genisoimage Man page

Resume Wikipedia de Joliet (système de fichiers)

La norme Joliet est une extension de la norme ISO 9660 qui s’applique aux systèmes de fichier informatiques sur CD-ROM. Définie et soutenue par Microsoft sur toutes les versions de Windows depuis Windows 95 et Windows NT 4.0, elle permet d’enregistrer des fichiers dont les noms sont composés de 64 caractères unicode au maximum. Désormais répandue et utilisée par la majorité des systèmes d’exploitation, son but principal est de s’affranchir des restrictions aux noms de fichiers nécessaires pour le support strict de la norme ISO.
Elle utilise pour cela un autre jeu de nom de fichiers encodés en UCS2 et stockés dans un en-tête supplémentaire qui est ignoré par les programmes compatibles avec la norme ISO, ce qui préserve la compatibilité ascendante. Les spécifications techniques de la norme n’autorisent que des fichiers d’une longueur maximale de 64 caractères unicode, mais la documentation du logiciel libre genisoimage indique que les noms de fichiers allant jusque 103 caractères ne paraissent pas poser de problème particulier.
Beaucoup de systèmes d’exploitation compatibles PC sont capables de lire les médias formatés en Joliet, ce qui leur permet de s’échanger des fichiers même si ceux-ci comportent des caractères non-latins (comme l’arabe, le japonais ou le cyrillique), ce qui n’était pas possible avec le format ISO 9660 de base. Ces OS incluent :
Microsoft Windows
Linux
Mac OS X
FreeBSD
OpenSolaris
Microsoft recommande l’utilisation de l’extension Joliet pour les développeurs qui programment pour Windows. Ceci autorise des caractères unicode pour tous les champs texte de la norme, ce qui inclut les noms de fichier, et le nom de volume. Un descripteur de volume de type 2 contient les mêmes informations que le primaire (secteur 16 offset de 40 octets), mais en UCS-2 sur le secteur 17, offset de 40 octets. Le résultat est que le nom de volume est limité à 16 caractères, qui peuvent être affichés par le programme disktype.

GENISOIMAGE(1) General Commands Manual GENISOIMAGE(1)

NAME

genisoimage – create ISO9660/Joliet/HFS filesystem with optional Rock
Ridge attributes

SYNOPSIS

genisoimage [options] [-o filename] pathspec [pathspec …]

DESCRIPTION

genisoimage is a pre-mastering program to generate ISO9660/Joliet/HFS
hybrid filesystems.

genisoimage is capable of generating the System Use Sharing Protocol
records (SUSP) specified by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol. This
is used to further describe the files in the ISO9660 filesystem to a
Unix host, and provides information such as long filenames, UID/GID,
POSIX permissions, symbolic links, and block and character device
files.

If Joliet or HFS hybrid command line options are specified, genisoimage
will create the additional filesystem metadata needed for Joliet or
HFS. Otherwise genisoimage will generate a pure ISO9660 filesystem.

genisoimage can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The
same files are seen as HFS files when accessed from a Macintosh and as
ISO9660 files when accessed from other machines. HFS stands for Hierar‐
chical File System and is the native filesystem used on Macintosh com‐
puters.

As an alternative, genisoimage can generate the Apple Extensions to
ISO9660 for each file. These extensions provide each file with CREATOR,
TYPE and certain Finder flags when accessed from a Macintosh. See the
HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

genisoimage takes a snapshot of a given directory tree, and generates a
binary image which will correspond to an ISO9660 and/or HFS filesystem
when written to a block device.

Each file written to the ISO9660 filesystem must have a filename in the
8.3 format (up to 8 characters, period, up to 3 characters, all upper‐
case), even if Rock Ridge is in use. This filename is used on systems
that are not able to make use of the Rock Ridge extensions (such as MS-
DOS), and each filename in each directory must be different from the
other filenames in the same directory. genisoimage generally tries to
form correct names by forcing the Unix filename to uppercase and trun‐
cating as required, but often this yields unsatisfactory results when
the truncated names are not all unique. genisoimage assigns weightings
to each filename, and if two names that are otherwise the same are
found, the name with the lower priority is renamed to include a 3-digit
number (guaranteed to be unique). For example, the two files foo.bar
and foo.bar.~1~ could be rendered as FOO.BAR;1 and FOO000.BAR;1.

When used with various HFS options, genisoimage will attempt to recog‐
nise files stored in a number of Apple/Unix file formats and will copy
the data and resource forks as well as any relevant Finder information.
See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for more about formats
genisoimage supports.

Note that genisoimage is not designed to communicate with the writer
directly. Most writers have proprietary command sets which vary from
one manufacturer to another, and you need a specialized tool to actu‐
ally burn the disc. wodim is one such tool. The latest version of
wodim is available from http://www.cdrkit.org/.

pathspec is the path of the directory tree to be copied into the
ISO9660 filesystem. Multiple paths can be specified, and genisoimage
will merge the files found in all of the specified path components to
form the filesystem image.

If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possible to graft
the paths at points other than the root directory, and it is possible
to graft files or directories onto the cdrom image with names different
than what they have in the source filesystem. This is easiest to
illustrate with a couple of examples. Let’s start by assuming that a
local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the cdrom
image.

foo/bar/=../old.lis

will include old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis, while

foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

will include old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx. The same sort
of syntax can be used with directories as well. genisoimage will cre‐
ate any directories required such that the graft points exist on the
cdrom image — the directories do not need to appear in one of the
paths. By default, any directories that are created on the fly like
this will have permissions 0555 and appear to be owned by the person
running genisoimage. If you wish other permissions or owners of the
intermediate directories, see -uid, -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode and
-new-dir-mode.

genisoimage will also run on Windows machines when compiled with
Cygnus’ cygwin (available from http://www.cygwin.com/). Therefore most
references in this man page to Unix can be replaced with Win32.

OPTIONS

Several options can be specified as defaults in a .genisoimagerc con‐
figuration file, as well as on the command line. If a parameter is
specified in both places, the setting from the command line is used.
For details on the format and possible locations of this file, see
genisoimagerc(5).

-abstract file
Specifies the abstract filename. There is space for 37 charac‐
ters. Equivalent to ABST in the .genisoimagerc file.

-A application_id
Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume
header. This should describe the application that will be on
the disc. There is space for 128 characters. Equivalent to
APPI in the .genisoimagerc file.

-allow-limited-size
When processing files larger than 2GiB which cannot be easily
represented in ISO9660, add them with a shrunk visible file size
to ISO9660 and with the correct visible file size to the UDF
system. The result is an inconsistent filesystem and users need
to make sure that they really use UDF rather than ISO9660 driver
to read a such disk. Implies enabling -udf.

-allow-leading-dots

-ldots Allow ISO9660 filenames to begin with a period. Usually, a
leading dot is replaced with an underscore in order to maintain
MS-DOS compatibility.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
many systems. Use with caution.

-allow-lowercase
This options allows lowercase characters to appear in ISO9660
filenames.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
some systems. Use with caution.

-allow-multidot
This options allows more than one dot to appear in ISO9660 file‐
names. A leading dot is not affected by this option, it may be
allowed separately using -allow-leading-dots.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
many systems. Use with caution.

-biblio file
Specifies the bibliographic filename. There is space for 37
characters. Equivalent to BIBL in the .genisoimagerc file.

-cache-inodes

-no-cache-inodes
Enable or disable caching inode and device numbers to find hard
links to files. If genisoimage finds a hard link (a file with
multiple names), the file will also be hard-linked on the CD, so
the file contents only appear once. This helps to save space.
-cache-inodes is default on Unix-like operating systems, but
-no-cache-inodes is default on some other systems such as Cyg‐
win, because it is not safe to assume that inode numbers are
unique on those systems. (Some versions of Cygwin create fake
inode numbers using a weak hashing algorithm, which may produce
duplicates.) If two files have the same inode number but are
not hard links to the same file, genisoimage -cache-inodes will
not behave correctly. -no-cache-inodes is safe in all situa‐
tions, but in that case genisoimage cannot detect hard links, so
the resulting CD image may be larger than necessary.

-alpha-boot alpha_boot_image
Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be used
when making an Alpha/SRM bootable CD. The pathname must be rela‐
tive to the source path specified to genisoimage.

-hppa-bootloader hppa_bootloader_image
Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be used
when making an HPPA bootable CD. The pathname must be relative
to the source path specified to genisoimage. Other options are
required, at the very least a kernel filename and a boot command
line. See the HPPA NOTES section below for more information.

-hppa-cmdline hppa_boot_command_line
Specifies the command line to be passed to the HPPA boot loader
when making a bootable CD. Separate the parameters with spaces
or commas. More options must be passed to genisoimage, at the
very least a kernel filename and the boot loader filename. See
the HPPA NOTES section below for more information.

