PROJ(1) General Commands Manual PROJ(1)
cs2cs – cartographic coordinate system filter
cs2cs [ -eEfIlrstvwW [ args ] ] [ +opts[=arg] ] [ +to [+opts[=arg]] ] file[s]
Cs2cs performs transformation between the source and destination carto‐
graphic coordinate system on a set of input points. The coordinate
system transformation can include translation between projected and
geographic coordinates as well as the application of datum shifts.
The following control parameters can appear in any order:
-I method to specify inverse translation, convert from +to coordi‐
nate system to the primary coordinate system defined.
-ta A specifies a character employed as the first character to
denote a control line to be passed through without processing.
This option applicable to ascii input only. (# is the default
String is an arbitrary string to be output if an error is
detected during data transformations. The default value is:
*\t*. Note that if the -b, -i or -o options are employed, an
error is returned as HUGE_VAL value for both return values.
-E causes the input coordinates to be copied to the output line
prior to printing the converted values.
List projection identifiers with -l, -lp or -lP (expanded) that
can be selected with +proj. -l=id gives expanded description of
projection id. List ellipsoid identifiers with -le, that can be
selected with +ellps, -lu list of cartesian to meter conversion
factors that can be selected with +units or -ld list of datums
that can be selected with +datum.
-r This options reverses the order of the expected input from lon‐
gitude-latitude or x-y to latitude-longitude or y-x.
-s This options reverses the order of the output from x-y or longi‐
tude-latitude to y-x or latitude-longitude.
Format is a printf format string to control the form of the out‐
put values. For inverse projections, the output will be in
degrees when this option is employed. If a format is specified
for inverse projection the output data will be in decimal
degrees. The default format is “%.2f” for forward projection
and DMS for inverse.
N is the number of significant fractional digits to employ for
seconds output (when the option is not specified, -w3 is
assumed). When -W is employed the fields will be constant width
and with leading zeroes.
-v causes a listing of cartographic control parameters tested for
and used by the program to be printed prior to input data.
The +args run-line arguments are associated with cartographic parame‐
ters and usage varies with projection and for a complete description
see Cartographic Projection Procedures for the UNIX Environment—A
User’s Manual and supplementary documentation for Release 4.
The cs2cs program requires two coordinate system definitions. The
first (or primary is defined based on all projection parameters not
appearing after the +to argument. All projection parameters appearing
after the +to argument are considered the definition of the second
coordinate system. If there is no second coordinate system defined, a
geographic coordinate system based on the datum and ellipsoid of the
source coordinate system is assumed. Note that the source and destina‐
tion coordinate system can both be projections, both be geographic, or
one of each and may have the same or different datums.
Additional projection control parameters may be contained in two auxil‐
iary control files: the first is optionally referenced with the
+init=file:id and the second is always processed after the name of the
projection has been established from either the run-line or the con‐
tents of +init file. The environment parameter PROJ_LIB establishes
the default directory for a file reference without an absolute path.
This is also used for supporting files like datum shift files.
One or more files (processed in left to right order) specify the source
of data to be transformed. A – will specify the location of processing
standard input. If no files are specified, the input is assumed to be
from stdin. For input data the two data values must be in the first
two white space separated fields and when both input and output are
ASCII all trailing portions of the input line are appended to the out‐
Input geographic data (longitude and latitude) must be in DMS or deci‐
mal degrees format and input cartesian data must be in units consistent
with the ellipsoid major axis or sphere radius units. Output geo‐
graphic coordinates will normally be in DMS format (use -f %.12f for
decimal degrees with 12 decimal places), while projected (cartesian)
coordinates will be in linear (meter, feet) units.
EXAMPLE proj, HOME PAGE 2000/03/21 Rel. 4.4 PROJ(1)
The following script
cs2cs +proj=latlong +datum=NAD83
+to +proj=utm +zone=10 +datum=NAD27 -r <
Cartographic Projection Procedures for the UNIX Environment—A User’s
Manual, (Evenden, 1990, Open-file report 90-284).
Map Projections Used by the U. S. Geological Survey (Snyder, 1984, USGS
Map Projections—A Working Manual (Snyder, 1988, USGS Prof. Paper 1395).
An Album of Map Projections (Snyder & Voxland, 1989, USGS Prof. Paper
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2000/03/21 Rel. 4.4 PROJ(1)