reused for other purposes, allowing for
more efficient use of the available stack space. However, when
-mbackchain is also in effect, the topmost word of the save area is
always used to store the backchain, and the return address register
is always saved two words below the backchain.

As long as the stack frame backchain is not used, code generated
with -mpacked-stack is call-compatible with code generated with
-mno-packed-stack. Note that some non-FSF releases of GCC 2.95 for
S/390 or zSeries generated code that uses the stack frame backchain
at run time, not just for debugging purposes. Such code is not
call-compatible with code compiled with -mpacked-stack. Also, note
that the combination of -mbackchain, -mpacked-stack and
-mhard-float is not supported. In order to build a linux kernel
use -msoft-float.

The default is to not use the packed stack layout.

-msmall-exec
-mno-small-exec
Generate (or do not generate) code using the “bras” instruction to
do subroutine calls. This only works reliably if the total
executable size does not exceed 64k. The default is to use the
“basr” instruction instead, which does not have this limitation.

-m64
-m31
When -m31 is specified, generate code compliant to the GNU/Linux
for S/390 ABI. When -m64 is specified, generate code compliant to
the GNU/Linux for zSeries ABI. This allows GCC in particular to
generate 64-bit instructions. For the s390 targets, the default is
-m31, while the s390x targets default to -m64.

-mzarch
-mesa
When -mzarch is specified, generate code using the instructions
available on z/Architecture. When -mesa is specified, generate
code using the instructions available on ESA/390. Note that -mesa
is not possible with -m64. When generating code compliant to the
GNU/Linux for S/390 ABI, the default is -mesa. When generating
code compliant to the GNU/Linux for zSeries ABI, the default is
-mzarch.

-mmvcle
-mno-mvcle
Generate (or do not generate) code using the “mvcle” instruction to
perform block moves. When -mno-mvcle is specified, use a “mvc”
loop instead. This is the default unless optimizing for size.

-mdebug
-mno-debug
Print (or do not print) additional debug information when
compiling. The default is to not print debug information.

-march=cpu-type
Generate code that runs on cpu-type, which is the name of a system
representing a certain processor type. Possible values for cpu-
type are g5, g6, z900, z990, z9-109, z9-ec, z10, z196, zEC12, and
z13. When generating code using the instructions available on
z/Architecture, the default is -march=z900. Otherwise, the default
is -march=g5.

-mtune=cpu-type
Tune to cpu-type everything applicable about the generated code,
except for the ABI and the set of available instructions. The list
of cpu-type values is the same as for -march. The default is the
value used for -march.

-mtpf-trace
-mno-tpf-trace
Generate code that adds (does not add) in TPF OS specific branches
to trace routines in the operating system. This option is off by
default, even when compiling for the TPF OS.

-mfused-madd
-mno-fused-madd
Generate code that uses (does not use) the floating-point multiply
and accumulate instructions. These instructions are generated by
default if hardware floating point is used.

-mwarn-framesize=framesize
Emit a warning if the current function exceeds the given frame
size. Because this is a compile-time check it doesn’t need to be a
real problem when the program runs. It is intended to identify
functions that most probably cause a stack overflow. It is useful
to be used in an environment with limited stack size e.g. the linux
kernel.

-mwarn-dynamicstack
Emit a warning if the function calls “alloca” or uses dynamically-
sized arrays. This is generally a bad idea with a limited stack
size.

-mstack-guard=stack-guard
-mstack-size=stack-size
If these options are provided the S/390 back end emits additional
instructions in the function prologue that trigger a trap if the
stack size is stack-guard bytes above the stack-size (remember that
the stack on S/390 grows downward). If the stack-guard option is
omitted the smallest power of 2 larger than the frame size of the
compiled function is chosen. These options are intended to be used
to help debugging stack overflow problems. The additionally
emitted code causes only little overhead and hence can also be used
in production-like systems without greater performance degradation.
The given values have to be exact powers of 2 and stack-size has to
be greater than stack-guard without exceeding 64k. In order to be
efficient the extra code makes the assumption that the stack starts
at an address aligned to the value given by stack-size. The stack-
guard option can only be used in conjunction with stack-size.

-mhotpatch=pre-halfwords,post-halfwords
If the hotpatch option is enabled, a “hot-patching” function
prologue is generated for all functions in the compilation unit.
The funtion label is prepended with the given number of two-byte
NOP instructions (pre-halfwords, maximum 1000000). After the
label, 2 * post-halfwords bytes are appended, using the largest NOP
like instructions the architecture allows (maximum 1000000).

If both arguments are zero, hotpatching is disabled.

This option can be overridden for individual functions with the
“hotpatch” attribute.

Score Options

These options are defined for Score implementations:

-meb
Compile code for big-endian mode. This is the default.

-mel
Compile code for little-endian mode.

-mnhwloop
Disable generation of “bcnz” instructions.

-muls
Enable generation of unaligned load and store instructions.

-mmac
Enable the use of multiply-accumulate instructions. Disabled by
default.

-mscore5
Specify the SCORE5 as the target architecture.

-mscore5u
Specify the SCORE5U of the target architecture.

-mscore7
Specify the SCORE7 as the target architecture. This is the default.

-mscore7d
Specify the SCORE7D as the target architecture.

SH Options

These -m options are defined for the SH implementations:

-m1 Generate code for the SH1.

-m2 Generate code for the SH2.

-m2e
Generate code for the SH2e.

-m2a-nofpu
Generate code for the SH2a without FPU, or for a SH2a-FPU in such a
way that the floating-point unit is not used.

-m2a-single-only
Generate code for the SH2a-FPU, in such a way that no double-
precision floating-point operations are used.

-m2a-single
Generate code for the SH2a-FPU assuming the floating-point unit is
in single-precision mode by default.

-m2a
Generate code for the SH2a-FPU assuming the floating-point unit is
in double-precision mode by default.

-m3 Generate code for the SH3.

-m3e
Generate code for the SH3e.

-m4-nofpu
Generate code for the SH4 without a floating-point unit.

-m4-single-only
Generate code for the SH4 with a floating-point unit that only
supports single-precision arithmetic.

-m4-single
Generate code for the SH4 assuming the floating-point unit is in
single-precision mode by default.

-m4 Generate code for the SH4.

-m4-100
Generate code for SH4-100.

-m4-100-nofpu
Generate code for SH4-100 in such a way that the floating-point
unit is not used.

-m4-100-single
Generate code for SH4-100 assuming the floating-point unit is in
single-precision mode by default.

-m4-100-single-only
Generate code for SH4-100 in such a way that no double-precision
floating-point operations are used.

-m4-200
Generate code for SH4-200.

-m4-200-nofpu
Generate code for SH4-200 without in such a way that the floating-
point unit is not used.

-m4-200-single
Generate code for SH4-200 assuming the floating-point unit is in
single-precision mode by default.

-m4-200-single-only
Generate code for SH4-200 in such a way that no double-precision
floating-point operations are used.

-m4-300
Generate code for SH4-300.

-m4-300-nofpu
Generate code for SH4-300 without in such a way that the floating-
point unit is not used.

-m4-300-single
Generate code for SH4-300 in such a way that no double-precision
floating-point operations are used.

-m4-300-single-only
Generate code for SH4-300 in such a way that no double-precision
floating-point operations are used.

-m4-340
Generate code for SH4-340 (no MMU, no FPU).

-m4-500
Generate code for SH4-500 (no FPU). Passes -isa=sh4-nofpu to the
assembler.

-m4a-nofpu
Generate code for the SH4al-dsp, or for a SH4a in such a way that
the floating-point unit is not used.

-m4a-single-only
Generate code for the SH4a, in such a way that no double-precision
floating-point operations are used.

-m4a-single
Generate code for the SH4a assuming the floating-point unit is in
single-precision mode by default.

-m4a
Generate code for the SH4a.

-m4al
Same as -m4a-nofpu, except that it implicitly passes -dsp to the
assembler. GCC doesn’t generate any DSP instructions at the
moment.

-m5-32media
Generate 32-bit code for SHmedia.

-m5-32media-nofpu
Generate 32-bit code for SHmedia in such a way that the floating-
point unit is not used.

-m5-64media
Generate 64-bit code for SHmedia.

-m5-64media-nofpu
Generate 64-bit code for SHmedia in such a way that the floating-
point unit is not used.

-m5-compact
Generate code for SHcompact.

-m5-compact-nofpu
Generate code for SHcompact in such a way that the floating-point
unit is not used.

-mb Compile code for the processor in big-endian mode.

-ml Compile code for the processor in little-endian mode.

-mdalign
Align doubles at 64-bit boundaries. Note that this changes the
calling conventions, and thus some functions from the standard C
library do not work unless you recompile it first with -mdalign.

-mrelax
Shorten some address references at link time, when possible; uses
the linker option -relax.

-mbigtable
Use 32-bit offsets in “switch” tables. The default is to use
16-bit offsets.

-mbitops
Enable the use of bit manipulation instructions on SH2A.

-mfmovd
Enable the use of the instruction “fmovd”. Check -mdalign for
alignment constraints.

-mrenesas
Comply with the calling conventions defined by Renesas.

-mno-renesas
Comply with the calling conventions defined for GCC before the
Renesas conventions were available. This option is the default for
all targets of the SH toolchain.

-mnomacsave
Mark the “MAC” register as call-clobbered, even if -mrenesas is
given.

-mieee
-mno-ieee
Control the IEEE compliance of floating-point comparisons, which
affects the handling of cases where the result of a comparison is
unordered. By default -mieee is implicitly enabled. If
-ffinite-math-only is enabled -mno-ieee is implicitly set, which
results in faster floating-point greater-equal and less-equal
comparisons. The implcit settings can be overridden by specifying
either -mieee or -mno-ieee.

-minline-ic_invalidate
Inline code to invalidate instruction cache entries after setting
up nested function trampolines. This option has no effect if
-musermode is in effect and the selected code generation option
(e.g. -m4) does not allow the use of the “icbi” instruction. If
the selected code generation option does not allow the use of the
“icbi” instruction, and -musermode is not in effect, the inlined
code manipulates the instruction cache address array directly with
an associative write. This not only requires privileged mode at
run time, but it also fails if the cache line had been mapped via
the TLB and has become unmapped.

-misize
Dump instruction size and location in the assembly code.

-mpadstruct
This option is deprecated. It pads structures to multiple of 4
bytes, which is incompatible with the SH ABI.

-matomic-model=model
Sets the model of atomic operations and additional parameters as a
comma separated list. For details on the atomic built-in functions
see __atomic Builtins. The following models and parameters are
supported:

none
Disable compiler generated atomic sequences and emit library
calls for atomic operations. This is the default if the target
is not “sh*-*-linux*”.

soft-gusa
Generate GNU/Linux compatible gUSA software atomic sequences
for the atomic built-in functions. The generated atomic
sequences require additional support from the
interrupt/exception handling code of the system and are only
suitable for SH3* and SH4* single-core systems. This option is
enabled by default when the target is “sh*-*-linux*” and SH3*
or SH4*. When the target is SH4A, this option also partially
utilizes the hardware atomic instructions “movli.l” and
“movco.l” to create more efficient code, unless strict is
specified.

soft-tcb
Generate software atomic sequences that use a variable in the
thread control block. This is a variation of the gUSA
sequences which can also be used on SH1* and SH2* targets. The
generated atomic sequences require additional support from the
interrupt/exception handling code of the system and are only
suitable for single-core systems. When using this model, the
gbr-offset= parameter has to be specified as well.

soft-imask
Generate software atomic sequences that temporarily disable
interrupts by setting “SR.IMASK = 1111”. This model works only
when the program runs in privileged mode and is only suitable
for single-core systems. Additional support from the
interrupt/exception handling code of the system is not
required. This model is enabled by default when the target is
“sh*-*-linux*” and SH1* or SH2*.

hard-llcs
Generate hardware atomic sequences using the “movli.l” and
“movco.l” instructions only. This is only available on SH4A
and is suitable for multi-core systems. Since the hardware
instructions support only 32 bit atomic variables access to 8
or 16 bit variables is emulated with 32 bit accesses. Code
compiled with this option is also compatible with other
software atomic model interrupt/exception handling systems if
executed on an SH4A system. Additional support from the
interrupt/exception handling code of the system is not required
for this model.

gbr-offset=
This parameter specifies the offset in bytes of the variable in
the thread control block structure that should be used by the
generated atomic sequences when the soft-tcb model has been
selected. For other models this parameter is ignored. The
specified value must be an integer multiple of four and in the
range 0-1020.

strict
This parameter prevents mixed usage of multiple atomic models,
even if they are compatible, and makes the compiler generate
atomic sequences of the specified model only.

-mtas
Generate the “tas.b” opcode for “__atomic_test_and_set”. Notice
that depending on the particular hardware and software
configuration this can degrade overall performance due to the
operand cache line flushes that are implied by the “tas.b”
instruction. On multi-core SH4A processors the “tas.b” instruction
must be used with caution since it can result in data corruption
for certain cache configurations.

-mprefergot
When generating position-independent code, emit function calls
using the Global Offset Table instead of the Procedure Linkage
Table.

-musermode
-mno-usermode
Don’t allow (allow) the compiler generating privileged mode code.
Specifying -musermode also implies -mno-inline-ic_invalidate if the
inlined code would not work in user mode. -musermode is the
default when the target is “sh*-*-linux*”. If the target is SH1*
or SH2* -musermode has no effect, since there is no user mode.

-multcost=number
Set the cost to assume for a multiply insn.

-mdiv=strategy
Set the division strategy to be used for integer division
operations. For SHmedia strategy can be one of:

fp Performs the operation in floating point. This has a very high
latency, but needs only a few instructions, so it might be a
good choice if your code has enough easily-exploitable ILP to
allow the compiler to schedule the floating-point instructions
together with other instructions. Division by zero causes a
floating-point exception.

inv Uses integer operations to calculate the inverse of the
divisor, and then multiplies the dividend with the inverse.
This strategy allows CSE and hoisting of the inverse
calculation. Division by zero calculates an unspecified
result, but does not trap.

inv:minlat
A variant of inv where, if no CSE or hoisting opportunities
have been found, or if the entire operation has been hoisted to
the same place, the last stages of the inverse calculation are
intertwined with the final multiply to reduce the overall
latency, at the expense of using a few more instructions, and
thus offering fewer scheduling opportunities with other code.

call
Calls a library function that usually implements the inv:minlat
strategy. This gives high code density for “m5-*media-nofpu”
compilations.

call2
Uses a different entry point of the same library function,
where it assumes that a pointer to a lookup table has already
been set up, which exposes the pointer load to CSE and code
hoisting optimizations.

inv:call
inv:call2
inv:fp
Use the inv algorithm for initial code generation, but if the
code stays unoptimized, revert to the call, call2, or fp
strategies, respectively. Note that the potentially-trapping
side effect of division by zero is carried by a separate
instruction, so it is possible that all the integer
instructions are hoisted out, but the marker for the side
effect stays where it is. A recombination to floating-point
operations or a call is not possible in that case.

inv20u
inv20l
Variants of the inv:minlat strategy. In the case that the
inverse calculation is not separated from the multiply, they
speed up division where the dividend fits into 20 bits (plus
sign where applicable) by inserting a test to skip a number of
operations in this case; this test slows down the case of
larger dividends. inv20u assumes the case of a such a small
dividend to be unlikely, and inv20l assumes it to be likely.