-hppa-kernel-32 hppa_kernel_32

-hppa-kernel-64 hppa_kernel_64
Specifies the path and filename of the 32-bit and/or 64-bit ker‐
nel images to be used when making an HPPA bootable CD. The path‐
names must be relative to the source path specified to genisoim‐
age. Other options are required, at the very least the boot
loader filename and the boot command line. See the HPPA NOTES
section below for more information.

-hppa-ramdisk hppa_ramdisk_image
Specifies the path and filename of the ramdisk image to be used
when making an HPPA bootable CD. The pathname must be relative
to the source path specified to genisoimage. This parameter is
optional. Other options are required, at the very least a ker‐
nel filename and the boot command line. See the HPPA NOTES sec‐
tion below for more information.

-mips-boot mips_boot_image
Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be used
when making an SGI/big-endian MIPS bootable CD. The pathname
must be relative to the source path specified to genisoimage.
This option may be specified several times, to store up to 15
boot images.

-mipsel-boot mipsel_boot_image
Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be used
when making an DEC/little-endian MIPS bootable CD. The pathname
must be relative to the source path specified to genisoimage.

-B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

-sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
Specifies a comma-separated list of boot images that are needed
to make a bootable CD for SPARC systems. Partition 0 is used
for the ISO9660 image, the first image file is mapped to parti‐
tion 1. The comma-separated list may have up to 7 fields,
including empty fields. This option is required to make a
bootable CD for Sun SPARC systems. If -B or -sparc-boot has
been specified, the first sector of the resulting image will
contain a Sun disk label. This disk label specifies slice 0 for
the ISO9660 image and slices 1 to 7 for the boot images that
have been specified with this option. Byte offsets 512 to 8191
within each of the additional boot images must contain a primary
boot that works for the appropriate SPARC architecture. The rest
of each of the images usually contains a UFS filesystem used for
the primary kernel boot stage.

The implemented boot method is the one found with SunOS 4.x and
SunOS 5.x. However, it does not depend on SunOS internals but
only on properties of the Open Boot prom, so it should be usable
for any OS for SPARC systems. For more information also see the
NOTES section below.

If the special filename … is used, the actual and all follow‐
ing boot partitions are mapped to the previous partition. If
genisoimage is called with -G image -B … all boot partitions
are mapped to the partition that contains the ISO9660 filesystem
image and the generic boot image that is located in the first 16
sectors of the disc is used for all architectures.

-G generic_boot_image
Specifies the path and filename of the generic boot image to be
used when making a generic bootable CD. The boot image will be
placed on the first 16 sectors of the CD, before the ISO9660
primary volume descriptor. If this option is used together with
-sparc-boot, the Sun disk label will overlay the first 512 bytes
of the generic boot image.

-b eltorito_boot_image
Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be used
when making an El Torito bootable CD for x86 PCs. The pathname
must be relative to the source path specified to genisoimage.
This option is required to make an El Torito bootable CD. The
boot image must be exactly 1200 kB, 1440 kB or 2880 kB, and
genisoimage will use this size when creating the output ISO9660
filesystem. The PC BIOS will use the image to emulate a floppy
disk, so the first 512-byte sector should contain PC boot code.
This will work, for example, if the boot image is a LILO-based
boot floppy.

If the boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need to add
either -hard-disk-boot or -no-emul-boot. If the system should
not boot off the emulated disk, use -no-boot.

If -sort has not been specified, the boot images are sorted with
low priority (+2) to the beginning of the medium. If you don’t
like this, you need to specify a sort weight of 0 for the boot
images.

-eltorito-alt-boot
Start with a new set of El Torito boot parameters. Up to 63 El
Torito boot entries may be stored on a single CD.

-hard-disk-boot
Specifies that the boot image used to create El Torito bootable
CDs is a hard disk image. The image must begin with a master
boot record that contains a single partition.

-no-emul-boot
Specifies that the boot image used to create El Torito bootable
CDs is a “no emulation” image. The system will load and execute
this image without performing any disk emulation.

-no-boot
Specifies that the created El Torito CD should be marked as not
bootable. The system will provide an emulated drive for the
image, but will boot off a standard boot device.

-boot-load-seg segment_address
Specifies the load segment address of the boot image for no-emu‐
lation El Torito CDs.

-boot-load-size load_sectors
Specifies the number of “virtual” (512-byte) sectors to load in
no-emulation mode. The default is to load the entire boot file.
Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a multiple of 4.

-boot-info-table
Specifies that a 56-byte table with information of the CD-ROM
layout will be patched in at offset 8 in the boot file. If this
option is given, the boot file is modified in the source
filesystem, so make a copy of this file if it cannot be easily
regenerated! See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section for a
description of this table.

-C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
This option is needed to create a CD Extra or the image of a
second session or a higher-level session for a multisession
disc. -C takes two numbers separated by a comma. The first is
the first sector in the last session of the disc that should be
appended to. The second number is the starting sector number of
the new session. The correct numbers may be retrieved by call‐
ing wodim -msinfo … If -C is used in conjunction with -M,
genisoimage will create a filesystem image that is intended to
be a continuation of the previous session. If -C is used with‐
out -M, genisoimage will create a filesystem image that is
intended to be used for a second session on a CD Extra. This is
a multisession CD that holds audio data in the first session and
an ISO9660 filesystem in the second session.

-c boot_catalog
Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog, which is
required for an El Torito bootable CD. The pathname must be rel‐
ative to the source path specified to genisoimage. This file
will be inserted into the output tree and not created in the
source filesystem, so be sure the specified filename does not
conflict with an existing file, or it will be excluded. Usually
a name like boot.catalog is chosen.

If -sort has not been specified, the boot catalog sorted with
low priority (+1) to the beginning of the medium. If you don’t
like this, you need to specify a sort weight of 0 for the boot
catalog.

-check-oldnames
Check all filenames imported from the old session for compliance
with the ISO9660 file naming rules. Without this option, only
names longer than 31 characters are checked, as these files are
a serious violation of the ISO9660 standard.

-check-session file
Check all old sessions for compliance with actual genisoimage
ISO9660 file naming rules. This is a high-level option that
combines -M file -C 0,0 -check-oldnames. For the parameter
file, see the description of -M.

-copyright file
Specifies copyright information, typically a filename on the
disc. There is space for 37 characters. Equivalent to COPY in
the .genisoimagerc file.

-d Do not append a period to files that do not have one.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
many systems. Use with caution.

-D Do not use deep directory relocation, and instead just pack them
in the way we see them.
If ISO9660:1999 has not been selected, this violates the ISO9660
standard, but it happens to work on many systems. Use with cau‐
tion.

-dir-mode mode
Overrides the mode of directories used to create the image to
mode, specified as 4 digits of permission bits as in chmod.
This option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

-dvd-video
Generate a DVD-Video compliant UDF filesystem. This is done by
sorting the order of the content of the appropriate files and by
adding padding between the files if needed. Note that the sort‐
ing only works if the DVD-Video filenames include uppercase
characters only.

Note that in order to get a DVD-Video compliant filesystem
image, you need to prepare a DVD-Video compliant directory tree.
This requires a directory VIDEO_TS (all caps) in the root direc‐
tory of the resulting DVD, and usually another directory
AUDIO_TS. VIDEO_TS needs to include all needed files (filenames
must be all caps) for a compliant DVD-Video filesystem.

-f Follow symbolic links when generating the filesystem. When this
option is not in use, symbolic links will be entered using Rock
Ridge if enabled, otherwise they will be ignored.

-file-mode mode
Overrides the mode of regular files used to create the image to
mode, specified as 4 digits of permission bits as in chmod.
This option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

-gid gid
Overrides the group ID read from the source files to the value
of gid. Specifying this option automatically enables Rock Ridge
extensions.

-gui Switch the behaviour for a GUI. This currently makes the output
more verbose but may have other effects in the future.

-graft-points
Allow use of graft points for filenames. If this option is used,
all filenames are checked for graft points. The filename is
divided at the first unescaped equal sign. All occurrences of
`\’ and `=’ characters must be escaped with `\’ if -graft-points
has been specified.

-hide glob
Hide any files matching glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from
being seen in the ISO9660 or Rock Ridge directory. glob may
match any part of the filename or path. If glob matches a
directory, the contents of that directory will be hidden. In
order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not
include a trailing `/’ character. All the hidden files will
still be written to the output CD image file. See also
-hide-joliet, and README.hide. This option may be used multiple
times.

-hide-list file
A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be hidden. See
-hide.

-hidden glob
Add the hidden (existence) ISO9660 directory attribute for files
and directories matching glob, a shell wildcard pattern. This
attribute will prevent the files from being shown by some MS-DOS
and Windows commands. glob may match any part of the filename
or path. In order to match a directory name, make sure the
pathname does not include a trailing `/’ character. This option
may be used multiple times.

