dir Man page

Resume Wikipedia de Dir

La commande dir permet d’afficher le contenu d’un répertoire sous DOS.
Pour l’interpréteur de commandes PowerShell, l’instruction dir et ls sont des alias de la commandelette Get-ChildItem.
L’équivalent de cette commande sous Linux est ls ou vdir.

Resume Wikipedia de Linux

GNU/Linux ou Linux est un système d’exploitation associant des éléments essentiels du projet GNU et le noyau Linux.
Fondé en 1984 par Richard Stallman, le système d’exploitation GNU resta jusqu’en 1991 au stade expérimental car son noyau Hurd était toujours en développement. Cependant, Linus Torvalds créa indépendamment le noyau Linux qui résolut le problème en remplaçant Hurd.
Néanmoins, cette mise en relation des deux projets engendra une controverse toujours d’actualité autour du nom du système associant les deux éléments, certains, dont le grand public, appelant le système simplement Linux, et d’autres, dont Richard Stallman, défendant le nom combiné GNU/Linux.

DIR(1) User Commands DIR(1)


dir – list directory contents


dir [OPTION]… [FILE]…


List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor –sort is speci‐

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options

-a, –all
do not ignore entries starting with .

-A, –almost-all
do not list implied . and ..

with -l, print the author of each file

-b, –escape
print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g., ‘–block-size=M’
prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below

-B, –ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~

-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
file status information); with -l: show ctime and sort by name;
otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first

-C list entries by columns

–color[=WHEN] colorize the output; WHEN can be ‘always’ (default if omitted),
‘auto’, or ‘never’; more info below

-d, –directory
list directories themselves, not their contents

-D, –dired
generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode

-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls –color

-F, –classify
append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

likewise, except do not append ‘*’

across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
verbose -l, vertical -C

like -l –time-style=full-iso

-g like -l, but do not list owner

group directories before files;

can be augmented with a –sort option, but any use of
–sort=none (-U) disables grouping

-G, –no-group
in a long listing, don’t print group names

-h, –human-readable
with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

–si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

-H, –dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line

follow each command line symbolic link

that points to a directory

do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden
by -a or -A)

append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default),
slash (-p), file-type (–file-type), classify (-F)

-i, –inode
print the index number of each file

-I, –ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

-k, –kibibytes
default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage

-l use a long listing format

-L, –dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa‐
tion for the file the link references rather than for the link

-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries

-n, –numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

-N, –literal
print raw entry names (don’t treat e.g. control characters spe‐

-o like -l, but do not list group information

-p, –indicator-style=slash
append / indicator to directories

-q, –hide-control-chars
print ? instead of nongraphic characters

show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is
‘ls’ and output is a terminal)

-Q, –quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes

use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell,
shell-always, shell-escape, shell-escape-always, c, escape

-r, –reverse
reverse order while sorting

-R, –recursive
list subdirectories recursively

-s, –size
print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

-S sort by file size, largest first

sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t),
version (-v), extension (-X)

with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time:
atime or access or use (-u); ctime or status (-c); also use
specified time as sort key if –sort=time (newest first)

with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso,
locale, or +FORMAT; FORMAT is interpreted like in ‘date’; if
FORMAT is FORMAT1FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies to
non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is pre‐
fixed with ‘posix-‘, STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX

-t sort by modification time, newest first

-T, –tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show access
time and sort by name; otherwise: sort by access time, newest

-U do not sort; list entries in directory order

-v natural sort of (version) numbers within text

-w, –width=COLS
set output width to COLS. 0 means no limit

-x list entries by lines instead of by columns

-X sort alphabetically by entry extension

-Z, –context
print any security context of each file

-1 list one file per line. Avoid ‘\n’ with -q or -b

–help display this help and exit

output version information and exit

The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is
10*1024). Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,…
(powers of 1000).

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and
with –color=never. With –color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment
variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.

Exit status:
0 if OK,

1 if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

2 if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).


Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.


GNU coreutils online help:
Report dir translation bugs to


Copyright © 2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU
GPL version 3 or later .
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


Full documentation at:
or available locally via: info ‘(coreutils) dir invocation’

GNU coreutils 8.25 February 2016 DIR(1)