For targets other than SHmedia strategy can be one of:

call-div1
Calls a library function that uses the single-step division
instruction “div1” to perform the operation. Division by zero
calculates an unspecified result and does not trap. This is
the default except for SH4, SH2A and SHcompact.

call-fp
Calls a library function that performs the operation in double
precision floating point. Division by zero causes a floating-
point exception. This is the default for SHcompact with FPU.
Specifying this for targets that do not have a double precision
FPU defaults to “call-div1”.

call-table
Calls a library function that uses a lookup table for small
divisors and the “div1” instruction with case distinction for
larger divisors. Division by zero calculates an unspecified
result and does not trap. This is the default for SH4.
Specifying this for targets that do not have dynamic shift
instructions defaults to “call-div1”.

When a division strategy has not been specified the default
strategy is selected based on the current target. For SH2A the
default strategy is to use the “divs” and “divu” instructions
instead of library function calls.

-maccumulate-outgoing-args
Reserve space once for outgoing arguments in the function prologue
rather than around each call. Generally beneficial for performance
and size. Also needed for unwinding to avoid changing the stack
frame around conditional code.

-mdivsi3_libfunc=name
Set the name of the library function used for 32-bit signed
division to name. This only affects the name used in the call and
inv:call division strategies, and the compiler still expects the
same sets of input/output/clobbered registers as if this option
were not present.

-mfixed-range=register-range
Generate code treating the given register range as fixed registers.
A fixed register is one that the register allocator can not use.
This is useful when compiling kernel code. A register range is
specified as two registers separated by a dash. Multiple register
ranges can be specified separated by a comma.

-mindexed-addressing
Enable the use of the indexed addressing mode for
SHmedia32/SHcompact. This is only safe if the hardware and/or OS
implement 32-bit wrap-around semantics for the indexed addressing
mode. The architecture allows the implementation of processors
with 64-bit MMU, which the OS could use to get 32-bit addressing,
but since no current hardware implementation supports this or any
other way to make the indexed addressing mode safe to use in the
32-bit ABI, the default is -mno-indexed-addressing.

-mgettrcost=number
Set the cost assumed for the “gettr” instruction to number. The
default is 2 if -mpt-fixed is in effect, 100 otherwise.

-mpt-fixed
Assume “pt*” instructions won’t trap. This generally generates
better-scheduled code, but is unsafe on current hardware. The
current architecture definition says that “ptabs” and “ptrel” trap
when the target anded with 3 is 3. This has the unintentional
effect of making it unsafe to schedule these instructions before a
branch, or hoist them out of a loop. For example,
“__do_global_ctors”, a part of libgcc that runs constructors at
program startup, calls functions in a list which is delimited by
-1. With the -mpt-fixed option, the “ptabs” is done before testing
against -1. That means that all the constructors run a bit more
quickly, but when the loop comes to the end of the list, the
program crashes because “ptabs” loads -1 into a target register.

Since this option is unsafe for any hardware implementing the
current architecture specification, the default is -mno-pt-fixed.
Unless specified explicitly with -mgettrcost, -mno-pt-fixed also
implies -mgettrcost=100; this deters register allocation from using
target registers for storing ordinary integers.

-minvalid-symbols
Assume symbols might be invalid. Ordinary function symbols
generated by the compiler are always valid to load with
“movi”/”shori”/”ptabs” or “movi”/”shori”/”ptrel”, but with
assembler and/or linker tricks it is possible to generate symbols
that cause “ptabs” or “ptrel” to trap. This option is only
meaningful when -mno-pt-fixed is in effect. It prevents cross-
basic-block CSE, hoisting and most scheduling of symbol loads. The
default is -mno-invalid-symbols.

-mbranch-cost=num
Assume num to be the cost for a branch instruction. Higher numbers
make the compiler try to generate more branch-free code if
possible. If not specified the value is selected depending on the
processor type that is being compiled for.

-mzdcbranch
-mno-zdcbranch
Assume (do not assume) that zero displacement conditional branch
instructions “bt” and “bf” are fast. If -mzdcbranch is specified,
the compiler prefers zero displacement branch code sequences. This
is enabled by default when generating code for SH4 and SH4A. It
can be explicitly disabled by specifying -mno-zdcbranch.

-mcbranch-force-delay-slot
Force the usage of delay slots for conditional branches, which
stuffs the delay slot with a “nop” if a suitable instruction can’t
be found. By default this option is disabled. It can be enabled
to work around hardware bugs as found in the original SH7055.

-mfused-madd
-mno-fused-madd
Generate code that uses (does not use) the floating-point multiply
and accumulate instructions. These instructions are generated by
default if hardware floating point is used. The machine-dependent
-mfused-madd option is now mapped to the machine-independent
-ffp-contract=fast option, and -mno-fused-madd is mapped to
-ffp-contract=off.

-mfsca
-mno-fsca
Allow or disallow the compiler to emit the “fsca” instruction for
sine and cosine approximations. The option -mfsca must be used in
combination with -funsafe-math-optimizations. It is enabled by
default when generating code for SH4A. Using -mno-fsca disables
sine and cosine approximations even if -funsafe-math-optimizations
is in effect.

-mfsrra
-mno-fsrra
Allow or disallow the compiler to emit the “fsrra” instruction for
reciprocal square root approximations. The option -mfsrra must be
used in combination with -funsafe-math-optimizations and
-ffinite-math-only. It is enabled by default when generating code
for SH4A. Using -mno-fsrra disables reciprocal square root
approximations even if -funsafe-math-optimizations and
-ffinite-math-only are in effect.

-mpretend-cmove
Prefer zero-displacement conditional branches for conditional move
instruction patterns. This can result in faster code on the SH4
processor.

Solaris 2 Options

These -m options are supported on Solaris 2:

-mclear-hwcap
-mclear-hwcap tells the compiler to remove the hardware
capabilities generated by the Solaris assembler. This is only
necessary when object files use ISA extensions not supported by the
current machine, but check at runtime whether or not to use them.

-mimpure-text
-mimpure-text, used in addition to -shared, tells the compiler to
not pass -z text to the linker when linking a shared object. Using
this option, you can link position-dependent code into a shared
object.

-mimpure-text suppresses the “relocations remain against
allocatable but non-writable sections” linker error message.
However, the necessary relocations trigger copy-on-write, and the
shared object is not actually shared across processes. Instead of
using -mimpure-text, you should compile all source code with -fpic
or -fPIC.

These switches are supported in addition to the above on Solaris 2:

-pthreads
Add support for multithreading using the POSIX threads library.
This option sets flags for both the preprocessor and linker. This
option does not affect the thread safety of object code produced
by the compiler or that of libraries supplied with it.

-pthread
This is a synonym for -pthreads.

SPARC Options

These -m options are supported on the SPARC:

-mno-app-regs
-mapp-regs
Specify -mapp-regs to generate output using the global registers 2
through 4, which the SPARC SVR4 ABI reserves for applications.
Like the global register 1, each global register 2 through 4 is
then treated as an allocable register that is clobbered by function
calls. This is the default.

To be fully SVR4 ABI-compliant at the cost of some performance
loss, specify -mno-app-regs. You should compile libraries and
system software with this option.

-mflat
-mno-flat
With -mflat, the compiler does not generate save/restore
instructions and uses a “flat” or single register window model.
This model is compatible with the regular register window model.
The local registers and the input registers (0–5) are still
treated as “call-saved” registers and are saved on the stack as
needed.

With -mno-flat (the default), the compiler generates save/restore
instructions (except for leaf functions). This is the normal
operating mode.

-mfpu
-mhard-float
Generate output containing floating-point instructions. This is
the default.

-mno-fpu
-msoft-float
Generate output containing library calls for floating point.
Warning: the requisite libraries are not available for all SPARC
targets. Normally the facilities of the machine’s usual C compiler
are used, but this cannot be done directly in cross-compilation.
You must make your own arrangements to provide suitable library
functions for cross-compilation. The embedded targets sparc-*-aout
and sparclite-*-* do provide software floating-point support.

-msoft-float changes the calling convention in the output file;
therefore, it is only useful if you compile all of a program with
this option. In particular, you need to compile libgcc.a, the
library that comes with GCC, with -msoft-float in order for this to
work.

-mhard-quad-float
Generate output containing quad-word (long double) floating-point
instructions.

-msoft-quad-float
Generate output containing library calls for quad-word (long
double) floating-point instructions. The functions called are
those specified in the SPARC ABI. This is the default.

As of this writing, there are no SPARC implementations that have
hardware support for the quad-word floating-point instructions.
They all invoke a trap handler for one of these instructions, and
then the trap handler emulates the effect of the instruction.
Because of the trap handler overhead, this is much slower than
calling the ABI library routines. Thus the -msoft-quad-float
option is the default.

-mno-unaligned-doubles
-munaligned-doubles
Assume that doubles have 8-byte alignment. This is the default.

With -munaligned-doubles, GCC assumes that doubles have 8-byte
alignment only if they are contained in another type, or if they
have an absolute address. Otherwise, it assumes they have 4-byte
alignment. Specifying this option avoids some rare compatibility
problems with code generated by other compilers. It is not the
default because it results in a performance loss, especially for
floating-point code.

-muser-mode
-mno-user-mode
Do not generate code that can only run in supervisor mode. This is
relevant only for the “casa” instruction emitted for the LEON3
processor. This is the default.

-mno-faster-structs
-mfaster-structs
With -mfaster-structs, the compiler assumes that structures should
have 8-byte alignment. This enables the use of pairs of “ldd” and
“std” instructions for copies in structure assignment, in place of
twice as many “ld” and “st” pairs. However, the use of this
changed alignment directly violates the SPARC ABI. Thus, it’s
intended only for use on targets where the developer acknowledges
that their resulting code is not directly in line with the rules of
the ABI.

-mcpu=cpu_type
Set the instruction set, register set, and instruction scheduling
parameters for machine type cpu_type. Supported values for
cpu_type are v7, cypress, v8, supersparc, hypersparc, leon, leon3,
leon3v7, sparclite, f930, f934, sparclite86x, sparclet, tsc701, v9,
ultrasparc, ultrasparc3, niagara, niagara2, niagara3 and niagara4.

Native Solaris and GNU/Linux toolchains also support the value
native, which selects the best architecture option for the host
processor. -mcpu=native has no effect if GCC does not recognize
the processor.

Default instruction scheduling parameters are used for values that
select an architecture and not an implementation. These are v7,
v8, sparclite, sparclet, v9.

Here is a list of each supported architecture and their supported
implementations.

v7 cypress, leon3v7

v8 supersparc, hypersparc, leon, leon3

sparclite
f930, f934, sparclite86x

sparclet
tsc701

v9 ultrasparc, ultrasparc3, niagara, niagara2, niagara3, niagara4

By default (unless configured otherwise), GCC generates code for
the V7 variant of the SPARC architecture. With -mcpu=cypress, the
compiler additionally optimizes it for the Cypress CY7C602 chip, as
used in the SPARCStation/SPARCServer 3xx series. This is also
appropriate for the older SPARCStation 1, 2, IPX etc.

With -mcpu=v8, GCC generates code for the V8 variant of the SPARC
architecture. The only difference from V7 code is that the
compiler emits the integer multiply and integer divide instructions
which exist in SPARC-V8 but not in SPARC-V7. With
-mcpu=supersparc, the compiler additionally optimizes it for the
SuperSPARC chip, as used in the SPARCStation 10, 1000 and 2000
series.

With -mcpu=sparclite, GCC generates code for the SPARClite variant
of the SPARC architecture. This adds the integer multiply, integer
divide step and scan (“ffs”) instructions which exist in SPARClite
but not in SPARC-V7. With -mcpu=f930, the compiler additionally
optimizes it for the Fujitsu MB86930 chip, which is the original
SPARClite, with no FPU. With -mcpu=f934, the compiler additionally
optimizes it for the Fujitsu MB86934 chip, which is the more recent
SPARClite with FPU.

With -mcpu=sparclet, GCC generates code for the SPARClet variant of
the SPARC architecture. This adds the integer multiply,
multiply/accumulate, integer divide step and scan (“ffs”)
instructions which exist in SPARClet but not in SPARC-V7. With
-mcpu=tsc701, the compiler additionally optimizes it for the TEMIC
SPARClet chip.

With -mcpu=v9, GCC generates code for the V9 variant of the SPARC
architecture. This adds 64-bit integer and floating-point move
instructions, 3 additional floating-point condition code registers
and conditional move instructions. With -mcpu=ultrasparc, the
compiler additionally optimizes it for the Sun UltraSPARC I/II/IIi
chips. With -mcpu=ultrasparc3, the compiler additionally optimizes
it for the Sun UltraSPARC III/III+/IIIi/IIIi+/IV/IV+ chips. With
-mcpu=niagara, the compiler additionally optimizes it for Sun
UltraSPARC T1 chips. With -mcpu=niagara2, the compiler
additionally optimizes it for Sun UltraSPARC T2 chips. With
-mcpu=niagara3, the compiler additionally optimizes it for Sun
UltraSPARC T3 chips. With -mcpu=niagara4, the compiler
additionally optimizes it for Sun UltraSPARC T4 chips.

-mtune=cpu_type
Set the instruction scheduling parameters for machine type
cpu_type, but do not set the instruction set or register set that
the option -mcpu=cpu_type does.

The same values for -mcpu=cpu_type can be used for -mtune=cpu_type,
but the only useful values are those that select a particular CPU
implementation. Those are cypress, supersparc, hypersparc, leon,
leon3, leon3v7, f930, f934, sparclite86x, tsc701, ultrasparc,
ultrasparc3, niagara, niagara2, niagara3 and niagara4. With native
Solaris and GNU/Linux toolchains, native can also be used.