-hidden-list file
A file containing a list of shell wildcards to get the hidden
attribute. See -hidden.

-hide-joliet glob
Hide files and directories matching glob, a shell wildcard pat‐
tern, from being seen in the Joliet directory. glob may match
any part of the filename or path. If glob matches a directory,
the contents of that directory will be hidden. In order to
match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not include
a trailing `/’ character. All the hidden files will still be
written to the output CD image file. This option is usually
used with -hide. See also README.hide. This option may be used
multiple times.

-hide-joliet-list file
A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be hidden from
the Joliet tree. See -hide-joliet.

-hide-joliet-trans-tbl
Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the Joliet tree. These files usu‐
ally don’t make sense in the Joliet world as they list the real
name and the ISO9660 name which may both be different from the
Joliet name.

-hide-rr-moved
Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved in the Rock Ridge
tree. It seems to be impossible to completely hide the RR_MOVED
directory from the Rock Ridge tree. This option only makes the
visible tree less confusing for people who don’t know what this
directory is for. If you need to have no RR_MOVED directory at
all, you should use -D. Note that if -D has been specified, the
resulting filesystem is not ISO9660 level-1 compliant and will
not be readable on MS-DOS. See also the NOTES section.

-input-charset charset
Input charset that defines the characters used in local file‐
names. To get a list of valid charset names, call genisoimage
-input-charset help. To get a 1:1 mapping, you may use default
as charset name. The default initial values are cp437 on DOS-
based systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems. See the CHAR‐
ACTER SETS section below for more details.

-output-charset charset
Output charset that defines the characters that will be used in
Rock Ridge filenames. Defaults to the input charset. See CHAR‐
ACTER SETS section below for more details.

-iso-level level
Set the ISO9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1 to 4.

With level 1, files may only consist of one section and file‐
names are restricted to 8.3 characters.

With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

With level 3, no restrictions (other than ISO-9660:1988) do
apply.

With all ISO9660 levels from 1 to 3, all filenames are
restricted to uppercase letters, numbers and underscores (_).
Filenames are limited to 31 characters, directory nesting is
limited to 8 levels, and pathnames are limited to 255 charac‐
ters.

Level 4 officially does not exist but genisoimage maps it to
ISO-9660:1999, which is ISO9660 version 2.

With level 4, an enhanced volume descriptor with version number
and file structure version number set to 2 is emitted. Direc‐
tory nesting is not limited to 8 levels, there is no need for a
file to contain a dot and the dot has no special meaning, file‐
names do not have version numbers, and filenames can be up to
207 characters long, or 197 characters if Rock Ridge is used.

When creating Version 2 images, genisoimage emits an enhanced
volume descriptor, similar but not identical to a primary volume
descriptor. Be careful not to use broken software to make
ISO9660 images bootable by assuming a second PVD copy and patch‐
ing this putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

-J Generate Joliet directory records in addition to regular ISO9660
filenames. This is primarily useful when the discs are to be
used on Windows machines. Joliet filenames are specified in
Unicode and each path component can be up to 64 Unicode charac‐
ters long. Note that Joliet is not a standard — only Microsoft
Windows and Linux systems can read Joliet extensions. For
greater portability, consider using both Joliet and Rock Ridge
extensions.

-joliet-long
Allow Joliet filenames to be up to 103 Unicode characters,
instead of 64. This breaks the Joliet specification, but
appears to work. Use with caution.

-jcharset charset
A combination of -J -input-charset charset. See the CHARACTER
SETS section below for more details.

-l Allow full 31-character filenames. Normally the ISO9660 file‐
name will be in an 8.3 format which is compatible with MS-DOS,
even though the ISO9660 standard allows filenames of up to 31
characters. If you use this option, the disc may be difficult
to use on a MS-DOS system, but will work on most other systems.
Use with caution.

-L Outdated option; use -allow-leading-dots instead.

-jigdo-jigdo jigdo_file
Produce a jigdo .jigdo metadata file as well as the filesystem
image. See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

-jigdo-template template_file
Produce a jigdo .template file as well as the filesystem image.
See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

-jigdo-min-file-size size
Specify the minimum size for a file to be listed in the .jigdo
file. Default (and minimum allowed) is 1KB. See the JIGDO NOTES
section below for more information.

-jigdo-force-md5 path
Specify a file pattern where files must be contained in the
externally-supplied MD5 list as supplied by -md5-list. See the
JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

-jigdo-exclude path
Specify a file pattern where files will not be listed in the
.jigdo file. See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more informa‐
tion.

-jigdo-map path
Specify a pattern mapping for the jigdo file (e.g. Debian=/mir‐
ror/debian). See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more infor‐
mation.

-md5-list md5_file
Specify a file containing the MD5sums, sizes and pathnames of
the files to be included in the .jigdo file. See the JIGDO NOTES
section below for more information.

-jigdo-template-compress algorithm
Specify a compression algorithm to use for template date. gzip
and bzip2 are currently supported, and gzip is the default. See
the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

-log-file log_file
Redirect all error, warning and informational messages to
log_file instead of the standard error.

-m glob
Exclude files matching glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from
being written to CD-ROM. glob may match either the filename
component or the full pathname. This option may be used multi‐
ple times. For example:

genisoimage -o rom -m ‘*.o’ -m core -m foobar

would exclude all files ending in `.o’, or called core or foobar
from the image. Note that if you had a directory called foobar,
it too (and of course all its descendants) would be excluded.

-exclude-list file
A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be excluded. See
-m.

-max-iso9660-filenames
Allow ISO9660 filenames to be up to 37 characters long. This
option enables -N as the extra name space is taken from the
space reserved for file version numbers.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
many systems. Although a conforming application needs to pro‐
vide a buffer space of at least 37 characters, discs created
with this option may cause a buffer overflow in the reading
operating system. Use with extreme care.

-M path

-M device

-dev device
Specifies path to existing ISO9660 image to be merged. The
alternate form takes a SCSI device specifier that uses the same
syntax as the dev= parameter of wodim. The output of genisoim‐
age will be a new session which should get written to the end of
the image specified in -M. Typically this requires multisession
capability for the CD recorder used to write the image. This
option may only be used in conjunction with -C.

-N Omit version numbers from ISO9660 filenames.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but no one really uses the
version numbers anyway. Use with caution.

-new-dir-mode mode
Specify the mode, a 4-digit number as used in chmod, to use
when creating new directories in the filesystem image. The
default is 0555.

-nobak

-no-bak
Exclude backup files files on the ISO9660 filesystem; that is,
filenames that contain the characters `~’ or `#’ or end in .bak.
These are typically backup files for Unix text editors.

-force-rr
Do not use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for
previous sessions. This can work around problems with images
created by, e.g., NERO Burning ROM.

-no-rr Do not use the Rock Ridge attributes from previous sessions.
This may help to avoid problems when genisoimage finds illegal
Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.

-no-split-symlink-components
Don’t split the symlink components, but begin a new Continuation
Area (CE) instead. This may waste some space, but the SunOS
4.1.4 cdrom driver has a bug in reading split symlink compo‐
nents.

It is questionable whether this option is useful nowadays.

-no-split-symlink-fields
Don’t split the symlink fields, but begin a new Continuation
Area (CE) instead. This may waste some space, but the SunOS
4.1.4 and Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a bug in reading split
symlink fields (a `/’ can be dropped).

It is questionable whether this option is useful nowadays.

-o filename
Specify the output file for the the ISO9660 filesystem image.
This can be a disk file, a tape drive, or it can correspond
directly to the device name of the optical disc writer. If not
specified, stdout is used. Note that the output can also be a
block device for a regular disk partition, in which case the
ISO9660 filesystem can be mounted normally to verify that it was
generated correctly.

-pad Pad the end of the whole image by 150 sectors (300 kB). This
option is enabled by default. If used in combination with -B,
padding is inserted between the ISO9660 partition and the boot
partitions, such that the first boot partition starts on a sec‐
tor number that is a multiple of 16.

The padding is needed as many operating systems (e.g. Linux)
implement read-ahead bugs in their filesystem I/O. These bugs
result in read errors on files that are located near the end of
a track, particularly if the disc is written in Track At Once
mode, or where a CD audio track follows the data track.

-no-pad
Do not pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and do not make the
the boot partitions start on a multiple of 16 sectors.

-path-list file
A file containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames
to be added to the ISO9660 filesystem. This list of pathspecs
are processed after any that appear on the command line. If the
argument is -, the list is read from the standard input.

-P Outdated option; use -publisher instead.