-mv8plus
-mno-v8plus
With -mv8plus, GCC generates code for the SPARC-V8+ ABI. The
difference from the V8 ABI is that the global and out registers are
considered 64 bits wide. This is enabled by default on Solaris in
32-bit mode for all SPARC-V9 processors.

-mvis
-mno-vis
With -mvis, GCC generates code that takes advantage of the
UltraSPARC Visual Instruction Set extensions. The default is
-mno-vis.

-mvis2
-mno-vis2
With -mvis2, GCC generates code that takes advantage of version 2.0
of the UltraSPARC Visual Instruction Set extensions. The default
is -mvis2 when targeting a cpu that supports such instructions,
such as UltraSPARC-III and later. Setting -mvis2 also sets -mvis.

-mvis3
-mno-vis3
With -mvis3, GCC generates code that takes advantage of version 3.0
of the UltraSPARC Visual Instruction Set extensions. The default
is -mvis3 when targeting a cpu that supports such instructions,
such as niagara-3 and later. Setting -mvis3 also sets -mvis2 and
-mvis.

-mcbcond
-mno-cbcond
With -mcbcond, GCC generates code that takes advantage of compare-
and-branch instructions, as defined in the Sparc Architecture 2011.
The default is -mcbcond when targeting a cpu that supports such
instructions, such as niagara-4 and later.

-mpopc
-mno-popc
With -mpopc, GCC generates code that takes advantage of the
UltraSPARC population count instruction. The default is -mpopc
when targeting a cpu that supports such instructions, such as
Niagara-2 and later.

-mfmaf
-mno-fmaf
With -mfmaf, GCC generates code that takes advantage of the
UltraSPARC Fused Multiply-Add Floating-point extensions. The
default is -mfmaf when targeting a cpu that supports such
instructions, such as Niagara-3 and later.

-mfix-at697f
Enable the documented workaround for the single erratum of the
Atmel AT697F processor (which corresponds to erratum #13 of the
AT697E processor).

-mfix-ut699
Enable the documented workarounds for the floating-point errata and
the data cache nullify errata of the UT699 processor.

These -m options are supported in addition to the above on SPARC-V9
processors in 64-bit environments:

-m32
-m64
Generate code for a 32-bit or 64-bit environment. The 32-bit
environment sets int, long and pointer to 32 bits. The 64-bit
environment sets int to 32 bits and long and pointer to 64 bits.

-mcmodel=which
Set the code model to one of

medlow
The Medium/Low code model: 64-bit addresses, programs must be
linked in the low 32 bits of memory. Programs can be
statically or dynamically linked.

medmid
The Medium/Middle code model: 64-bit addresses, programs must
be linked in the low 44 bits of memory, the text and data
segments must be less than 2GB in size and the data segment
must be located within 2GB of the text segment.

medany
The Medium/Anywhere code model: 64-bit addresses, programs may
be linked anywhere in memory, the text and data segments must
be less than 2GB in size and the data segment must be located
within 2GB of the text segment.

embmedany
The Medium/Anywhere code model for embedded systems: 64-bit
addresses, the text and data segments must be less than 2GB in
size, both starting anywhere in memory (determined at link
time). The global register %g4 points to the base of the data
segment. Programs are statically linked and PIC is not
supported.

-mmemory-model=mem-model
Set the memory model in force on the processor to one of

default
The default memory model for the processor and operating
system.

rmo Relaxed Memory Order

pso Partial Store Order

tso Total Store Order

sc Sequential Consistency

These memory models are formally defined in Appendix D of the Sparc
V9 architecture manual, as set in the processor’s “PSTATE.MM”
field.

-mstack-bias
-mno-stack-bias
With -mstack-bias, GCC assumes that the stack pointer, and frame
pointer if present, are offset by -2047 which must be added back
when making stack frame references. This is the default in 64-bit
mode. Otherwise, assume no such offset is present.

SPU Options

These -m options are supported on the SPU:

-mwarn-reloc
-merror-reloc
The loader for SPU does not handle dynamic relocations. By
default, GCC gives an error when it generates code that requires a
dynamic relocation. -mno-error-reloc disables the error,
-mwarn-reloc generates a warning instead.

-msafe-dma
-munsafe-dma
Instructions that initiate or test completion of DMA must not be
reordered with respect to loads and stores of the memory that is
being accessed. With -munsafe-dma you must use the “volatile”
keyword to protect memory accesses, but that can lead to
inefficient code in places where the memory is known to not change.
Rather than mark the memory as volatile, you can use -msafe-dma to
tell the compiler to treat the DMA instructions as potentially
affecting all memory.

-mbranch-hints
By default, GCC generates a branch hint instruction to avoid
pipeline stalls for always-taken or probably-taken branches. A
hint is not generated closer than 8 instructions away from its
branch. There is little reason to disable them, except for
debugging purposes, or to make an object a little bit smaller.

-msmall-mem
-mlarge-mem
By default, GCC generates code assuming that addresses are never
larger than 18 bits. With -mlarge-mem code is generated that
assumes a full 32-bit address.

-mstdmain
By default, GCC links against startup code that assumes the SPU-
style main function interface (which has an unconventional
parameter list). With -mstdmain, GCC links your program against
startup code that assumes a C99-style interface to “main”,
including a local copy of “argv” strings.

-mfixed-range=register-range
Generate code treating the given register range as fixed registers.
A fixed register is one that the register allocator cannot use.
This is useful when compiling kernel code. A register range is
specified as two registers separated by a dash. Multiple register
ranges can be specified separated by a comma.

-mea32
-mea64
Compile code assuming that pointers to the PPU address space
accessed via the “__ea” named address space qualifier are either 32
or 64 bits wide. The default is 32 bits. As this is an ABI-
changing option, all object code in an executable must be compiled
with the same setting.

-maddress-space-conversion
-mno-address-space-conversion
Allow/disallow treating the “__ea” address space as superset of the
generic address space. This enables explicit type casts between
“__ea” and generic pointer as well as implicit conversions of
generic pointers to “__ea” pointers. The default is to allow
address space pointer conversions.

-mcache-size=cache-size
This option controls the version of libgcc that the compiler links
to an executable and selects a software-managed cache for accessing
variables in the “__ea” address space with a particular cache size.
Possible options for cache-size are 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128. The
default cache size is 64KB.

-matomic-updates
-mno-atomic-updates
This option controls the version of libgcc that the compiler links
to an executable and selects whether atomic updates to the
software-managed cache of PPU-side variables are used. If you use
atomic updates, changes to a PPU variable from SPU code using the
“__ea” named address space qualifier do not interfere with changes
to other PPU variables residing in the same cache line from PPU
code. If you do not use atomic updates, such interference may
occur; however, writing back cache lines is more efficient. The
default behavior is to use atomic updates.

-mdual-nops
-mdual-nops=n
By default, GCC inserts nops to increase dual issue when it expects
it to increase performance. n can be a value from 0 to 10. A
smaller n inserts fewer nops. 10 is the default, 0 is the same as
-mno-dual-nops. Disabled with -Os.

-mhint-max-nops=n
Maximum number of nops to insert for a branch hint. A branch hint
must be at least 8 instructions away from the branch it is
affecting. GCC inserts up to n nops to enforce this, otherwise it
does not generate the branch hint.

-mhint-max-distance=n
The encoding of the branch hint instruction limits the hint to be
within 256 instructions of the branch it is affecting. By default,
GCC makes sure it is within 125.

-msafe-hints
Work around a hardware bug that causes the SPU to stall
indefinitely. By default, GCC inserts the “hbrp” instruction to
make sure this stall won’t happen.

Options for System V

These additional options are available on System V Release 4 for
compatibility with other compilers on those systems:

-G Create a shared object. It is recommended that -symbolic or
-shared be used instead.

-Qy Identify the versions of each tool used by the compiler, in a
“.ident” assembler directive in the output.

-Qn Refrain from adding “.ident” directives to the output file (this is
the default).

-YP,dirs
Search the directories dirs, and no others, for libraries specified
with -l.

-Ym,dir
Look in the directory dir to find the M4 preprocessor. The
assembler uses this option.

TILE-Gx Options

These -m options are supported on the TILE-Gx:

-mcmodel=small
Generate code for the small model. The distance for direct calls
is limited to 500M in either direction. PC-relative addresses are
32 bits. Absolute addresses support the full address range.

-mcmodel=large
Generate code for the large model. There is no limitation on call
distance, pc-relative addresses, or absolute addresses.

-mcpu=name
Selects the type of CPU to be targeted. Currently the only
supported type is tilegx.

-m32
-m64
Generate code for a 32-bit or 64-bit environment. The 32-bit
environment sets int, long, and pointer to 32 bits. The 64-bit
environment sets int to 32 bits and long and pointer to 64 bits.

-mbig-endian
-mlittle-endian
Generate code in big/little endian mode, respectively.

TILEPro Options

These -m options are supported on the TILEPro:

-mcpu=name
Selects the type of CPU to be targeted. Currently the only
supported type is tilepro.

-m32
Generate code for a 32-bit environment, which sets int, long, and
pointer to 32 bits. This is the only supported behavior so the
flag is essentially ignored.

V850 Options

These -m options are defined for V850 implementations:

-mlong-calls
-mno-long-calls
Treat all calls as being far away (near). If calls are assumed to
be far away, the compiler always loads the function’s address into
a register, and calls indirect through the pointer.

-mno-ep
-mep
Do not optimize (do optimize) basic blocks that use the same index
pointer 4 or more times to copy pointer into the “ep” register, and
use the shorter “sld” and “sst” instructions. The -mep option is
on by default if you optimize.

-mno-prolog-function
-mprolog-function
Do not use (do use) external functions to save and restore
registers at the prologue and epilogue of a function. The external
functions are slower, but use less code space if more than one
function saves the same number of registers. The -mprolog-function
option is on by default if you optimize.

-mspace
Try to make the code as small as possible. At present, this just
turns on the -mep and -mprolog-function options.

-mtda=n
Put static or global variables whose size is n bytes or less into
the tiny data area that register “ep” points to. The tiny data
area can hold up to 256 bytes in total (128 bytes for byte
references).

-msda=n
Put static or global variables whose size is n bytes or less into
the small data area that register “gp” points to. The small data
area can hold up to 64 kilobytes.

-mzda=n
Put static or global variables whose size is n bytes or less into
the first 32 kilobytes of memory.

-mv850
Specify that the target processor is the V850.

-mv850e3v5
Specify that the target processor is the V850E3V5. The
preprocessor constant “__v850e3v5__” is defined if this option is
used.

-mv850e2v4
Specify that the target processor is the V850E3V5. This is an
alias for the -mv850e3v5 option.

-mv850e2v3
Specify that the target processor is the V850E2V3. The
preprocessor constant “__v850e2v3__” is defined if this option is
used.

-mv850e2
Specify that the target processor is the V850E2. The preprocessor
constant “__v850e2__” is defined if this option is used.

-mv850e1
Specify that the target processor is the V850E1. The preprocessor
constants “__v850e1__” and “__v850e__” are defined if this option
is used.

-mv850es
Specify that the target processor is the V850ES. This is an alias
for the -mv850e1 option.

-mv850e
Specify that the target processor is the V850E. The preprocessor
constant “__v850e__” is defined if this option is used.

If neither -mv850 nor -mv850e nor -mv850e1 nor -mv850e2 nor
-mv850e2v3 nor -mv850e3v5 are defined then a default target
processor is chosen and the relevant __v850*__ preprocessor
constant is defined.

The preprocessor constants “__v850” and “__v851__” are always
defined, regardless of which processor variant is the target.

-mdisable-callt
-mno-disable-callt
This option suppresses generation of the “CALLT” instruction for
the v850e, v850e1, v850e2, v850e2v3 and v850e3v5 flavors of the
v850 architecture.

This option is enabled by default when the RH850 ABI is in use (see
-mrh850-abi), and disabled by default when the GCC ABI is in use.
If “CALLT” instructions are being generated then the C preprocessor
symbol “__V850_CALLT__” is defined.

-mrelax
-mno-relax
Pass on (or do not pass on) the -mrelax command-line option to the
assembler.

-mlong-jumps
-mno-long-jumps
Disable (or re-enable) the generation of PC-relative jump
instructions.

-msoft-float
-mhard-float
Disable (or re-enable) the generation of hardware floating point
instructions. This option is only significant when the target
architecture is V850E2V3 or higher. If hardware floating point
instructions are being generated then the C preprocessor symbol
“__FPU_OK__” is defined, otherwise the symbol “__NO_FPU__” is
defined.

-mloop
Enables the use of the e3v5 LOOP instruction. The use of this
instruction is not enabled by default when the e3v5 architecture is
selected because its use is still experimental.

-mrh850-abi
-mghs
Enables support for the RH850 version of the V850 ABI. This is the
default. With this version of the ABI the following rules apply:

* Integer sized structures and unions are returned via a memory
pointer rather than a register.

* Large structures and unions (more than 8 bytes in size) are
passed by value.

* Functions are aligned to 16-bit boundaries.

* The -m8byte-align command-line option is supported.

* The -mdisable-callt command-line option is enabled by default.
The -mno-disable-callt command-line option is not supported.

When this version of the ABI is enabled the C preprocessor symbol
“__V850_RH850_ABI__” is defined.

-mgcc-abi
Enables support for the old GCC version of the V850 ABI. With this
version of the ABI the following rules apply:

* Integer sized structures and unions are returned in register
“r10”.

* Large structures and unions (more than 8 bytes in size) are
passed by reference.

* Functions are aligned to 32-bit boundaries, unless optimizing
for size.

* The -m8byte-align command-line option is not supported.

* The -mdisable-callt command-line option is supported but not
enabled by default.

When this version of the ABI is enabled the C preprocessor symbol
“__V850_GCC_ABI__” is defined.

-m8byte-align
-mno-8byte-align
Enables support for “double” and “long long” types to be aligned on
8-byte boundaries. The default is to restrict the alignment of all
objects to at most 4-bytes. When -m8byte-align is in effect the C
preprocessor symbol “__V850_8BYTE_ALIGN__” is defined.

-mbig-switch
Generate code suitable for big switch tables. Use this option only
if the assembler/linker complain about out of range branches within
a switch table.

-mapp-regs
This option causes r2 and r5 to be used in the code generated by
the compiler. This setting is the default.

-mno-app-regs
This option causes r2 and r5 to be treated as fixed registers.

VAX Options

These -m options are defined for the VAX:

-munix
Do not output certain jump instructions (“aobleq” and so on) that
the Unix assembler for the VAX cannot handle across long ranges.

-mgnu
Do output those jump instructions, on the assumption that the GNU
assembler is being used.