-publisher publisher_id
Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume
header. This should describe the publisher of the CD-ROM, usu‐
ally with a mailing address and phone number. There is space
for 128 characters. Equivalent to PUBL in the .genisoimagerc
file.

-p preparer_id
Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume
header. This should describe the preparer of the CD-ROM, usu‐
ally with a mailing address and phone number. There is space
for 128 characters. Equivalent to PREP in the .genisoimagerc
file.

-print-size
Print estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector size
(2048 bytes) and exit. This option is needed for Disk At Once
mode and with some CD-R drives when piping directly into wodim,
cases where wodim needs to know the size of the filesystem image
in advance. Old versions of mkisofs wrote this information
(among other information) to stderr. As this turns out to be
hard to parse, the number without any other information is now
printed on stdout too. If you like to write a simple shell
script, redirect stderr and catch the number from stdout. This
may be done with:

cdblocks=` genisoimage -print-size -quiet … `
genisoimage … | wodim … tsize=${cdblocks}s –

-quiet This makes genisoimage even less verbose. No progress output
will be provided.

-R Generate SUSP and RR records using the Rock Ridge protocol to
further describe the files on the ISO9660 filesystem.

-r This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set
to more useful values. The uid and gid are set to zero, because
they are usually only useful on the author’s system, and not
useful to the client. All the file read bits are set true, so
that files and directories are globally readable on the client.
If any execute bit is set for a file, set all of the execute
bits, so that executables are globally executable on the client.
If any search bit is set for a directory, set all of the search
bits, so that directories are globally searchable on the client.
All write bits are cleared, because the filesystem will be
mounted read-only in any case. If any of the special mode bits
are set, clear them, because file locks are not useful on a
read-only filesystem, and set-id bits are not desirable for uid
0 or gid 0. When used on Win32, the execute bit is set on all
files. This is a result of the lack of file permissions on Win32
and the Cygwin POSIX emulation layer. See also -uid, -gid,
-dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

-relaxed-filenames
Allows ISO9660 filenames to include all 7-bit ASCII characters
except lowercase letters.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
many systems. Use with caution.

-root dir
Moves all files and directories into dir in the image. This is
essentially the same as using -graft-points and adding dir in
front of every pathspec, but is easier to use. dir may actually
be several levels deep. It is created with the same permissions
as other graft points.

-old-root dir
This option is necessary when writing a multisession image and
the previous (or even older) session was written with -root dir.
Using a directory name not found in the previous session causes
genisoimage to abort with an error. Without this option,
genisoimage would not be able to find unmodified files and would
be forced to write their data into the image once more. -root
and -old-root are meant to be used together to do incremental
backups. The initial session would e.g. use: genisoimage -root
backup_1 dirs. The next incremental backup with genisoimage
-root backup_2 -old-root backup_1 dirs would take another snap‐
shot of these directories. The first snapshot would be found in
backup_1, the second one in backup_2, but only modified or new
files need to be written into the second session. Without these
options, new files would be added and old ones would be pre‐
served. But old ones would be overwritten if the file was modi‐
fied. Recovering the files by copying the whole directory back
from CD would also restore files that were deleted intention‐
ally. Accessing several older versions of a file requires sup‐
port by the operating system to choose which sessions are to be
mounted.

-sort sort_file
Sort file locations on the media. Sorting is controlled by a
file that contains pairs of filenames and sorting offset weight‐
ing. If the weighting is higher, the file will be located
closer to the beginning of the media, if the weighting is lower,
the file will be located closer to the end of the media. There
must be only one space or tabs character between the filename
and the weight and the weight must be the last characters on a
line. The filename is taken to include all the characters up to,
but not including the last space or tab character on a line.
This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the end of
a filename. This option does not sort the order of the file‐
names that appear in the ISO9660 directory. It sorts the order
in which the file data is written to the CD image, which is use‐
ful in order to optimize the data layout on a CD. See
README.sort for more details.

-sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
See -B above.

-sparc-label label
Set the Sun disk label name for the Sun disk label that is cre‐
ated with -sparc-boot.

-split-output
Split the output image into several files of approximately 1 GB
each. This helps to create DVD-sized ISO9660 images on operat‐
ing systems without large file support. wodim will concatenate
more than one file into a single track if writing to a DVD. To
make -split-output work, -o filename must be specified. The
resulting output images will be named: filename_00, filename_01,
filename_02….

-stream-media-size #
Select streaming operation and set the media size to # sectors.
This allows you to pipe the output of the tar program into
genisoimage and to create an ISO9660 filesystem without the need
of an intermediate tar archive file. If this option has been
specified, genisoimage reads from stdin and creates a file with
the name STREAM.IMG. The maximum size of the file (with pad‐
ding) is 200 sectors less than the specified media size. If
-no-pad has been specified, the file size is 50 sectors less
than the specified media size. If the file is smaller,
genisoimage will write padding. This may take awhile.

The option -stream-media-size creates simple ISO9660 filesystems
only and may not used together with multisession or hybrid
filesystem options.

-stream-file-name name
Reserved for future use.

-sunx86-boot UFS_img,,,AUX1_img
Specifies a comma-separated list of filesystem images that are
needed to make a bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

Note that partition 1 is used for the ISO9660 image and that
partition 2 is the whole disk, so partition 1 and 2 may not be
used by external partition data. The first image file is mapped
to partition 0. There may be empty fields in the comma-sepa‐
rated list, and list entries for partition 1 and 2 must be
empty. The maximum number of supported partitions is 8
(although the Solaris x86 partition table could support up to 16
partitions), so it is impossible to specify more than 6 parti‐
tion images. This option is required to make a bootable CD for
Solaris x86 systems.

If -sunx86-boot has been specified, the first sector of the
resulting image will contain a PC fdisk label with a Solaris
type 0x82 fdisk partition that starts at offset 512 and spans
the whole CD. In addition, for the Solaris type 0x82 fdisk par‐
tition, there is a SVr4 disk label at offset 1024 in the first
sector of the CD. This disk label specifies slice 0 for the
first (usually UFS type) filesystem image that is used to boot
the PC and slice 1 for the ISO9660 image. Slice 2 spans the
whole CD slice 3 … slice 7 may be used for additional filesys‐
tem images that have been specified with this option.

A Solaris x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary boot that
uses the El-Torito no-emulation boot mode and a secondary
generic boot that is in CD sectors 1..15. For this reason, both
-b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G genboot must be specified.

-sunx86-label label
Set the SVr4 disk label name for the SVr4 disk label that is
created with -sunx86-boot.

-sysid ID
Specifies the system ID. There is space for 32 characters.
Equivalent to SYSI in the .genisoimagerc file.

-T Generate a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CD-ROM, which
can be used on non-Rock Ridge-capable systems to help establish
the correct filenames. There is also information present in the
file that indicates the major and minor numbers for block and
character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link
file given.

-table-name table_name
Alternative translation table filename (see above). Implies -T.
If you are creating a multisession image you must use the same
name as in the previous session.

-ucs-level level
Set Unicode conformance level in the Joliet SVD. The default
level is 3. It may be set to 1..3 using this option.

-udf Include UDF filesystem support in the generated filesystem
image. UDF support is currently in alpha status and for this
reason, it is not possible to create UDF-only images. UDF data
structures are currently coupled to the Joliet structures, so
there are many pitfalls with the current implementation. There
is no UID/GID support, there is no POSIX permission support,
there is no support for symlinks. Note that UDF wastes the
space from sector ~20 to sector 256 at the beginning of the disc
in addition to the space needed for real UDF data structures.

-uid uid
Overrides the uid read from the source files to the value of
uid. Specifying this option automatically enables Rock Ridge
extensions.

-use-fileversion
The option -use-fileversion allows genisoimage to use file ver‐
sion numbers from the filesystem. If the option is not speci‐
fied, genisoimage creates a version number of 1 for all files.
File versions are strings in the range ;1 to ;32767 This option
is the default on VMS.

-U Allows “untranslated” filenames, completely violating the
ISO9660 standards described above. Enables the following flags:
-d -l -N -allow-leading-dots -relaxed-filenames -allow-lowercase
-allow-multidot -no-iso-translate. Allows more than one `.’
character in the filename, as well as mixed-case filenames.
This is useful on HP-UX, where the built-in cdfs filesystem does
not recognize any extensions. Use with extreme caution.

-no-iso-translate
Do not translate the characters `#’ and `~’ which are invalid
for ISO9660 filenames. Although invalid, these characters are
often used by Microsoft systems.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
many systems. Use with caution.

-V volid
Specifies the volume ID (volume name or label) to be written
into the master block. There is space for 32 characters.
Equivalent to VOLI in the .genisoimagerc file. The volume ID is
used as the mount point by the Solaris volume manager and as a
label assigned to a disc on various other platforms such as Win‐
dows and Apple Mac OS.

-volset ID
Specifies the volume set ID. There is space for 128 characters.
Equivalent to VOLS in the .genisoimagerc file.

-volset-size #
Sets the volume set size to #. The volume set size is the num‐
ber of CDs that are in a CD volume set. A volume set is a col‐
lection of one or more volumes, on which a set of files is
recorded.

Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create a set numbered
CDs that are part of e.g. a Operation System installation set of
CDs. Volume Sets are rather used to record a big directory tree
that would not fit on a single volume. Each volume of a Volume
Set contains a description of all the directories and files that
are recorded on the volumes where the sequence numbers are less
than, or equal to, the assigned Volume Set Size of the current
volume.

genisoimage currently does not support a -volset-size that is
larger than 1.

The option -volset-size must be specified before -volset-seqno
on each command line.

-volset-seqno #
Sets the volume set sequence number to #. The volume set
sequence number is the index number of the current CD in a CD
set. The option -volset-size must be specified before
-volset-seqno on each command line.

-v Verbose execution. If given twice on the command line, extra
debug information will be printed.

-x glob
Identical to -m glob.

-z Generate special RRIP records for transparently compressed
files. This is only of use and interest for hosts that support
transparent decompression, such as Linux 2.4.14 or later. You
must specify -R or -r to enable Rock Ridge, and generate com‐
pressed files using the mkzftree utility before running
genisoimage. Note that transparent compression is a nonstandard
Rock Ridge extension. The resulting disks are only transpar‐
ently readable if used on Linux. On other operating systems you
will need to call mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.

HFS

OPTIONS

-hfs Create an ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in
conjunction with the -map, -magic and/or the various double dash
options given below.

-apple Create an ISO9660 CD with Apple’s extensions. Similar to -hfs,
except that the Apple Extensions to ISO9660 are added instead of
creating an HFS hybrid volume. Former genisoimage versions did
include Rock Ridge attributes by default if -apple was speci‐
fied. This versions of genisoimage does not do this anymore. If
you like to have Rock Ridge attributes, you need to specify this
separately.

-map mapping_file
Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for
a file based on the filename’s extension. A filename is mapped
only if it is not one of the know Apple/Unix file formats. See
the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

-magic magic_file
The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file’s magic
number (usually the first few bytes of a file). The magic_file
is only used if a file is not one of the known Apple/Unix file
formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped using
-map. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

-hfs-creator creator
Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac‐
ters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

-hfs-type type
Set the default TYPE for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac‐
ters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

-probe Search the contents of files for all the known Apple/Unix file
formats. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for
more about these formats. However, the only way to check for
MacBinary and AppleSingle files is to open and read them, so
this option may increase processing time. It is better to use
one or more double dash options given below if the Apple/Unix
formats in use are known.

-no-desktop
Do not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files will
be created when the CD is used on a Macintosh (and stored in the
System Folder). By default, empty Desktop files are added to
the HFS volume.

-mac-name
Use the HFS filename as the starting point for the ISO9660,
Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES
section below for more information.

-boot-hfs-file driver_file
Installs the driver_file that may make the CD bootable on a Mac‐
intosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

-part Generate an HFS partition table. By default, no partition table
is generated, but some older Macintosh CD-ROM drivers need an
HFS partition table on the CD-ROM to be able to recognize a
hybrid CD-ROM.

-auto AutoStart_file
Make the HFS CD use the QuickTime 2.0 Autostart feature to
launch an application or document. The given filename must be
the name of a document or application located at the top level
of the CD. The filename must be less than 12 characters.
(Alpha).

-cluster-size size
Set the size in bytes of the cluster or allocation units of PC
Exchange files. Implies –exchange. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE
FORMATS section below.

-hide-hfs glob
Hide glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from the HFS volume. The
file or directory will still exist in the ISO9660 and/or Joliet
directory. glob may match any part of the filename. Multiple
globs may be excluded. Example:

genisoimage -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs ‘*.o’ -hide-hfs foobar

would exclude all files ending in `.o’ or called foobar from the
HFS volume. Note that if you had a directory called foobar, it
too (and of course all its descendants) would be excluded. The
glob can also be a path name relative to the source directories
given on the command line. Example:

genisoimage -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

would exclude just the file or directory called html from the
src directory. Any other file or directory called html in the
tree will not be excluded. Should be used with -hide and/or
-hide-joliet. In order to match a directory name, make sure the
pattern does not include a trailing `/’ character. See
README.hide for more details.

-hide-hfs-list file
Specify a file containing a list of wildcard patterns to be hid‐
den as in -hide-hfs.

-hfs-volid hfs_volid
Volume name for the HFS partition. This is the name that is
assigned to the disc on a Macintosh and replaces the volid used
with -V.

-icon-position
Use the icon position information, if it exists, from the
Apple/Unix file. The icons will appear in the same position as
they would on a Macintosh desktop. Folder location and size on
screen, its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons, Small
Icons, etc.) are also preserved. (Alpha).

-root-info file
Set the location, size on screen, scroll positions, folder View
etc. for the root folder of an HFS volume. See README.rootinfo
for more information. (Alpha)

-prep-boot file
PReP boot image file. Up to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot
for more information. (Alpha)

-chrp-boot
Add CHRP boot header.

-input-hfs-charset charset
Input charset that defines the characters used in HFS filenames
when used with -mac-name. The default charset is cp10000 (Mac
Roman). See the CHARACTER SETS and HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES sec‐
tions below for more details.

-output-hfs-charset charset
Output charset that defines the characters that will be used in
the HFS filenames. Defaults to the input charset. See the CHAR‐
ACTER SETS section below for more details.

-hfs-unlock
By default, genisoimage will create an HFS volume that is
locked. This option leaves the volume unlocked so that other
applications (e.g. hfsutils) can modify the volume. See the HFS
PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings about using this
option.

-hfs-bless folder_name
“Bless” the given directory (folder). This is usually the System
Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name of the
directory must be the whole path name as genisoimage sees it.
E.g., if the given pathspec is ./cddata and the required folder
is called System Folder, the whole path name is “/cddata/System
Folder” (remember to use quotes if the name contains spaces).

-hfs-parms parameters
Override certain parameters used to create the HFS filesystem.
Unlikely to be used in normal circumstances. See the lib‐
hfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

–cap Look for AUFS CAP Macintosh files. Search for CAP Apple/Unix
file formats only. Searching for the other possible Apple/Unix
file formats is disabled, unless other double dash options are
given.

–netatalk
Look for NETATALK Macintosh files

–double
Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

–ethershare
Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

–ushare
Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

–exchange
Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

–sgi Look for SGI Macintosh files

–xinet
Look for XINET Macintosh files

–macbin
Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

–single
Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

–dave Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files

–sfm Look for Microsoft’s Services for Macintosh files (NT only)
(Alpha)

–osx-double
Look for Mac OS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

–osx-hfs
Look for Mac OS X HFS Macintosh files

CHARACTER SETS
genisoimage processes filenames in a POSIX-compliant way as strings of
8-bit characters. To represent all codings for all languages, 8-bit
characters are not sufficient. Unicode or ISO-10646 define character
codings that need at least 21 bits to represent all known languages.
They may be represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coding. UTF-32
uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon. UTF-16 is used by
Microsoft with Win32 with the disadvantage that 16-bit characters are
not compliant with the POSIX filesystem interface.

Modern Unix operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames. Each
32-bit character is represented by one or more 8-bit characters. If a
character is coded in ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and North
America) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character. If
a character is coded in 7-Bit ASCII (used in USA and other countries
with limited character set) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8
coded Unicode character. Character codes that cannot be represented as
a single byte in UTF-8 (if the value is > 0x7F) use escape sequences
that map to more than one 8-bit character.

If all operating systems used UTF-8, genisoimage would not need to
recode characters in filenames. Unfortunately, Apple uses completely
nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses a Unicode coding that is not
compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

For all non-UTF-8-coded operating systems, the actual character that
each byte represents depends on the character set or codepage (the name
used by Microsoft) used by the local operating system — the characters
in a character set will reflect the region or natural language set by
the user.

Usually character codes 0x00-0x1f are control characters, codes
0x20-0x7f are the 7-bit ASCII characters and (on PCs and Macs)
0x80-0xff are used for other characters.

As there are a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a
small subset are represented in a character set. Therefore the same
character code may represent a different character in different charac‐
ter sets. So a filename generated, say in central Europe, may not dis‐
play the same character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern
Europe.

To make matters more complicated, different operating systems use dif‐
ferent character sets for the region or language. For example, the
character code for `é’ (small e with acute accent) may be character
code 0x82 on a PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh, code 0xe9 on a Unix system
in western Europe, and code 0x000e9 in Unicode.