-mg Output code for G-format floating-point numbers instead of
D-format.

Visium Options

-mdebug
A program which performs file I/O and is destined to run on an MCM
target should be linked with this option. It causes the libraries
libc.a and libdebug.a to be linked. The program should be run on
the target under the control of the GDB remote debugging stub.

-msim
A program which performs file I/O and is destined to run on the
simulator should be linked with option. This causes libraries
libc.a and libsim.a to be linked.

-mfpu
-mhard-float
Generate code containing floating-point instructions. This is the
default.

-mno-fpu
-msoft-float
Generate code containing library calls for floating-point.

-msoft-float changes the calling convention in the output file;
therefore, it is only useful if you compile all of a program with
this option. In particular, you need to compile libgcc.a, the
library that comes with GCC, with -msoft-float in order for this to
work.

-mcpu=cpu_type
Set the instruction set, register set, and instruction scheduling
parameters for machine type cpu_type. Supported values for
cpu_type are mcm, gr5 and gr6.

mcm is a synonym of gr5 present for backward compatibility.

By default (unless configured otherwise), GCC generates code for
the GR5 variant of the Visium architecture.

With -mcpu=gr6, GCC generates code for the GR6 variant of the
Visium architecture. The only difference from GR5 code is that the
compiler will generate block move instructions.

-mtune=cpu_type
Set the instruction scheduling parameters for machine type
cpu_type, but do not set the instruction set or register set that
the option -mcpu=cpu_type would.

-msv-mode
Generate code for the supervisor mode, where there are no
restrictions on the access to general registers. This is the
default.

-muser-mode
Generate code for the user mode, where the access to some general
registers is forbidden: on the GR5, registers r24 to r31 cannot be
accessed in this mode; on the GR6, only registers r29 to r31 are
affected.

VMS Options

These -m options are defined for the VMS implementations:

-mvms-return-codes
Return VMS condition codes from “main”. The default is to return
POSIX-style condition (e.g. error) codes.

-mdebug-main=prefix
Flag the first routine whose name starts with prefix as the main
routine for the debugger.

-mmalloc64
Default to 64-bit memory allocation routines.

-mpointer-size=size
Set the default size of pointers. Possible options for size are 32
or short for 32 bit pointers, 64 or long for 64 bit pointers, and
no for supporting only 32 bit pointers. The later option disables
“pragma pointer_size”.

VxWorks Options

The options in this section are defined for all VxWorks targets.
Options specific to the target hardware are listed with the other
options for that target.

-mrtp
GCC can generate code for both VxWorks kernels and real time
processes (RTPs). This option switches from the former to the
latter. It also defines the preprocessor macro “__RTP__”.

-non-static
Link an RTP executable against shared libraries rather than static
libraries. The options -static and -shared can also be used for
RTPs; -static is the default.

-Bstatic
-Bdynamic
These options are passed down to the linker. They are defined for
compatibility with Diab.

-Xbind-lazy
Enable lazy binding of function calls. This option is equivalent
to -Wl,-z,now and is defined for compatibility with Diab.

-Xbind-now
Disable lazy binding of function calls. This option is the default
and is defined for compatibility with Diab.

x86 Options

These -m options are defined for the x86 family of computers.

-march=cpu-type
Generate instructions for the machine type cpu-type. In contrast
to -mtune=cpu-type, which merely tunes the generated code for the
specified cpu-type, -march=cpu-type allows GCC to generate code
that may not run at all on processors other than the one indicated.
Specifying -march=cpu-type implies -mtune=cpu-type.

The choices for cpu-type are:

native
This selects the CPU to generate code for at compilation time
by determining the processor type of the compiling machine.
Using -march=native enables all instruction subsets supported
by the local machine (hence the result might not run on
different machines). Using -mtune=native produces code
optimized for the local machine under the constraints of the
selected instruction set.

i386
Original Intel i386 CPU.

i486
Intel i486 CPU. (No scheduling is implemented for this chip.)

i586
pentium
Intel Pentium CPU with no MMX support.

pentium-mmx
Intel Pentium MMX CPU, based on Pentium core with MMX
instruction set support.

pentiumpro
Intel Pentium Pro CPU.

i686
When used with -march, the Pentium Pro instruction set is used,
so the code runs on all i686 family chips. When used with
-mtune, it has the same meaning as generic.

pentium2
Intel Pentium II CPU, based on Pentium Pro core with MMX
instruction set support.

pentium3
pentium3m
Intel Pentium III CPU, based on Pentium Pro core with MMX and
SSE instruction set support.

pentium-m
Intel Pentium M; low-power version of Intel Pentium III CPU
with MMX, SSE and SSE2 instruction set support. Used by
Centrino notebooks.

pentium4
pentium4m
Intel Pentium 4 CPU with MMX, SSE and SSE2 instruction set
support.

prescott
Improved version of Intel Pentium 4 CPU with MMX, SSE, SSE2 and
SSE3 instruction set support.

nocona
Improved version of Intel Pentium 4 CPU with 64-bit extensions,
MMX, SSE, SSE2 and SSE3 instruction set support.

core2
Intel Core 2 CPU with 64-bit extensions, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3
and SSSE3 instruction set support.

nehalem
Intel Nehalem CPU with 64-bit extensions, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3,
SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2 and POPCNT instruction set support.

westmere
Intel Westmere CPU with 64-bit extensions, MMX, SSE, SSE2,
SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, POPCNT, AES and PCLMUL instruction
set support.

sandybridge
Intel Sandy Bridge CPU with 64-bit extensions, MMX, SSE, SSE2,
SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, POPCNT, AVX, AES and PCLMUL
instruction set support.

ivybridge
Intel Ivy Bridge CPU with 64-bit extensions, MMX, SSE, SSE2,
SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, POPCNT, AVX, AES, PCLMUL,
FSGSBASE, RDRND and F16C instruction set support.

haswell
Intel Haswell CPU with 64-bit extensions, MOVBE, MMX, SSE,
SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, POPCNT, AVX, AVX2, AES,
PCLMUL, FSGSBASE, RDRND, FMA, BMI, BMI2 and F16C instruction
set support.

broadwell
Intel Broadwell CPU with 64-bit extensions, MOVBE, MMX, SSE,
SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, POPCNT, AVX, AVX2, AES,
PCLMUL, FSGSBASE, RDRND, FMA, BMI, BMI2, F16C, RDSEED, ADCX and
PREFETCHW instruction set support.

bonnell
Intel Bonnell CPU with 64-bit extensions, MOVBE, MMX, SSE,
SSE2, SSE3 and SSSE3 instruction set support.

silvermont
Intel Silvermont CPU with 64-bit extensions, MOVBE, MMX, SSE,
SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, POPCNT, AES, PCLMUL and
RDRND instruction set support.

knl Intel Knight’s Landing CPU with 64-bit extensions, MOVBE, MMX,
SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, POPCNT, AVX, AVX2, AES,
PCLMUL, FSGSBASE, RDRND, FMA, BMI, BMI2, F16C, RDSEED, ADCX,
PREFETCHW, AVX512F, AVX512PF, AVX512ER and AVX512CD instruction
set support.

k6 AMD K6 CPU with MMX instruction set support.

k6-2
k6-3
Improved versions of AMD K6 CPU with MMX and 3DNow! instruction
set support.

athlon
athlon-tbird
AMD Athlon CPU with MMX, 3dNOW!, enhanced 3DNow! and SSE
prefetch instructions support.

athlon-4
athlon-xp
athlon-mp
Improved AMD Athlon CPU with MMX, 3DNow!, enhanced 3DNow! and
full SSE instruction set support.

k8
opteron
athlon64
athlon-fx
Processors based on the AMD K8 core with x86-64 instruction set
support, including the AMD Opteron, Athlon 64, and Athlon 64 FX
processors. (This supersets MMX, SSE, SSE2, 3DNow!, enhanced
3DNow! and 64-bit instruction set extensions.)

k8-sse3
opteron-sse3
athlon64-sse3
Improved versions of AMD K8 cores with SSE3 instruction set
support.

amdfam10
barcelona
CPUs based on AMD Family 10h cores with x86-64 instruction set
support. (This supersets MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSE4A, 3DNow!,
enhanced 3DNow!, ABM and 64-bit instruction set extensions.)

bdver1
CPUs based on AMD Family 15h cores with x86-64 instruction set
support. (This supersets FMA4, AVX, XOP, LWP, AES, PCL_MUL,
CX16, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSE4A, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, ABM
and 64-bit instruction set extensions.)

bdver2
AMD Family 15h core based CPUs with x86-64 instruction set
support. (This supersets BMI, TBM, F16C, FMA, FMA4, AVX, XOP,
LWP, AES, PCL_MUL, CX16, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSE4A, SSSE3,
SSE4.1, SSE4.2, ABM and 64-bit instruction set extensions.)

bdver3
AMD Family 15h core based CPUs with x86-64 instruction set
support. (This supersets BMI, TBM, F16C, FMA, FMA4, FSGSBASE,
AVX, XOP, LWP, AES, PCL_MUL, CX16, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSE4A,
SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, ABM and 64-bit instruction set
extensions.

bdver4
AMD Family 15h core based CPUs with x86-64 instruction set
support. (This supersets BMI, BMI2, TBM, F16C, FMA, FMA4,
FSGSBASE, AVX, AVX2, XOP, LWP, AES, PCL_MUL, CX16, MOVBE, MMX,
SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSE4A, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, ABM and 64-bit
instruction set extensions.

btver1
CPUs based on AMD Family 14h cores with x86-64 instruction set
support. (This supersets MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4A,
CX16, ABM and 64-bit instruction set extensions.)

btver2
CPUs based on AMD Family 16h cores with x86-64 instruction set
support. This includes MOVBE, F16C, BMI, AVX, PCL_MUL, AES,
SSE4.2, SSE4.1, CX16, ABM, SSE4A, SSSE3, SSE3, SSE2, SSE, MMX
and 64-bit instruction set extensions.

winchip-c6
IDT WinChip C6 CPU, dealt in same way as i486 with additional
MMX instruction set support.

winchip2
IDT WinChip 2 CPU, dealt in same way as i486 with additional
MMX and 3DNow! instruction set support.

c3 VIA C3 CPU with MMX and 3DNow! instruction set support. (No
scheduling is implemented for this chip.)

c3-2
VIA C3-2 (Nehemiah/C5XL) CPU with MMX and SSE instruction set
support. (No scheduling is implemented for this chip.)

geode
AMD Geode embedded processor with MMX and 3DNow! instruction
set support.

-mtune=cpu-type
Tune to cpu-type everything applicable about the generated code,
except for the ABI and the set of available instructions. While
picking a specific cpu-type schedules things appropriately for that
particular chip, the compiler does not generate any code that
cannot run on the default machine type unless you use a -march=cpu-
type option. For example, if GCC is configured for
i686-pc-linux-gnu then -mtune=pentium4 generates code that is tuned
for Pentium 4 but still runs on i686 machines.

The choices for cpu-type are the same as for -march. In addition,
-mtune supports 2 extra choices for cpu-type:

generic
Produce code optimized for the most common IA32/AMD64/EM64T
processors. If you know the CPU on which your code will run,
then you should use the corresponding -mtune or -march option
instead of -mtune=generic. But, if you do not know exactly
what CPU users of your application will have, then you should
use this option.

As new processors are deployed in the marketplace, the behavior
of this option will change. Therefore, if you upgrade to a
newer version of GCC, code generation controlled by this option
will change to reflect the processors that are most common at
the time that version of GCC is released.

There is no -march=generic option because -march indicates the
instruction set the compiler can use, and there is no generic
instruction set applicable to all processors. In contrast,
-mtune indicates the processor (or, in this case, collection of
processors) for which the code is optimized.

intel
Produce code optimized for the most current Intel processors,
which are Haswell and Silvermont for this version of GCC. If
you know the CPU on which your code will run, then you should
use the corresponding -mtune or -march option instead of
-mtune=intel. But, if you want your application performs
better on both Haswell and Silvermont, then you should use this
option.

As new Intel processors are deployed in the marketplace, the
behavior of this option will change. Therefore, if you upgrade
to a newer version of GCC, code generation controlled by this
option will change to reflect the most current Intel processors
at the time that version of GCC is released.

There is no -march=intel option because -march indicates the
instruction set the compiler can use, and there is no common
instruction set applicable to all processors. In contrast,
-mtune indicates the processor (or, in this case, collection of
processors) for which the code is optimized.

-mcpu=cpu-type
A deprecated synonym for -mtune.

-mfpmath=unit
Generate floating-point arithmetic for selected unit unit. The
choices for unit are:

387 Use the standard 387 floating-point coprocessor present on the
majority of chips and emulated otherwise. Code compiled with
this option runs almost everywhere. The temporary results are
computed in 80-bit precision instead of the precision specified
by the type, resulting in slightly different results compared
to most of other chips. See -ffloat-store for more detailed
description.

This is the default choice for x86-32 targets.

sse Use scalar floating-point instructions present in the SSE
instruction set. This instruction set is supported by Pentium
III and newer chips, and in the AMD line by Athlon-4, Athlon XP
and Athlon MP chips. The earlier version of the SSE
instruction set supports only single-precision arithmetic, thus
the double and extended-precision arithmetic are still done
using 387. A later version, present only in Pentium 4 and AMD
x86-64 chips, supports double-precision arithmetic too.

For the x86-32 compiler, you must use -march=cpu-type, -msse or
-msse2 switches to enable SSE extensions and make this option
effective. For the x86-64 compiler, these extensions are
enabled by default.

The resulting code should be considerably faster in the
majority of cases and avoid the numerical instability problems
of 387 code, but may break some existing code that expects
temporaries to be 80 bits.

This is the default choice for the x86-64 compiler.

sse,387
sse+387
both
Attempt to utilize both instruction sets at once. This
effectively doubles the amount of available registers, and on
chips with separate execution units for 387 and SSE the
execution resources too. Use this option with care, as it is
still experimental, because the GCC register allocator does not
model separate functional units well, resulting in unstable
performance.

-masm=dialect
Output assembly instructions using selected dialect. Also affects
which dialect is used for basic “asm” and extended “asm”. Supported
choices (in dialect order) are att or intel. The default is att.
Darwin does not support intel.

-mieee-fp
-mno-ieee-fp
Control whether or not the compiler uses IEEE floating-point
comparisons. These correctly handle the case where the result of a
comparison is unordered.

-msoft-float
Generate output containing library calls for floating point.

Warning: the requisite libraries are not part of GCC. Normally the
facilities of the machine’s usual C compiler are used, but this
can’t be done directly in cross-compilation. You must make your
own arrangements to provide suitable library functions for cross-
compilation.

On machines where a function returns floating-point results in the
80387 register stack, some floating-point opcodes may be emitted
even if -msoft-float is used.

-mno-fp-ret-in-387
Do not use the FPU registers for return values of functions.

The usual calling convention has functions return values of types
“float” and “double” in an FPU register, even if there is no FPU.
The idea is that the operating system should emulate an FPU.

The option -mno-fp-ret-in-387 causes such values to be returned in
ordinary CPU registers instead.

-mno-fancy-math-387
Some 387 emulators do not support the “sin”, “cos” and “sqrt”
instructions for the 387. Specify this option to avoid generating
those instructions. This option is the default on OpenBSD and
NetBSD. This option is overridden when -march indicates that the
target CPU always has an FPU and so the instruction does not need
emulation. These instructions are not generated unless you also
use the -funsafe-math-optimizations switch.

-malign-double
-mno-align-double
Control whether GCC aligns “double”, “long double”, and “long long”
variables on a two-word boundary or a one-word boundary. Aligning
“double” variables on a two-word boundary produces code that runs
somewhat faster on a Pentium at the expense of more memory.

On x86-64, -malign-double is enabled by default.

Warning: if you use the -malign-double switch, structures
containing the above types are aligned differently than the
published application binary interface specifications for the
x86-32 and are not binary compatible with structures in code
compiled without that switch.

-m96bit-long-double
-m128bit-long-double
These switches control the size of “long double” type. The x86-32
application binary interface specifies the size to be 96 bits, so
-m96bit-long-double is the default in 32-bit mode.

Modern architectures (Pentium and newer) prefer “long double” to be
aligned to an 8- or 16-byte boundary. In arrays or structures
conforming to the ABI, this is not possible. So specifying
-m128bit-long-double aligns “long double” to a 16-byte boundary by
padding the “long double” with an additional 32-bit zero.

In the x86-64 compiler, -m128bit-long-double is the default choice
as its ABI specifies that “long double” is aligned on 16-byte
boundary.

Notice that neither of these options enable any extra precision
over the x87 standard of 80 bits for a “long double”.

Warning: if you override the default value for your target ABI,
this changes the size of structures and arrays containing “long
double” variables, as well as modifying the function calling
convention for functions taking “long double”. Hence they are not
binary-compatible with code compiled without that switch.

-mlong-double-64
-mlong-double-80
-mlong-double-128
These switches control the size of “long double” type. A size of 64
bits makes the “long double” type equivalent to the “double” type.
This is the default for 32-bit Bionic C library. A size of 128
bits makes the “long double” type equivalent to the “__float128”
type. This is the default for 64-bit Bionic C library.

Warning: if you override the default value for your target ABI,
this changes the size of structures and arrays containing “long
double” variables, as well as modifying the function calling
convention for functions taking “long double”. Hence they are not
binary-compatible with code compiled without that switch.

-malign-data=type
Control how GCC aligns variables. Supported values for type are
compat uses increased alignment value compatible uses GCC 4.8 and
earlier, abi uses alignment value as specified by the psABI, and
cacheline uses increased alignment value to match the cache line
size. compat is the default.

-mlarge-data-threshold=threshold
When -mcmodel=medium is specified, data objects larger than
threshold are placed in the large data section. This value must be
the same across all objects linked into the binary, and defaults to
65535.

-mrtd
Use a different function-calling convention, in which functions
that take a fixed number of arguments return with the “ret num”
instruction, which pops their arguments while returning. This
saves one instruction in the caller since there is no need to pop
the arguments there.

You can specify that an individual function is called with this
calling sequence with the function attribute “stdcall”. You can
also override the -mrtd option by using the function attribute
“cdecl”.

Warning: this calling convention is incompatible with the one
normally used on Unix, so you cannot use it if you need to call
libraries compiled with the Unix compiler.

Also, you must provide function prototypes for all functions that
take variable numbers of arguments (including “printf”); otherwise
incorrect code is generated for calls to those functions.

In addition, seriously incorrect code results if you call a
function with too many arguments. (Normally, extra arguments are
harmlessly ignored.)

-mregparm=num
Control how many registers are used to pass integer arguments. By
default, no registers are used to pass arguments, and at most 3
registers can be used. You can control this behavior for a
specific function by using the function attribute “regparm”.

Warning: if you use this switch, and num is nonzero, then you must
build all modules with the same value, including any libraries.
This includes the system libraries and startup modules.

-msseregparm
Use SSE register passing conventions for float and double arguments
and return values. You can control this behavior for a specific
function by using the function attribute “sseregparm”.

Warning: if you use this switch then you must build all modules
with the same value, including any libraries. This includes the
system libraries and startup modules.

-mvect8-ret-in-mem
Return 8-byte vectors in memory instead of MMX registers. This is
the default on Solaris@tie{}8 and 9 and VxWorks to match the ABI of
the Sun Studio compilers until version 12. Later compiler versions
(starting with Studio 12 Update@tie{}1) follow the ABI used by
other x86 targets, which is the default on Solaris@tie{}10 and
later. Only use this option if you need to remain compatible with
existing code produced by those previous compiler versions or older
versions of GCC.

-mpc32
-mpc64
-mpc80
Set 80387 floating-point precision to 32, 64 or 80 bits. When
-mpc32 is specified, the significands of results of floating-point
operations are rounded to 24 bits (single precision); -mpc64 rounds
the significands of results of floating-point operations to 53 bits
(double precision) and -mpc80 rounds the significands of results of
floating-point operations to 64 bits (extended double precision),
which is the default. When this option is used, floating-point
operations in higher precisions are not available to the programmer
without setting the FPU control word explicitly.

Setting the rounding of floating-point operations to less than the
default 80 bits can speed some programs by 2% or more. Note that
some mathematical libraries assume that extended-precision (80-bit)
floating-point operations are enabled by default; routines in such
libraries could suffer significant loss of accuracy, typically
through so-called “catastrophic cancellation”, when this option is
used to set the precision to less than extended precision.

-mstackrealign
Realign the stack at entry. On the x86, the -mstackrealign option
generates an alternate prologue and epilogue that realigns the run-
time stack if necessary. This supports mixing legacy codes that
keep 4-byte stack alignment with modern codes that keep 16-byte
stack alignment for SSE compatibility. See also the attribute
“force_align_arg_pointer”, applicable to individual functions.

-mpreferred-stack-boundary=num
Attempt to keep the stack boundary aligned to a 2 raised to num
byte boundary. If -mpreferred-stack-boundary is not specified, the
default is 4 (16 bytes or 128 bits).

Warning: When generating code for the x86-64 architecture with SSE
extensions disabled, -mpreferred-stack-boundary=3 can be used to
keep the stack boundary aligned to 8 byte boundary. Since x86-64
ABI require 16 byte stack alignment, this is ABI incompatible and
intended to be used in controlled environment where stack space is
important limitation. This option leads to wrong code when
functions compiled with 16 byte stack alignment (such as functions
from a standard library) are called with misaligned stack. In this
case, SSE instructions may lead to misaligned memory access traps.
In addition, variable arguments are handled incorrectly for 16 byte
aligned objects (including x87 long double and __int128), leading
to wrong results. You must build all modules with
-mpreferred-stack-boundary=3, including any libraries. This
includes the system libraries and startup modules.

-mincoming-stack-boundary=num
Assume the incoming stack is aligned to a 2 raised to num byte
boundary. If -mincoming-stack-boundary is not specified, the one
specified by -mpreferred-stack-boundary is used.

On Pentium and Pentium Pro, “double” and “long double” values
should be aligned to an 8-byte boundary (see -malign-double) or
suffer significant run time performance penalties. On Pentium III,
the Streaming SIMD Extension (SSE) data type “__m128” may not work
properly if it is not 16-byte aligned.

To ensure proper alignment of this values on the stack, the stack
boundary must be as aligned as that required by any value stored on
the stack. Further, every function must be generated such that it
keeps the stack aligned. Thus calling a function compiled with a
higher preferred stack boundary from a function compiled with a
lower preferred stack boundary most likely misaligns the stack. It
is recommended that libraries that use callbacks always use the
default setting.

This extra alignment does consume extra stack space, and generally
increases code size. Code that is sensitive to stack space usage,
such as embedded systems and operating system kernels, may want to
reduce the preferred alignment to -mpreferred-stack-boundary=2.

-mmmx
-msse
-msse2
-msse3
-mssse3
-msse4
-msse4a
-msse4.1
-msse4.2
-mavx
-mavx2
-mavx512f
-mavx512pf
-mavx512er
-mavx512cd
-msha
-maes
-mpclmul
-mclfushopt
-mfsgsbase
-mrdrnd
-mf16c
-mfma
-mfma4
-mno-fma4
-mprefetchwt1
-mxop
-mlwp
-m3dnow
-mpopcnt
-mabm
-mbmi
-mbmi2
-mlzcnt
-mfxsr
-mxsave
-mxsaveopt
-mxsavec
-mxsaves
-mrtm
-mtbm
-mmpx
-mmwaitx
These switches enable the use of instructions in the MMX, SSE,
SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, AVX, AVX2, AVX512F, AVX512PF, AVX512ER,
AVX512CD, SHA, AES, PCLMUL, FSGSBASE, RDRND, F16C, FMA, SSE4A,
FMA4, XOP, LWP, ABM, BMI, BMI2, FXSR, XSAVE, XSAVEOPT, LZCNT, RTM,
MPX, MWAITX or 3DNow! extended instruction sets. Each has a
corresponding -mno- option to disable use of these instructions.

These extensions are also available as built-in functions: see x86
Built-in Functions, for details of the functions enabled and
disabled by these switches.

To generate SSE/SSE2 instructions automatically from floating-point
code (as opposed to 387 instructions), see -mfpmath=sse.

GCC depresses SSEx instructions when -mavx is used. Instead, it
generates new AVX instructions or AVX equivalence for all SSEx
instructions when needed.

These options enable GCC to use these extended instructions in
generated code, even without -mfpmath=sse. Applications that
perform run-time CPU detection must compile separate files for each
supported architecture, using the appropriate flags. In
particular, the file containing the CPU detection code should be
compiled without these options.

-mdump-tune-features
This option instructs GCC to dump the names of the x86 performance
tuning features and default settings. The names can be used in
-mtune-ctrl=feature-list.

-mtune-ctrl=feature-list
This option is used to do fine grain control of x86 code generation
features. feature-list is a comma separated list of feature names.
See also -mdump-tune-features. When specified, the feature is
turned on if it is not preceded with ^, otherwise, it is turned
off. -mtune-ctrl=feature-list is intended to be used by GCC
developers. Using it may lead to code paths not covered by testing
and can potentially result in compiler ICEs or runtime errors.

-mno-default
This option instructs GCC to turn off all tunable features. See
also -mtune-ctrl=feature-list and -mdump-tune-features.

-mcld
This option instructs GCC to emit a “cld” instruction in the
prologue of functions that use string instructions. String
instructions depend on the DF flag to select between autoincrement
or autodecrement mode. While the ABI specifies the DF flag to be
cleared on function entry, some operating systems violate this
specification by not clearing the DF flag in their exception
dispatchers. The exception handler can be invoked with the DF flag
set, which leads to wrong direction mode when string instructions
are used. This option can be enabled by default on 32-bit x86
targets by configuring GCC with the –enable-cld configure option.
Generation of “cld” instructions can be suppressed with the
-mno-cld compiler option in this case.

-mvzeroupper
This option instructs GCC to emit a “vzeroupper” instruction before
a transfer of control flow out of the function to minimize the AVX
to SSE transition penalty as well as remove unnecessary “zeroupper”
intrinsics.

-mprefer-avx128
This option instructs GCC to use 128-bit AVX instructions instead
of 256-bit AVX instructions in the auto-vectorizer.

-mcx16
This option enables GCC to generate “CMPXCHG16B” instructions.
“CMPXCHG16B” allows for atomic operations on 128-bit double
quadword (or oword) data types. This is useful for high-resolution
counters that can be updated by multiple processors (or cores).
This instruction is generated as part of atomic built-in functions:
see __sync Builtins or __atomic Builtins for details.

-msahf
This option enables generation of “SAHF” instructions in 64-bit
code. Early Intel Pentium 4 CPUs with Intel 64 support, prior to
the introduction of Pentium 4 G1 step in December 2005, lacked the
“LAHF” and “SAHF” instructions which are supported by AMD64. These
are load and store instructions, respectively, for certain status
flags. In 64-bit mode, the “SAHF” instruction is used to optimize
“fmod”, “drem”, and “remainder” built-in functions; see Other
Builtins for details.

-mmovbe
This option enables use of the “movbe” instruction to implement
“__builtin_bswap32” and “__builtin_bswap64”.

-mcrc32
This option enables built-in functions “__builtin_ia32_crc32qi”,
“__builtin_ia32_crc32hi”, “__builtin_ia32_crc32si” and
“__builtin_ia32_crc32di” to generate the “crc32” machine
instruction.

-mrecip
This option enables use of “RCPSS” and “RSQRTSS” instructions (and
their vectorized variants “RCPPS” and “RSQRTPS”) with an additional
Newton-Raphson step to increase precision instead of “DIVSS” and
“SQRTSS” (and their vectorized variants) for single-precision
floating-point arguments. These instructions are generated only
when -funsafe-math-optimizations is enabled together with
-finite-math-only and -fno-trapping-math. Note that while the
throughput of the sequence is higher than the throughput of the
non-reciprocal instruction, the precision of the sequence can be
decreased by up to 2 ulp (i.e. the inverse of 1.0 equals
0.99999994).

Note that GCC implements “1.0f/sqrtf(x)” in terms of “RSQRTSS” (or
“RSQRTPS”) already with -ffast-math (or the above option
combination), and doesn’t need -mrecip.

Also note that GCC emits the above sequence with additional Newton-
Raphson step for vectorized single-float division and vectorized
“sqrtf(x)” already with -ffast-math (or the above option
combination), and doesn’t need -mrecip.

-mrecip=opt
This option controls which reciprocal estimate instructions may be
used. opt is a comma-separated list of options, which may be
preceded by a ! to invert the option:

all Enable all estimate instructions.

default
Enable the default instructions, equivalent to -mrecip.

none
Disable all estimate instructions, equivalent to -mno-recip.

div Enable the approximation for scalar division.

vec-div
Enable the approximation for vectorized division.

sqrt
Enable the approximation for scalar square root.

vec-sqrt
Enable the approximation for vectorized square root.