As long as not all operating systems and applications use the same
character set as the basis for filenames, it may be necessary to spec‐
ify which character set your filenames use in and which character set
the filenames should appear on the CD.

There are four options to specify the character sets you want to use:

-input-charset
Defines the local character set you are using on your host
machine. Any character set conversions that take place will use
this character set as the starting point. The default input
character sets are cp437 on MS-DOS-based systems and iso8859-1
on all other systems. If -J is given, the Unicode equivalents
of the input character set will be used in the Joliet directory.
-jcharset is the same as -input-charset -J.

-output-charset
Defines the character set that will be used with for the Rock
Ridge names on the CD. Defaults to the input character set.

-input-hfs-charset
Defines the HFS character set used for HFS filenames decoded
from any of the various Apple/Unix file formats. Only useful
when used with -mac-name. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES for
more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

-output-hfs-charset
Defines the HFS character set used to create HFS filenames from
the input character set in use. In most cases this will be from
the character set given with -input-charset. Defaults to the
input HFS character set.

There are a number of character sets built in to genisoimage. To get a
listing, use -input-charset help. This list doesn’t include the
charset derived from the current locale, if genisoimage is built with
iconv support.

Additional character sets can be read from file for any of the charac‐
ter set options by giving a filename as the argument to the options.
The given file will only be read if its name does not match one of the
built-in character sets.

The format of the character set files is the same as the mapping files
available from http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS. This format is:

Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
The rest of the line is ignored.

Any blank line, line without two (or more) columns in the above format
or comments lines (starting with the # character) are ignored without
any warnings. Any missing input code is mapped to Unicode character
0x0000.

Note that, while UTF-8 is supported, other Unicode encodings such as
UCS-2/UTF-16 and UCS-4/UTF-32 are not, as POSIX operating systems can‐
not handle them natively.

A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default
as the argument to any of the character set options. This is the behav‐
iour of old versions of mkisofs.

The ISO9660 filenames generated from the input filenames are not con‐
verted from the input character set. The ISO9660 character set is a
very limited subset of the ASCII characters, so any conversion would be
pointless.

Any character that genisoimage cannot convert will be replaced with a
`_’ character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE
A Macintosh file has two properties associated with it which define
which application created the file, the CREATOR and what data the file
contains, the TYPE. Both are (exactly) 4 letter strings. Usually this
allows a Macintosh user to double-click on a file and launch the cor‐
rect application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can be
found by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

The CREATOR and TYPE information is stored in all the various
Apple/Unix encoded files. For other files it is possible to base the
CREATOR and TYPE on the filename’s extension using a mapping file (with
-map) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature in the first
few bytes) of a file (with -magic). If both these options are given,
their order on the command line is significant. If -map is given
first, a filename extension match is attempted before a magic number
match. However, if -magic is given first, a magic number match is
attempted before a filename extension match.

If a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found, the
default CREATOR and TYPE for all regular files can be set by using
entries in the .genisoimagerc file or using -hfs-creator and/or
-hfs-type, otherwise the default CREATOR and TYPE are Unix and TEXT.

The format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format as used by
aufs. This file has five columns for the extension, file translation,
CREATOR, TYPE and Comment. Lines starting with the `#’ character are
comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

# Example filename mapping file
#
# EXTN XLate CREATOR TYPE Comment
.tif Raw ‘8BIM’ ‘TIFF’ “Photoshop TIFF image”
.hqx Ascii ‘BnHq’ ‘TEXT’ “BinHex file”
.doc Raw ‘MSWD’ ‘WDBN’ “Word file”
.mov Raw ‘TVOD’ ‘MooV’ “QuickTime Movie”
* Ascii ‘ttxt’ ‘TEXT’ “Text file”

Where:

The first column EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to be
mapped. The default mapping for any filename extension that
doesn’t match is defined with the `*’ character.

The Xlate column defines the type of text translation between
the Unix and Macintosh file it is ignored by genisoimage, but is
kept to be compatible with aufs(1). Although genisoimage does
not alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has its TYPE
set as TEXT, it may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. There‐
fore a better choice for the default TYPE may be ????.

The CREATOR and TYPE keywords must be 4 characters long and
enclosed in single quotes.

The comment field is enclosed in double quotes — it is ignored
by genisoimage, but is kept to be compatible with aufs.

The format of the magic file is almost identical to the magic(5) file
used by the file command.

This file has four tab-separated columns for the byte offset, type,
test and message. Lines starting with the `#’ character are comment
lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

# Example magic file
#
# off type test message
0 string GIF8 8BIM GIFf GIF image
0 beshort 0xffd8 8BIM JPEG image data
0 string SIT! SIT! SIT! StuffIt Archive
0 string \037\235 LZIV ZIVU standard Unix compress
0 string \037\213 GNUz ZIVU gzip compressed data
0 string %! ASPS TEXT Postscript
0 string \004%! ASPS TEXT PC Postscript with a ^D to start
4 string moov txtt MooV QuickTime movie file (moov)
4 string mdat txtt MooV QuickTime movie file (mdat)

The format of the file is described in magic(5). The only difference
here is that for each entry in the magic file, the message for the ini‐
tial offset must be be 4 characters for the CREATOR followed by 4 char‐
acters for the TYPE — white space is optional between them. Any other
characters on this line are ignored. Continuation lines (starting with
a `>’) are also ignored, i.e., only the initial offset lines are used.

Using -magic may significantly increase processing time as each file
has to opened and read to find its magic number.

In summary, for all files, the default CREATOR is Unix and the default
TYPE is TEXT. These can be changed by using entries in the .genisoim‐
agerc file or by using -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type.

If the a file is in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the format
has been selected), the CREATOR and TYPE are taken from the values
stored in the Apple/Unix file.

Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from their filename
extension (with -map), or their magic number (with -magic). If the
default match is used in the mapping file, these values override the
default CREATOR and TYPE.

A full CREATOR/TYPE database can be found at
http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/.

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
Macintosh files have two parts called the Data and Resource fork.
Either may be empty. Unix (and many other OSs) can only cope with files
having one part (or fork). To add to this, Macintosh files have a num‐
ber of attributes associated with them — probably the most important
are the TYPE and CREATOR. Again, Unix has no concept of these types of
attributes.

E.g., a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored in
the Data fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource fork. It
is usually the information in the data fork that is useful across plat‐
forms.

Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way has to
be found to cope with the two forks and the extra attributes (which are
referred to as the Finder info). Unfortunately, it seems that every
software package that stores Macintosh files on Unix has chosen a com‐
pletely different storage method.

The Apple/Unix formats that genisoimage (partially) supports are:

CAP AUFS format
Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory
.resource with same filename as data fork. Finder info in subdi‐
rectory .finderinfo with same filename.

AppleDouble/Netatalk
Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with
same name prefixed with `%’. Finder info also stored in same `%’
file. Netatalk uses the same format, but the resource
fork/Finder info stored in subdirectory .AppleDouble with same
filename as data fork.

AppleSingle
Data structures similar to above, except both forks and Finder
info are stored in one file.

Helios EtherShare
Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork and Finder info
together in subdirectory .rsrc with same filename as data fork.

IPT UShare
Like the EtherShare format, but the Finder info is stored
slightly differently.

MacBinary
Both forks and Finder info stored in one file.

Apple PC Exchange
Used by Macintoshes to store Apple files on DOS (FAT) disks.
Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory
resource.frk (or RESOURCE.FRK). Finder info as one record in
file finder.dat (or FINDER.DAT). Separate finder.dat for each
data fork directory.

Note: genisoimage needs to know the native FAT cluster size of
the disk that the PC Exchange files are on (or have been copied
from). This size is given by -cluster-size. The cluster or
allocation size can be found by using the DOS utility chkdsk.

May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available
with MacOS 8.1). DOS media containing PC Exchange files should
be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

SGI/XINET
Used by SGI machines when they mount HFS disks. Data fork stored
in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource with same
filename. Finder info as one record in file .HSancillary. Sep‐
arate .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

Thursby Software Systems DAVE
Allows Macintoshes to store Apple files on SMB servers. Data
fork stored in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory
resource.frk. Uses the AppleDouble format to store resource
fork.

Services for Macintosh
Format of files stored by NT Servers on NTFS filesystems. Data
fork is stored as filename. Resource fork stored as a NTFS
stream called filename:AFP_Resource. The Finder info is stored
as a NTFS stream called filename:Afp_AfpInfo. NTFS streams are
normally invisible to the user.

Warning: genisoimage only partially supports the SFM format. If
an HFS file or folder stored on the NT server contains an ille‐
gal NT character in its name, NT converts these characters to
Private Use Unicode characters. The characters are: ” * / < > ?
\ | and a space or period if it is the last character of the
filename, character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and
Apple’s apple logo.

Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable
by the genisoimage NT executable. Therefore any file or direc‐
tory name containing these characters will be ignored — includ‐
ing the contents of any such directory.

Mac OS X AppleDouble
When HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by Mac OS X on to a non-
HFS filesystem (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the files are stored in
AppleDouble format. Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork
stored in a file with same name prefixed with `._’. Finder info
also stored in same `._’ file.

Mac OS X HFS (Alpha)
Not really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on
a Mac OS X system. Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork
stored in a pseudo file with the same name with the suffix
/rsrc. The Finder info is only available via a Mac OS X library
call.

See also README.macosx.

Only works when used on Mac OS X.

If a file is found with a zero length resource fork and empty
finderinfo, it is assumed not to have any Apple/Unix encoding —
therefore a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

genisoimage will attempt to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and possibly
other flags from the finder info. Additionally, if it exists, the Mac‐
intosh filename is set from the finder info, otherwise the Macintosh
name is based on the Unix filename — see the HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES
section below.

When using -apple, the TYPE and CREATOR are stored in the optional Sys‐
tem Use or SUSP field in the ISO9660 Directory Record — in much the
same way as the Rock Ridge attributes are. In fact to make life easy,
the Apple extensions are added at the beginning of the existing Rock
Ridge attributes (i.e., to get the Apple extensions you get the Rock
Ridge extensions as well).

The Apple extensions require the resource fork to be stored as an
ISO9660 associated file. This is just like any normal file stored in
the ISO9660 filesystem except that the associated file flag is set in
the Directory Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the data
fork (the file seen by non-Apple machines). Associated files are nor‐
mally ignored by other OSs

When using -hfs, the TYPE and CREATOR plus other finder info, are
stored in a separate HFS directory, not visible on the ISO9660 volume.
The HFS directory references the same data and resource fork files
described above.

In most cases, it is better to use -hfs instead of -apple, as the lat‐
ter imposes the limited ISO9660 characters allowed in filenames. How‐
ever, the Apple extensions do give the advantage that the files are
packed on the disk more efficiently and it may be possible to fit more
files on a CD.

HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES
Where possible, the HFS filename that is stored with an Apple/Unix file
is used for the HFS part of the CD. However, not all the Apple/Unix
encodings store the HFS filename with the finderinfo. In these cases,
the Unix filename is used — with escaped special characters. Special
characters include `/’ and characters with codes over 127.

AUFS escapes these characters by using `:’ followed by the character
code as two hex digits. Netatalk and EtherShare have a similar scheme,
but uses `%’ instead of a `:’.

If genisoimage cannot find an HFS filename, it uses the Unix name, with
any %xx or :xx characters (xx are two hex digits) converted to a single
character code. If xx are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), they are left
alone — although any remaining `:’ is converted to `%’, as `:’ is the
HFS directory separator. Care must be taken, as an ordinary Unix file
with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.

This:2fFile converted to This/File

This:File converted to This%File

This:t7File converted to This%t7File

Although HFS filenames appear to support uppercase and lowercase let‐
ters, the filesystem is case-insensitive, i.e., the filenames aBc and
AbC are the same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS
name, genisoimage will attempt to make a unique name by adding `_’
characters to one of the filenames.

If an HFS filename exists for a file, genisoimage can use this name as
the starting point for the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames
using -mac-name. Normal Unix files without an HFS name will still use
their Unix name. e.g.

If a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin on
the Unix filesystem, but contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, this
is the name that would appear on the HFS part of the CD. However, as
genisoimage uses the Unix name as the starting point for the other
names, the ISO9660 name generated will probably be SOMEIMAG.BIN and the
Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.bin. This option will use the
HFS filename as the starting point and the ISO9660 name will probably
be SOMEIMAG.GIF and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.

-mac-name will not currently work with -T — the Unix name will be used
in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh name.

The character set used to convert any HFS filename to a Joliet/Rock
Ridge filename defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman). The character set used
can be specified using -input-hfs-charset. Other built-in HFS charac‐
ter sets are: cp10006 (MacGreek), cp10007 (MacCyrillic), cp10029
(MacLatin2), cp10079 (MacIcelandandic) and cp10081 (MacTurkish).

Note: the character codes used by HFS filenames taken from the various
Apple/Unix formats will not be converted as they are assumed to be in
the correct Apple character set. Only the Joliet/Rock Ridge names
derived from the HFS filenames will be converted.

The existing genisoimage code will filter out any illegal characters
for the ISO9660 and Joliet filenames, but as genisoimage expects to be
dealing directly with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names as is.
But as `/’ is a legal HFS filename character, -mac-name converts `/’ to
a `_’ in Rock Ridge filenames.

If the Apple extensions are used, only the ISO9660 filenames will
appear on the Macintosh. However, as the Macintosh ISO9660 drivers can
use Level 2 filenames, you can use options like -allow-multidot without
problems on a Macintosh — still take care over the names, for example
this.file.name will be converted to THIS.FILE i.e. only have one `.’,
also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but abcdefghi will be
seen as ABCDEFGHI. i.e. with a `.’ at the end — don’t know if this is
a Macintosh problem or a genisoimage/mkhybrid problem. All filenames
will be in uppercase when viewed on a Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X
machines will not be able to see Level 2 filenames…

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
To give a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top level) folder
includes a standard Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume a cus‐
tom icon on a Macintosh, an icon has to be pasted over the volume’s
icon in the “Get Info” box of the volume. This creates an invisible
file called Icon\r (`\r’ is the carriage return character) in the root
folder.

A custom folder icon is very similar — an invisible file called Icon\r
exists in the folder itself.

Probably the easiest way to create a custom icon that genisoimage can
use is to format a blank HFS floppy disk on a Mac and paste an icon to
its “Get Info” box. If using Linux with the HFS module installed, mount
the floppy:

mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

The floppy will be mounted as a CAP filesystem by default. Then run
genisoimage using something like:

genisoimage –cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

If you are not using Linux, you can use hfsutils to copy the icon file
from the floppy. However, care has to be taken, as the icon file con‐
tains a control character. For example:

hmount /dev/fd0
hdir -a
hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

Where `^V^M’ is control-V followed by control-M. Then run genisoimage
by using something like:

genisoimage –macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

The procedure for creating/using custom folder icons is very similar —
paste an icon to folder’s “Get Info” box and transfer the resulting
Icon\r file to the relevant directory in the genisoimage source tree.

You may want to hide the icon files from the ISO9660 and Joliet trees.

To give a custom icon to a Joliet CD, follow the instructions found at
http://www.cdrfaq.org/faq03.html#S3-21-1.

HFS BOOT DRIVER
It may be possible to make the hybrid CD bootable on a Macintosh.

A bootable HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or compatible) driver, a
bootable HFS partition and the necessary System, Finder, etc. files.

A driver can be obtained from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using
the apple_driver utility. This file can then be used with
-boot-hfs-file.

The HFS partition (i.e. the hybrid disk in our case) must contain a
suitable System Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

For a partition to be bootable, it must have its boot block set. The
boot block is in the first two blocks of a partition. For a non-
bootable partition the boot block is full of zeros. Normally, when a
System file is copied to partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot block
is filled with a number of required settings — unfortunately I don’t
know the full spec for the boot block, so I’m guessing that the follow‐
ing will work.

Therefore, the utility apple_driver also extracts the boot block from
the first HFS partition it finds on the given CD-ROM and this is used
for the HFS partition created by genisoimage.

Please note: By using a driver from an Apple CD and copying Apple soft‐
ware to your CD, you become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Soft‐
ware License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
When -boot-info-table is given, genisoimage will modify the boot file
specified by -b by inserting a 56-byte boot information table at offset
8 in the file. This modification is done in the source filesystem, so
make sure you use a copy if this file is not easily recreated! This
file contains pointers which may not be easily or reliably obtained at
boot time.

The format of this table is as follows; all integers are in section
7.3.1 (“little endian”) format.

Offset Name Size Meaning
8 bi_pvd 4 bytes LBA of primary volume descriptor
12 bi_file 4 bytes LBA of boot file
16 bi_length 4 bytes Boot file length in bytes
20 bi_csum 4 bytes 32-bit checksum
24 bi_reserved 40 bytes Reserved

The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit words in the
boot file starting at byte offset 64. All linear block
addresses (LBAs) are given in CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).

HPPA NOTES
To make a bootable CD for HPPA, at the very least a boot loader file
(-hppa-bootloader), a kernel image file (32-bit, 64-bit, or both,
depending on hardware) and a boot command line (-hppa-cmdline) must be
specified. Some systems can boot either a 32- or a 64-bit kernel, and
the firmware will choose one if both are present. Optionally, a
ramdisk can be used for the root filesystem using -hppa-cmdline.