So, for example, -mrecip=all,!sqrt enables all of the reciprocal
approximations, except for square root.

-mveclibabi=type
Specifies the ABI type to use for vectorizing intrinsics using an
external library. Supported values for type are svml for the Intel
short vector math library and acml for the AMD math core library.
To use this option, both -ftree-vectorize and
-funsafe-math-optimizations have to be enabled, and an SVML or ACML
ABI-compatible library must be specified at link time.

GCC currently emits calls to “vmldExp2”, “vmldLn2”, “vmldLog102”,
“vmldLog102”, “vmldPow2”, “vmldTanh2”, “vmldTan2”, “vmldAtan2”,
“vmldAtanh2”, “vmldCbrt2”, “vmldSinh2”, “vmldSin2”, “vmldAsinh2”,
“vmldAsin2”, “vmldCosh2”, “vmldCos2”, “vmldAcosh2”, “vmldAcos2”,
“vmlsExp4”, “vmlsLn4”, “vmlsLog104”, “vmlsLog104”, “vmlsPow4”,
“vmlsTanh4”, “vmlsTan4”, “vmlsAtan4”, “vmlsAtanh4”, “vmlsCbrt4”,
“vmlsSinh4”, “vmlsSin4”, “vmlsAsinh4”, “vmlsAsin4”, “vmlsCosh4”,
“vmlsCos4”, “vmlsAcosh4” and “vmlsAcos4” for corresponding function
type when -mveclibabi=svml is used, and “__vrd2_sin”, “__vrd2_cos”,
“__vrd2_exp”, “__vrd2_log”, “__vrd2_log2”, “__vrd2_log10”,
“__vrs4_sinf”, “__vrs4_cosf”, “__vrs4_expf”, “__vrs4_logf”,
“__vrs4_log2f”, “__vrs4_log10f” and “__vrs4_powf” for the
corresponding function type when -mveclibabi=acml is used.

-mabi=name
Generate code for the specified calling convention. Permissible
values are sysv for the ABI used on GNU/Linux and other systems,
and ms for the Microsoft ABI. The default is to use the Microsoft
ABI when targeting Microsoft Windows and the SysV ABI on all other
systems. You can control this behavior for specific functions by
using the function attributes “ms_abi” and “sysv_abi”.

-mtls-dialect=type
Generate code to access thread-local storage using the gnu or gnu2
conventions. gnu is the conservative default; gnu2 is more
efficient, but it may add compile- and run-time requirements that
cannot be satisfied on all systems.

-mpush-args
-mno-push-args
Use PUSH operations to store outgoing parameters. This method is
shorter and usually equally fast as method using SUB/MOV operations
and is enabled by default. In some cases disabling it may improve
performance because of improved scheduling and reduced
dependencies.

-maccumulate-outgoing-args
If enabled, the maximum amount of space required for outgoing
arguments is computed in the function prologue. This is faster on
most modern CPUs because of reduced dependencies, improved
scheduling and reduced stack usage when the preferred stack
boundary is not equal to 2. The drawback is a notable increase in
code size. This switch implies -mno-push-args.

-mthreads
Support thread-safe exception handling on MinGW. Programs that
rely on thread-safe exception handling must compile and link all
code with the -mthreads option. When compiling, -mthreads defines
-D_MT; when linking, it links in a special thread helper library
-lmingwthrd which cleans up per-thread exception-handling data.

-mno-align-stringops
Do not align the destination of inlined string operations. This
switch reduces code size and improves performance in case the
destination is already aligned, but GCC doesn’t know about it.

-minline-all-stringops
By default GCC inlines string operations only when the destination
is known to be aligned to least a 4-byte boundary. This enables
more inlining and increases code size, but may improve performance
of code that depends on fast “memcpy”, “strlen”, and “memset” for
short lengths.

-minline-stringops-dynamically
For string operations of unknown size, use run-time checks with
inline code for small blocks and a library call for large blocks.

-mstringop-strategy=alg
Override the internal decision heuristic for the particular
algorithm to use for inlining string operations. The allowed
values for alg are:

rep_byte
rep_4byte
rep_8byte
Expand using i386 “rep” prefix of the specified size.

byte_loop
loop
unrolled_loop
Expand into an inline loop.

libcall
Always use a library call.

-mmemcpy-strategy=strategy
Override the internal decision heuristic to decide if
“__builtin_memcpy” should be inlined and what inline algorithm to
use when the expected size of the copy operation is known. strategy
is a comma-separated list of alg:max_size:dest_align triplets. alg
is specified in -mstringop-strategy, max_size specifies the max
byte size with which inline algorithm alg is allowed. For the last
triplet, the max_size must be “-1”. The max_size of the triplets in
the list must be specified in increasing order. The minimal byte
size for alg is 0 for the first triplet and “max_size + 1” of the
preceding range.

-mmemset-strategy=strategy
The option is similar to -mmemcpy-strategy= except that it is to
control “__builtin_memset” expansion.

-momit-leaf-frame-pointer
Don’t keep the frame pointer in a register for leaf functions.
This avoids the instructions to save, set up, and restore frame
pointers and makes an extra register available in leaf functions.
The option -fomit-leaf-frame-pointer removes the frame pointer for
leaf functions, which might make debugging harder.

-mtls-direct-seg-refs
-mno-tls-direct-seg-refs
Controls whether TLS variables may be accessed with offsets from
the TLS segment register (%gs for 32-bit, %fs for 64-bit), or
whether the thread base pointer must be added. Whether or not this
is valid depends on the operating system, and whether it maps the
segment to cover the entire TLS area.

For systems that use the GNU C Library, the default is on.

-msse2avx
-mno-sse2avx
Specify that the assembler should encode SSE instructions with VEX
prefix. The option -mavx turns this on by default.

-mfentry
-mno-fentry
If profiling is active (-pg), put the profiling counter call before
the prologue. Note: On x86 architectures the attribute
“ms_hook_prologue” isn’t possible at the moment for -mfentry and
-pg.

-mrecord-mcount
-mno-record-mcount
If profiling is active (-pg), generate a __mcount_loc section that
contains pointers to each profiling call. This is useful for
automatically patching and out calls.

-mnop-mcount
-mno-nop-mcount
If profiling is active (-pg), generate the calls to the profiling
functions as nops. This is useful when they should be patched in
later dynamically. This is likely only useful together with
-mrecord-mcount.

-mskip-rax-setup
-mno-skip-rax-setup
When generating code for the x86-64 architecture with SSE
extensions disabled, -mskip-rax-setup can be used to skip setting
up RAX register when there are no variable arguments passed in
vector registers.

Warning: Since RAX register is used to avoid unnecessarily saving
vector registers on stack when passing variable arguments, the
impacts of this option are callees may waste some stack space,
misbehave or jump to a random location. GCC 4.4 or newer don’t
have those issues, regardless the RAX register value.

-m8bit-idiv
-mno-8bit-idiv
On some processors, like Intel Atom, 8-bit unsigned integer divide
is much faster than 32-bit/64-bit integer divide. This option
generates a run-time check. If both dividend and divisor are
within range of 0 to 255, 8-bit unsigned integer divide is used
instead of 32-bit/64-bit integer divide.

-mavx256-split-unaligned-load
-mavx256-split-unaligned-store
Split 32-byte AVX unaligned load and store.

-mstack-protector-guard=guard
Generate stack protection code using canary at guard. Supported
locations are global for global canary or tls for per-thread canary
in the TLS block (the default). This option has effect only when
-fstack-protector or -fstack-protector-all is specified.

These -m switches are supported in addition to the above on x86-64
processors in 64-bit environments.

-m32
-m64
-mx32
-m16
Generate code for a 16-bit, 32-bit or 64-bit environment. The -m32
option sets “int”, “long”, and pointer types to 32 bits, and
generates code that runs on any i386 system.

The -m64 option sets “int” to 32 bits and “long” and pointer types
to 64 bits, and generates code for the x86-64 architecture. For
Darwin only the -m64 option also turns off the -fno-pic and
-mdynamic-no-pic options.

The -mx32 option sets “int”, “long”, and pointer types to 32 bits,
and generates code for the x86-64 architecture.

The -m16 option is the same as -m32, except for that it outputs the
“.code16gcc” assembly directive at the beginning of the assembly
output so that the binary can run in 16-bit mode.

-mno-red-zone
Do not use a so-called “red zone” for x86-64 code. The red zone is
mandated by the x86-64 ABI; it is a 128-byte area beyond the
location of the stack pointer that is not modified by signal or
interrupt handlers and therefore can be used for temporary data
without adjusting the stack pointer. The flag -mno-red-zone
disables this red zone.

-mcmodel=small
Generate code for the small code model: the program and its symbols
must be linked in the lower 2 GB of the address space. Pointers
are 64 bits. Programs can be statically or dynamically linked.
This is the default code model.

-mcmodel=kernel
Generate code for the kernel code model. The kernel runs in the
negative 2 GB of the address space. This model has to be used for
Linux kernel code.

-mcmodel=medium
Generate code for the medium model: the program is linked in the
lower 2 GB of the address space. Small symbols are also placed
there. Symbols with sizes larger than -mlarge-data-threshold are
put into large data or BSS sections and can be located above 2GB.
Programs can be statically or dynamically linked.

-mcmodel=large
Generate code for the large model. This model makes no assumptions
about addresses and sizes of sections.

-maddress-mode=long
Generate code for long address mode. This is only supported for
64-bit and x32 environments. It is the default address mode for
64-bit environments.

-maddress-mode=short
Generate code for short address mode. This is only supported for
32-bit and x32 environments. It is the default address mode for
32-bit and x32 environments.

x86 Windows Options

These additional options are available for Microsoft Windows targets:

-mconsole
This option specifies that a console application is to be
generated, by instructing the linker to set the PE header subsystem
type required for console applications. This option is available
for Cygwin and MinGW targets and is enabled by default on those
targets.

-mdll
This option is available for Cygwin and MinGW targets. It
specifies that a DLL—a dynamic link library—is to be generated,
enabling the selection of the required runtime startup object and
entry point.

-mnop-fun-dllimport
This option is available for Cygwin and MinGW targets. It
specifies that the “dllimport” attribute should be ignored.

-mthread
This option is available for MinGW targets. It specifies that
MinGW-specific thread support is to be used.

-municode
This option is available for MinGW-w64 targets. It causes the
“UNICODE” preprocessor macro to be predefined, and chooses Unicode-
capable runtime startup code.

-mwin32
This option is available for Cygwin and MinGW targets. It
specifies that the typical Microsoft Windows predefined macros are
to be set in the pre-processor, but does not influence the choice
of runtime library/startup code.

-mwindows
This option is available for Cygwin and MinGW targets. It
specifies that a GUI application is to be generated by instructing
the linker to set the PE header subsystem type appropriately.

-fno-set-stack-executable
This option is available for MinGW targets. It specifies that the
executable flag for the stack used by nested functions isn’t set.
This is necessary for binaries running in kernel mode of Microsoft
Windows, as there the User32 API, which is used to set executable
privileges, isn’t available.

-fwritable-relocated-rdata
This option is available for MinGW and Cygwin targets. It
specifies that relocated-data in read-only section is put into
.data section. This is a necessary for older runtimes not
supporting modification of .rdata sections for pseudo-relocation.

-mpe-aligned-commons
This option is available for Cygwin and MinGW targets. It
specifies that the GNU extension to the PE file format that permits
the correct alignment of COMMON variables should be used when
generating code. It is enabled by default if GCC detects that the
target assembler found during configuration supports the feature.

See also under x86 Options for standard options.

Xstormy16 Options

These options are defined for Xstormy16:

-msim
Choose startup files and linker script suitable for the simulator.

Xtensa Options

These options are supported for Xtensa targets:

-mconst16
-mno-const16
Enable or disable use of “CONST16” instructions for loading
constant values. The “CONST16” instruction is currently not a
standard option from Tensilica. When enabled, “CONST16”
instructions are always used in place of the standard “L32R”
instructions. The use of “CONST16” is enabled by default only if
the “L32R” instruction is not available.

-mfused-madd
-mno-fused-madd
Enable or disable use of fused multiply/add and multiply/subtract
instructions in the floating-point option. This has no effect if
the floating-point option is not also enabled. Disabling fused
multiply/add and multiply/subtract instructions forces the compiler
to use separate instructions for the multiply and add/subtract
operations. This may be desirable in some cases where strict IEEE
754-compliant results are required: the fused multiply add/subtract
instructions do not round the intermediate result, thereby
producing results with more bits of precision than specified by the
IEEE standard. Disabling fused multiply add/subtract instructions
also ensures that the program output is not sensitive to the
compiler’s ability to combine multiply and add/subtract operations.

-mserialize-volatile
-mno-serialize-volatile
When this option is enabled, GCC inserts “MEMW” instructions before
“volatile” memory references to guarantee sequential consistency.
The default is -mserialize-volatile. Use -mno-serialize-volatile
to omit the “MEMW” instructions.

-mforce-no-pic
For targets, like GNU/Linux, where all user-mode Xtensa code must
be position-independent code (PIC), this option disables PIC for
compiling kernel code.

-mtext-section-literals
-mno-text-section-literals
These options control the treatment of literal pools. The default
is -mno-text-section-literals, which places literals in a separate
section in the output file. This allows the literal pool to be
placed in a data RAM/ROM, and it also allows the linker to combine
literal pools from separate object files to remove redundant
literals and improve code size. With -mtext-section-literals, the
literals are interspersed in the text section in order to keep them
as close as possible to their references. This may be necessary
for large assembly files.

-mtarget-align
-mno-target-align
When this option is enabled, GCC instructs the assembler to
automatically align instructions to reduce branch penalties at the
expense of some code density. The assembler attempts to widen
density instructions to align branch targets and the instructions
following call instructions. If there are not enough preceding
safe density instructions to align a target, no widening is
performed. The default is -mtarget-align. These options do not
affect the treatment of auto-aligned instructions like “LOOP”,
which the assembler always aligns, either by widening density
instructions or by inserting NOP instructions.

-mlongcalls
-mno-longcalls
When this option is enabled, GCC instructs the assembler to
translate direct calls to indirect calls unless it can determine
that the target of a direct call is in the range allowed by the
call instruction. This translation typically occurs for calls to
functions in other source files. Specifically, the assembler
translates a direct “CALL” instruction into an “L32R” followed by a
“CALLX” instruction. The default is -mno-longcalls. This option
should be used in programs where the call target can potentially be
out of range. This option is implemented in the assembler, not the
compiler, so the assembly code generated by GCC still shows direct
call instructions—look at the disassembled object code to see the
actual instructions. Note that the assembler uses an indirect call
for every cross-file call, not just those that really are out of
range.

zSeries Options

These are listed under

Options for Code Generation Conventions
These machine-independent options control the interface conventions
used in code generation.

Most of them have both positive and negative forms; the negative form
of -ffoo is -fno-foo. In the table below, only one of the forms is
listed—the one that is not the default. You can figure out the other
form by either removing no- or adding it.

-fbounds-check
For front ends that support it, generate additional code to check
that indices used to access arrays are within the declared range.
This is currently only supported by the Java and Fortran front
ends, where this option defaults to true and false respectively.

-fstack-reuse=reuse-level
This option controls stack space reuse for user declared local/auto
variables and compiler generated temporaries. reuse_level can be
all, named_vars, or none. all enables stack reuse for all local
variables and temporaries, named_vars enables the reuse only for
user defined local variables with names, and none disables stack
reuse completely. The default value is all. The option is needed
when the program extends the lifetime of a scoped local variable or
a compiler generated temporary beyond the end point defined by the
language. When a lifetime of a variable ends, and if the variable
lives in memory, the optimizing compiler has the freedom to reuse
its stack space with other temporaries or scoped local variables
whose live range does not overlap with it. Legacy code extending
local lifetime is likely to break with the stack reuse
optimization.

For example,

int *p;
{
int local1;

p = &local1;
local1 = 10;
….
}
{
int local2;
local2 = 20;

}

if (*p == 10) // out of scope use of local1
{

}

Another example:

struct A
{
A(int k) : i(k), j(k) { }
int i;
int j;
};

A *ap;

void foo(const A& ar)
{
ap = &ar;
}

void bar()
{
foo(A(10)); // temp object’s lifetime ends when foo returns

{
A a(20);
….
}
ap->i+= 10; // ap references out of scope temp whose space
// is reused with a. What is the value of ap->i?
}

The lifetime of a compiler generated temporary is well defined by
the C++ standard. When a lifetime of a temporary ends, and if the
temporary lives in memory, the optimizing compiler has the freedom
to reuse its stack space with other temporaries or scoped local
variables whose live range does not overlap with it. However some
of the legacy code relies on the behavior of older compilers in
which temporaries’ stack space is not reused, the aggressive stack
reuse can lead to runtime errors. This option is used to control
the temporary stack reuse optimization.

-ftrapv
This option generates traps for signed overflow on addition,
subtraction, multiplication operations.

-fwrapv
This option instructs the compiler to assume that signed arithmetic
overflow of addition, subtraction and multiplication wraps around
using twos-complement representation. This flag enables some
optimizations and disables others. This option is enabled by
default for the Java front end, as required by the Java language
specification.

-fexceptions
Enable exception handling. Generates extra code needed to
propagate exceptions. For some targets, this implies GCC generates
frame unwind information for all functions, which can produce
significant data size overhead, although it does not affect
execution. If you do not specify this option, GCC enables it by
default for languages like C++ that normally require exception
handling, and disables it for languages like C that do not normally
require it. However, you may need to enable this option when
compiling C code that needs to interoperate properly with exception
handlers written in C++. You may also wish to disable this option
if you are compiling older C++ programs that don’t use exception
handling.

-fnon-call-exceptions
Generate code that allows trapping instructions to throw
exceptions. Note that this requires platform-specific runtime
support that does not exist everywhere. Moreover, it only allows
trapping instructions to throw exceptions, i.e. memory references
or floating-point instructions. It does not allow exceptions to be
thrown from arbitrary signal handlers such as “SIGALRM”.

-fdelete-dead-exceptions
Consider that instructions that may throw exceptions but don’t
otherwise contribute to the execution of the program can be
optimized away. This option is enabled by default for the Ada
front end, as permitted by the Ada language specification.
Optimization passes that cause dead exceptions to be removed are
enabled independently at different optimization levels.

-funwind-tables
Similar to -fexceptions, except that it just generates any needed
static data, but does not affect the generated code in any other
way. You normally do not need to enable this option; instead, a
language processor that needs this handling enables it on your
behalf.

-fasynchronous-unwind-tables
Generate unwind table in DWARF 2 format, if supported by target
machine. The table is exact at each instruction boundary, so it
can be used for stack unwinding from asynchronous events (such as
debugger or garbage collector).

-fno-gnu-unique
On systems with recent GNU assembler and C library, the C++
compiler uses the “STB_GNU_UNIQUE” binding to make sure that
definitions of template static data members and static local
variables in inline functions are unique even in the presence of
“RTLD_LOCAL”; this is necessary to avoid problems with a library
used by two different “RTLD_LOCAL” plugins depending on a
definition in one of them and therefore disagreeing with the other
one about the binding of the symbol. But this causes “dlclose” to
be ignored for affected DSOs; if your program relies on
reinitialization of a DSO via “dlclose” and “dlopen”, you can use
-fno-gnu-unique.

-fpcc-struct-return
Return “short” “struct” and “union” values in memory like longer
ones, rather than in registers. This convention is less efficient,
but it has the advantage of allowing intercallability between GCC-
compiled files and files compiled with other compilers,
particularly the Portable C Compiler (pcc).

The precise convention for returning structures in memory depends
on the target configuration macros.

Short structures and unions are those whose size and alignment
match that of some integer type.

Warning: code compiled with the -fpcc-struct-return switch is not
binary compatible with code compiled with the -freg-struct-return
switch. Use it to conform to a non-default application binary
interface.

-freg-struct-return
Return “struct” and “union” values in registers when possible.
This is more efficient for small structures than
-fpcc-struct-return.

If you specify neither -fpcc-struct-return nor -freg-struct-return,
GCC defaults to whichever convention is standard for the target.
If there is no standard convention, GCC defaults to
-fpcc-struct-return, except on targets where GCC is the principal
compiler. In those cases, we can choose the standard, and we chose
the more efficient register return alternative.

Warning: code compiled with the -freg-struct-return switch is not
binary compatible with code compiled with the -fpcc-struct-return
switch. Use it to conform to a non-default application binary
interface.

-fshort-enums
Allocate to an “enum” type only as many bytes as it needs for the
declared range of possible values. Specifically, the “enum” type
is equivalent to the smallest integer type that has enough room.

Warning: the -fshort-enums switch causes GCC to generate code that
is not binary compatible with code generated without that switch.
Use it to conform to a non-default application binary interface.

-fshort-double
Use the same size for “double” as for “float”.

Warning: the -fshort-double switch causes GCC to generate code that
is not binary compatible with code generated without that switch.
Use it to conform to a non-default application binary interface.

-fshort-wchar
Override the underlying type for “wchar_t” to be “short unsigned
int” instead of the default for the target. This option is useful
for building programs to run under WINE.

Warning: the -fshort-wchar switch causes GCC to generate code that
is not binary compatible with code generated without that switch.
Use it to conform to a non-default application binary interface.

-fno-common
In C code, controls the placement of uninitialized global
variables. Unix C compilers have traditionally permitted multiple
definitions of such variables in different compilation units by
placing the variables in a common block. This is the behavior
specified by -fcommon, and is the default for GCC on most targets.
On the other hand, this behavior is not required by ISO C, and on
some targets may carry a speed or code size penalty on variable
references. The -fno-common option specifies that the compiler
should place uninitialized global variables in the data section of
the object file, rather than generating them as common blocks.
This has the effect that if the same variable is declared (without
“extern”) in two different compilations, you get a multiple-
definition error when you link them. In this case, you must
compile with -fcommon instead. Compiling with -fno-common is
useful on targets for which it provides better performance, or if
you wish to verify that the program will work on other systems that
always treat uninitialized variable declarations this way.

-fno-ident
Ignore the “#ident” directive.

-finhibit-size-directive
Don’t output a “.size” assembler directive, or anything else that
would cause trouble if the function is split in the middle, and the
two halves are placed at locations far apart in memory. This
option is used when compiling crtstuff.c; you should not need to
use it for anything else.

-fverbose-asm
Put extra commentary information in the generated assembly code to
make it more readable. This option is generally only of use to
those who actually need to read the generated assembly code
(perhaps while debugging the compiler itself).

-fno-verbose-asm, the default, causes the extra information to be
omitted and is useful when comparing two assembler files.

-frecord-gcc-switches
This switch causes the command line used to invoke the compiler to
be recorded into the object file that is being created. This
switch is only implemented on some targets and the exact format of
the recording is target and binary file format dependent, but it
usually takes the form of a section containing ASCII text. This
switch is related to the -fverbose-asm switch, but that switch only
records information in the assembler output file as comments, so it
never reaches the object file. See also -grecord-gcc-switches for
another way of storing compiler options into the object file.

-fpic
Generate position-independent code (PIC) suitable for use in a
shared library, if supported for the target machine. Such code
accesses all constant addresses through a global offset table
(GOT). The dynamic loader resolves the GOT entries when the
program starts (the dynamic loader is not part of GCC; it is part
of the operating system). If the GOT size for the linked
executable exceeds a machine-specific maximum size, you get an
error message from the linker indicating that -fpic does not work;
in that case, recompile with -fPIC instead. (These maximums are 8k
on the SPARC and 32k on the m68k and RS/6000. The x86 has no such
limit.)

Position-independent code requires special support, and therefore
works only on certain machines. For the x86, GCC supports PIC for
System V but not for the Sun 386i. Code generated for the IBM
RS/6000 is always position-independent.

When this flag is set, the macros “__pic__” and “__PIC__” are
defined to 1.

-fPIC
If supported for the target machine, emit position-independent
code, suitable for dynamic linking and avoiding any limit on the
size of the global offset table. This option makes a difference on
the m68k, PowerPC and SPARC.

Position-independent code requires special support, and therefore
works only on certain machines.

When this flag is set, the macros “__pic__” and “__PIC__” are
defined to 2.

-fpie
-fPIE
These options are similar to -fpic and -fPIC, but generated
position independent code can be only linked into executables.
Usually these options are used when -pie GCC option is used during
linking.

-fpie and -fPIE both define the macros “__pie__” and “__PIE__”.
The macros have the value 1 for -fpie and 2 for -fPIE.

-fno-jump-tables
Do not use jump tables for switch statements even where it would be
more efficient than other code generation strategies. This option
is of use in conjunction with -fpic or -fPIC for building code that
forms part of a dynamic linker and cannot reference the address of
a jump table. On some targets, jump tables do not require a GOT
and this option is not needed.

-ffixed-reg
Treat the register named reg as a fixed register; generated code
should never refer to it (except perhaps as a stack pointer, frame
pointer or in some other fixed role).

reg must be the name of a register. The register names accepted
are machine-specific and are defined in the “REGISTER_NAMES” macro
in the machine description macro file.

This flag does not have a negative form, because it specifies a
three-way choice.

-fcall-used-reg
Treat the register named reg as an allocable register that is
clobbered by function calls. It may be allocated for temporaries
or variables that do not live across a call. Functions compiled
this way do not save and restore the register reg.

It is an error to use this flag with the frame pointer or stack
pointer. Use of this flag for other registers that have fixed
pervasive roles in the machine’s execution model produces
disastrous results.

This flag does not have a negative form, because it specifies a
three-way choice.

-fcall-saved-reg
Treat the register named reg as an allocable register saved by
functions. It may be allocated even for temporaries or variables
that live across a call. Functions compiled this way save and
restore the register reg if they use it.

It is an error to use this flag with the frame pointer or stack
pointer. Use of this flag for other registers that have fixed
pervasive roles in the machine’s execution model produces
disastrous results.

A different sort of disaster results from the use of this flag for
a register in which function values may be returned.

This flag does not have a negative form, because it specifies a
three-way choice.

-fpack-struct[=n] Without a value specified, pack all structure members together
without holes. When a value is specified (which must be a small
power of two), pack structure members according to this value,
representing the maximum alignment (that is, objects with default
alignment requirements larger than this are output potentially
unaligned at the next fitting location.

Warning: the -fpack-struct switch causes GCC to generate code that
is not binary compatible with code generated without that switch.
Additionally, it makes the code suboptimal. Use it to conform to a
non-default application binary interface.

-finstrument-functions
Generate instrumentation calls for entry and exit to functions.
Just after function entry and just before function exit, the
following profiling functions are called with the address of the
current function and its call site. (On some platforms,
“__builtin_return_address” does not work beyond the current
function, so the call site information may not be available to the
profiling functions otherwise.)

void __cyg_profile_func_enter (void *this_fn,
void *call_site);
void __cyg_profile_func_exit (void *this_fn,
void *call_site);

The first argument is the address of the start of the current
function, which may be looked up exactly in the symbol table.

This instrumentation is also done for functions expanded inline in
other functions. The profiling calls indicate where, conceptually,
the inline function is entered and exited. This means that
addressable versions of such functions must be available. If all
your uses of a function are expanded inline, this may mean an
additional expansion of code size. If you use “extern inline” in
your C code, an addressable version of such functions must be
provided. (This is normally the case anyway, but if you get lucky
and the optimizer always expands the functions inline, you might
have gotten away without providing static copies.)

A function may be given the attribute “no_instrument_function”, in
which case this instrumentation is not done. This can be used, for
example, for the profiling functions listed above, high-priority
interrupt routines, and any functions from which the profiling
functions cannot safely be called (perhaps signal handlers, if the
profiling routines generate output or allocate memory).

-finstrument-functions-exclude-file-list=file,file,…
Set the list of functions that are excluded from instrumentation
(see the description of -finstrument-functions). If the file that
contains a function definition matches with one of file, then that
function is not instrumented. The match is done on substrings: if
the file parameter is a substring of the file name, it is
considered to be a match.

For example:

-finstrument-functions-exclude-file-list=/bits/stl,include/sys

excludes any inline function defined in files whose pathnames
contain /bits/stl or include/sys.

If, for some reason, you want to include letter , in one of sym,
write ,. For example,
-finstrument-functions-exclude-file-list=’,,tmp’ (note the single
quote surrounding the option).

-finstrument-functions-exclude-function-list=sym,sym,…
This is similar to -finstrument-functions-exclude-file-list, but
this option sets the list of function names to be excluded from
instrumentation. The function name to be matched is its user-
visible name, such as “vector blah(const vector &)”, not
the internal mangled name (e.g., “_Z4blahRSt6vectorIiSaIiEE”). The
match is done on substrings: if the sym parameter is a substring of
the function name, it is considered to be a match. For C99 and C++
extended identifiers, the function name must be given in UTF-8, not
using universal character names.

-fstack-check
Generate code to verify that you do not go beyond the boundary of
the stack. You should specify this flag if you are running in an
environment with multiple threads, but you only rarely need to
specify it in a single-threaded environment since stack overflow is
automatically detected on nearly all systems if there is only one
stack.

Note that this switch does not actually cause checking to be done;
the operating system or the language runtime must do that. The
switch causes generation of code to ensure that they see the stack
being extended.

You can additionally specify a string parameter: no means no
checking, generic means force the use of old-style checking,
specific means use the best checking method and is equivalent to
bare -fstack-check.

Old-style checking is a generic mechanism that requires no specific
target support in the compiler but comes with the following
drawbacks:

1. Modified allocation strategy for large objects: they are always
allocated dynamically if their size exceeds a fixed threshold.

2. Fixed limit on the size of the static frame of functions: when
it is topped by a particular function, stack checking is not
reliable and a warning is issued by the compiler.

3. Inefficiency: because of both the modified allocation strategy
and the generic implementation, code performance is hampered.

Note that old-style stack checking is also the fallback method for
specific if no target support has been added in the compiler.

-fstack-limit-register=reg
-fstack-limit-symbol=sym
-fno-stack-limit
Generate code to ensure that the stack does not grow beyond a
certain value, either the value of a register or the address of a
symbol. If a larger stack is required, a signal is raised at run
time. For most targets, the signal is raised before the stack
overruns the boundary, so it is possible to catch the signal
without taking special precautions.

For instance, if the stack starts at absolute address 0x80000000
and grows downwards, you can use the flags
-fstack-limit-symbol=__stack_limit and
-Wl,–defsym,__stack_limit=0x7ffe0000 to enforce a stack limit of
128KB. Note that this may only work with the GNU linker.

-fsplit-stack
Generate code to automatically split the stack before it overflows.
The resulting program has a discontiguous stack which can only
overflow if the program is unable to allocate any more memory.
This is most useful when running threaded programs, as it is no
longer necessary to calculate a good stack size to use for each
thread. This is currently only implemented for the x86 targets
running GNU/Linux.

When code compiled with -fsplit-stack calls code compiled without
-fsplit-stack, there may not be much stack space available for the
latter code to run. If compiling all code, including library code,
with -fsplit-stack is not an option, then the linker can fix up
these calls so that the code compiled without -fsplit-stack always
has a large stack. Support for this is implemented in the gold
linker in GNU binutils release 2.21 and later.

-fleading-underscore
This option and its counterpart, -fno-leading-underscore, forcibly
change the way C symbols are represented in the object file. One
use is to help link with legacy assembly code.

Warning: the -fleading-underscore switch causes GCC to generate
code that is not binary compatible with code generated without that
switch. Use it to conform to a non-default application binary
interface. Not all targets provide complete support for this
switch.

-ftls-model=model
Alter the thread-local storage model to be used. The model
argument should be one of global-dynamic, local-dynamic, initial-
exec or local-exec. Note that the choice is subject to
optimization: the compiler may use a more efficient model for
symbols not visible outside of the translation unit, or if -fpic is
not given on the command line.

The default without -fpic is initial-exec; with -fpic the default
is global-dynamic.

-fvisibility=[default|internal|hidden|protected] Set the default ELF image symbol visibility to the specified
option—all symbols are marked with this unless overridden within
the code. Using this feature can very substantially improve
linking and load times of shared object libraries, produce more
optimized code, provide near-perfect API export and prevent symbol
clashes. It is strongly recommended that you use this in any
shared objects you distribute.

Despite the nomenclature, default always means public; i.e.,
available to be linked against from outside the shared object.
protected and internal are pretty useless in real-world usage so
the only other commonly used option is hidden. The default if
-fvisibility isn’t specified is default, i.e., make every symbol
public.

A good explanation of the benefits offered by ensuring ELF symbols
have the correct visibility is given by “How To Write Shared
Libraries” by Ulrich Drepper (which can be found at
)—however a superior solution
made possible by this option to marking things hidden when the
default is public is to make the default hidden and mark things
public. This is the norm with DLLs on Windows and with
-fvisibility=hidden and “__attribute__ ((visibility(“default”)))”
instead of “__declspec(dllexport)” you get almost identical
semantics with identical syntax. This is a great boon to those
working with cross-platform projects.

For those adding visibility support to existing code, you may find
“#pragma GCC visibility” of use. This works by you enclosing the
declarations you wish to set visibility for with (for example)
“#pragma GCC visibility push(hidden)” and “#pragma GCC visibility
pop”. Bear in mind that symbol visibility should be viewed as part
of the API interface contract and thus all new code should always
specify visibility when it is not the default; i.e., declarations
only for use within the local DSO should always be marked
explicitly as hidden as so to avoid PLT indirection
overheads—making this abundantly clear also aids readability and
self-documentation of the code. Note that due to ISO C++
specification requirements, “operator new” and “operator delete”
must always be of default visibility.

Be aware that headers from outside your project, in particular
system headers and headers from any other library you use, may not
be expecting to be compiled with visibility other than the default.
You may need to explicitly say “#pragma GCC visibility
push(default)” before including any such headers.

“extern” declarations are not affected by -fvisibility, so a lot of
code can be recompiled with -fvisibility=hidden with no
modifications. However, this means that calls to “extern”
functions with no explicit visibility use the PLT, so it is more
effective to use “__attribute ((visibility))” and/or “#pragma GCC
visibility” to tell the compiler which “extern” declarations should
be treated as hidden.

Note that -fvisibility does affect C++ vague linkage entities. This
means that, for instance, an exception class that is be thrown
between DSOs must be explicitly marked with default visibility so
that the type_info nodes are unified between the DSOs.

An overview of these techniques, their benefits and how to use them
is at .

-fstrict-volatile-bitfields
This option should be used if accesses to volatile bit-fields (or
other structure fields, although the compiler usually honors those
types anyway) should use a single access of the width of the
field’s type, aligned to a natural alignment if possible. For
example, targets with memory-mapped peripheral registers might
require all such accesses to be 16 bits wide; with this flag you
can declare all peripheral bit-fields as “unsigned short” (assuming
short is 16 bits on these targets) to force GCC to use 16-bit
accesses instead of, perhaps, a more efficient 32-bit access.

If this option is disabled, the compiler uses the most efficient
instruction. In the previous example, that might be a 32-bit load
instruction, even though that accesses bytes that do not contain
any portion of the bit-field, or memory-mapped registers unrelated
to the one being updated.

In some cases, such as when the “packed” attribute is applied to a
structure field, it may not be possible to access the field with a
single read or write that is correctly aligned for the target
machine. In this case GCC falls back to generating multiple
accesses rather than code that will fault or truncate the result at
run time.

Note: Due to restrictions of the C/C++11 memory model, write
accesses are not allowed to touch non bit-field members. It is
therefore recommended to define all bits of the field’s type as
bit-field members.

The default value of this option is determined by the application
binary interface for the target processor.

-fsync-libcalls
This option controls whether any out-of-line instance of the
“__sync” family of functions may be used to implement the C++11
“__atomic” family of functions.

The default value of this option is enabled, thus the only useful
form of the option is -fno-sync-libcalls. This option is used in
the implementation of the libatomic runtime library.

ENVIRONMENT
This section describes several environment variables that affect how
GCC operates. Some of them work by specifying directories or prefixes
to use when searching for various kinds of files. Some are used to
specify other aspects of the compilation environment.

Note that you can also specify places to search using options such as
-B, -I and -L. These take precedence over places specified using
environment variables, which in turn take precedence over those
specified by the configuration of GCC.

LANG
LC_CTYPE
LC_MESSAGES
LC_ALL
These environment variables control the way that GCC uses
localization information which allows GCC to work with different
national conventions. GCC inspects the locale categories LC_CTYPE
and LC_MESSAGES if it has been configured to do so. These locale
categories can be set to any value supported by your installation.
A typical value is en_GB.UTF-8 for English in the United Kingdom
encoded in UTF-8.

The LC_CTYPE environment variable specifies character
classification. GCC uses it to determine the character boundaries
in a string; this is needed for some multibyte encodings that
contain quote and escape characters that are otherwise interpreted
as a string end or escape.

The LC_MESSAGES environment variable specifies the language to use
in diagnostic messages.

If the LC_ALL environment variable is set, it overrides the value
of LC_CTYPE and LC_MESSAGES; otherwise, LC_CTYPE and LC_MESSAGES
default to the value of the LANG environment variable. If none of
these variables are set, GCC defaults to traditional C English
behavior.

TMPDIR
If TMPDIR is set, it specifies the directory to use for temporary
files. GCC uses temporary files to hold the output of one stage of
compilation which is to be used as input to the next stage: for
example, the output of the preprocessor, which is the input to the
compiler proper.

GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG
Setting GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG is nearly equivalent to passing
-fcompare-debug to the compiler driver. See the documentation of
this option for more details.

GCC_EXEC_PREFIX
If GCC_EXEC_PREFIX is set, it specifies a prefix to use in the
names of the subprograms executed by the compiler. No slash is
added when this prefix is combined with the name of a subprogram,
but you can specify a prefix that ends with a slash if you wish.

If GCC_EXEC_PREFIX is not set, GCC attempts to figure out an
appropriate prefix to use based on the pathname it is invoked with.

If GCC cannot find the subprogram using the specified prefix, it
tries looking in the usual places for the subprogram.

The default value of GCC_EXEC_PREFIX is prefix/lib/gcc/ where
prefix is the prefix to the installed compiler. In many cases
prefix is the value of “prefix” when you ran the configure script.

Other prefixes specified with -B take precedence over this prefix.

This prefix is also used for finding files such as crt0.o that are
used for linking.

In addition, the prefix is used in an unusual way in finding the
directories to search for header files. For each of the standard
directories whose name normally begins with /usr/local/lib/gcc
(more precisely, with the value of GCC_INCLUDE_DIR), GCC tries
replacing that beginning with the specified prefix to produce an
alternate directory name. Thus, with -Bfoo/, GCC searches foo/bar
just before it searches the standard directory /usr/local/lib/bar.
If a standard directory begins with the configured prefix then the
value of prefix is replaced by GCC_EXEC_PREFIX when looking for
header files.

COMPILER_PATH
The value of COMPILER_PATH is a colon-separated list of
directories, much like PATH. GCC tries the directories thus
specified when searching for subprograms, if it can’t find the
subprograms using GCC_EXEC_PREFIX.

LIBRARY_PATH
The value of LIBRARY_PATH is a colon-separated list of directories,
much like PATH. When configured as a native compiler, GCC tries
the directories thus specified when searching for special linker
files, if it can’t find them using GCC_EXEC_PREFIX. Linking using
GCC also uses these directories when searching for ordinary
libraries for the -l option (but directories specified with -L come
first).

LANG
This variable is used to pass locale information to the compiler.
One way in which this information is used is to determine the
character set to be used when character literals, string literals
and comments are parsed in C and C++. When the compiler is
configured to allow multibyte characters, the following values for
LANG are recognized:

C-JIS
Recognize JIS characters.

C-SJIS
Recognize SJIS characters.

C-EUCJP
Recognize EUCJP characters.

If LANG is not defined, or if it has some other value, then the
compiler uses “mblen” and “mbtowc” as defined by the default locale
to recognize and translate multibyte characters.

Some additional environment variables affect the behavior of the
preprocessor.

CPATH
C_INCLUDE_PATH
CPLUS_INCLUDE_PATH
OBJC_INCLUDE_PATH
Each variable’s value is a list of directories separated by a
special character, much like PATH, in which to look for header
files. The special character, “PATH_SEPARATOR”, is target-
dependent and determined at GCC build time. For Microsoft Windows-
based targets it is a semicolon, and for almost all other targets
it is a colon.

CPATH specifies a list of directories to be searched as if
specified with -I, but after any paths given with -I options on the
command line. This environment variable is used regardless of
which language is being preprocessed.

The remaining environment variables apply only when preprocessing
the particular language indicated. Each specifies a list of
directories to be searched as if specified with -isystem, but after
any paths given with -isystem options on the command line.

In all these variables, an empty element instructs the compiler to
search its current working directory. Empty elements can appear at
the beginning or end of a path. For instance, if the value of
CPATH is “:/special/include”, that has the same effect as
-I. -I/special/include.

DEPENDENCIES_OUTPUT
If this variable is set, its value specifies how to output
dependencies for Make based on the non-system header files
processed by the compiler. System header files are ignored in the
dependency output.

The value of DEPENDENCIES_OUTPUT can be just a file name, in which
case the Make rules are written to that file, guessing the target
name from the source file name. Or the value can have the form
file target, in which case the rules are written to file file using
target as the target name.

In other words, this environment variable is equivalent to
combining the options -MM and -MF, with an optional -MT switch too.

SUNPRO_DEPENDENCIES
This variable is the same as DEPENDENCIES_OUTPUT (see above),
except that system header files are not ignored, so it implies -M
rather than -MM. However, the dependence on the main input file is
omitted.

SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH
If this variable is set, its value specifies a UNIX timestamp to be
used in replacement of the current date and time in the “__DATE__”
and “__TIME__” macros, so that the embedded timestamps become
reproducible.

The value of SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH must be a UNIX timestamp, defined as
the number of seconds (excluding leap seconds) since 01 Jan 1970
00:00:00 represented in ASCII; identical to the output of
@command{date +%s} on GNU/Linux and other systems that support the
%s extension in the “date” command.

The value should be a known timestamp such as the last modification
time of the source or package and it should be set by the build
process.

BUGS

For instructions on reporting bugs, see
.

FOOTNOTES
1. On some systems, gcc -shared needs to build supplementary stub code
for constructors to work. On multi-libbed systems, gcc -shared
must select the correct support libraries to link against. Failing
to supply the correct flags may lead to subtle defects. Supplying
them in cases where they are not necessary is innocuous.

SEE ALSO

gpl(7), gfdl(7), fsf-funding(7), cpp, gcov, as, ld, gdb,
adb, dbx(1), sdb(1) and the Info entries for gcc, cpp, as, ld,
binutils and gdb.

AUTHOR

See the Info entry for gcc, or
, for contributors
to GCC.

COPRYRIGHT

Copyright (c) 1988-2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
Invariant Sections being “GNU General Public License” and “Funding Free
Software”, the Front-Cover texts being (a) (see below), and with the
Back-Cover Texts being (b) (see below). A copy of the license is
included in the gfdl(7) man page.

(a) The FSF’s Front-Cover Text is:

A GNU Manual

(b) The FSF’s Back-Cover Text is:

You have freedom to copy and modify this GNU Manual, like GNU
software. Copies published by the Free Software Foundation raise
funds for GNU development.

gcc-5 2016-06-09 GCC(1)