JIGDO NOTES
Jigdo is a tool to help in the distribution of large files like CD and
DVD images; see http://atterer.org/jigdo/ for more details. Debian CDs
and DVD ISO images are published on the web in jigdo format to allow
end users to download them more efficiently.

To create jigdo and template files alongside the ISO image from
genisoimage, you must first generate a list of the files that will be
used, in the following format:

MD5sum File size Path
32 chars 12 chars to end of line

The MD5sum must be written in standard hexadecimal notation, the file
size must list the size of the file in bytes, and the path must list
the absolute path to the file. For example:

00006dcd58ff0756c36d2efae21be376 14736 /mirror/debian/file1
000635c69b254a1be8badcec3a8d05c1 211822 /mirror/debian/file2
00083436a3899a09633fc1026ef1e66e 22762 /mirror/debian/file3

Once you have this file, call genisoimage with all of your normal com‐
mand-line parameters. Specify the output filenames for the jigdo and
template files using -jigdo-jigdo and -jigdo-template, and pass in the
location of your MD5 list with -md5-list.

If there are files that you do NOT want to be added into the jigdo file
(e.g. if they are likely to change often), specify them using
-jigdo-exclude. If you want to verify some of the files as they are
written into the image, specify them using -jigdo-force-md5. If any
files don’t match, genisoimage will then abort. Both of these options
take regular expressions as input. It is possible to restrict the set
of files that will be used further based on size — use the
-jigdo-min-file-size option.

Finally, the jigdo code needs to know how to map the files it is given
onto a mirror-style configuration. Specify how to map paths using
-jigdo-map. Using Debian=/mirror/debian will cause all paths starting
with /mirror/debian to be mapped to Debian: in the output jigdo
file.

EXAMPLES
To create a vanilla ISO9660 filesystem image in the file cd.iso, where
the directory cd_dir will become the root directory of the CD, call:

% genisoimage -o cd.iso cd_dir

To create a CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory
cd_dir:

% genisoimage -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

To create a CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory
cd_dir where all files have at least read permission and all files are
owned by root, call:

% genisoimage -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

To write a tar archive directly to a CD that will later contain a sim‐
ple ISO9660 filesystem with the tar archive call:

% tar cf – . | genisoimage -stream-media-size 333000 | \
wodim dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s –

To create a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions of
the source directory cd_dir:

% genisoimage -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir that con‐
tains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

% genisoimage -o cd.iso –netatalk cd_dir

To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving all
files CREATOR and TYPES based on just their filename extensions listed
in the file “mapping”.:

% genisoimage -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

To create a CD with the Apple Extensions to ISO9660, from the source
directories cd_dir and another_dir. Files in all the known Apple/Unix
format are decoded and any other files are given CREATOR and TYPE based
on their magic number given in the file magic:

% genisoimage -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
cd_dir another_dir

The following example puts different files on the CD that all have the
name README, but have different contents when seen as a ISO9660/Rock
Ridge, Joliet or HFS CD.

Current directory contains:

% ls -F
README.hfs README.joliet README.Unix cd_dir/

The following command puts the contents of the directory cd_dir on the
CD along with the three README files — but only one will be seen from
each of the three filesystems:

% genisoimage -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
-hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
-hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.Unix \
-hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.Unix \
README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
README=README.Unix cd_dir

i.e. the file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS CD and the
other two README files will be hidden. Similarly for the Joliet and
ISO9660/Rock Ridge CD.

There are probably all sorts of strange results possible with combina‐
tions of the hide options …

NOTES
genisoimage may safely be installed suid root. This may be needed to
allow genisoimage to read the previous session when creating a multi‐
session image.

If genisoimage is creating a filesystem image with Rock Ridge
attributes and the directory nesting level of the source directory tree
is too much for ISO9660, genisoimage will do deep directory relocation.
This results in a directory called RR_MOVED in the root directory of
the CD. You cannot avoid this directory.

Many boot code options for different platforms are mutualy exclusive
because the boot blocks cannot coexist, ie. different platforms share
the same data locations in the image. See
http://lists.debian.org/debian-cd/2006/12/msg00109.html for details.

BUGS

Any files that have hard links to files not in the tree being copied to
the ISO9660 filesystem will have an incorrect file reference count.

Does not check for SUSP record(s) in `.’ entry of the root directory to
verify the existence of Rock Ridge enhancements. This problem is
present when reading old sessions while adding data in multisession
mode.

Does not properly read relocated directories in multisession mode when
adding data. Any relocated deep directory is lost if the new session
does not include the deep directory.

Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multisession from TRANS.TBL.

Does not create whole_name entry for RR_MOVED in multisession mode.

There may be other bugs. Please, report them to the maintainers.

HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
I have had to make several assumptions on how I expect the modified
libhfs routines to work, however there may be situations that either I
haven’t thought of, or come across when these assumptions fail. There‐
fore I can’t guarantee that genisoimage will work as expected (although
I haven’t had a major problem yet). Most of the HFS features work fine,
but some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

Although HFS filenames appear to support uppercase and lowercase let‐
ters, the filesystem is case-insensitive, i.e., the filenames aBc and
AbC are the same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS
name, genisoimage will attempt to make a unique name by adding `_’
characters to one of the filenames.

HFS file/directory names that share the first 31 characters have `_N’
(a decimal number) substituted for the last few characters to generate
unique names.

Care must be taken when “grafting” Apple/Unix files or directories (see
above for the method and syntax involved). It is not possible to use a
new name for an Apple/Unix encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix
encoded file called oldname is to added to the CD, you cannot use the
command line:

genisoimage -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname
cd_dir

genisoimage will be unable to decode oldname. However, you can graft
Apple/Unix encoded files or directories as long as you do not attempt
to give them new names as above.

When creating an HFS volume with the multisession options, -M and -C,
only files in the last session will be in the HFS volume. i.e.
genisoimage cannot add existing files from previous sessions to the HFS
volume.

However, if each session is created with -part, each session will
appear as separate volumes when mounted on a Mac. In this case, it is
worth using -V or -hfs-volid to give each session a unique volume name,
otherwise each “volume” will appear on the Desktop with the same name.

Symbolic links (as with all other non-regular files) are not added to
the HFS directory.

Hybrid volumes may be larger than pure ISO9660 volumes containing the
same data. In some cases (e.g. DVD sized volumes) the difference can be
significant. As an HFS volume gets bigger, so does the allocation block
size (the smallest amount of space a file can occupy). For a 650MB CD,
the allocation block is 10kB, for a 4.7GB DVD it will be about 70kB.

The maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 — although
the real limit will be somewhat less than this.

The resulting hybrid volume can be accessed on a Unix machine by using
the hfsutils routines. However, no changes can be made to the volume as
it is set as locked. The option -hfs-unlock will create an output
image that is unlocked — however no changes should be made to the con‐
tents of the volume (unless you really know what you are doing) as it’s
not a “real” HFS volume.

-mac-name will not currently work with -T — the Unix name will be used
in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh name.

Although genisoimage does not alter the contents of a file, if a binary
file has its TYPE set as TEXT, it may be read incorrectly on a Macin‐
tosh. Therefore a better choice for the default TYPE may be ????.

-mac-boot-file may not work at all…

May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with Mac‐
OS 8.1). DOS media containing PC Exchange files should be mounted as
type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

The SFM format is only partially supported — see HFS MACINTOSH FILE
FORMATS section above.

It is not possible to use -sparc-boot or -generic-boot with
-boot-hfs-file or -prep-boot.

genisoimage should be able to create HFS hybrid images over 4Gb,
although this has not been fully tested.

SEE ALSO

genisoimagerc(5), wodim, mkzftree(8), magic(5).

AUTHORS
genisoimage is derived from mkisofs from the cdrtools 2.01.01a08 pack‐
age from May 2006 (with few updates extracted from cdrtools 2.01.01a24
from March 2007) from .IR http://cdrecord.berlios.de/ , but is now part
of the cdrkit suite, maintained by Joerg Jaspert, Eduard Bloch, Steve
McIntyre, Peter Samuelson, Christian Fromme, Ben Hutchings, and other
contributors. The maintainers can be contacted at debburn-
devel@lists.alioth.debian.org, or see the cdrkit project web site at
http://www.cdrkit.org/.

Eric Youngdale wrote the first versions (1993–1998) of mkisofs. Jörg
Schilling wrote the SCSI transport library and its interface, and has
maintained mkisofs since 1999. James Pearson wrote the HFS hybrid
code, using libhfs by Robert Leslie. Pearson, Schilling, Jungshik Shin
and Jaakko Heinonen contributed to the character set conversion code.
The cdrkit maintainers have maintained genisoimage since 2006.

Copyright 1993-1998 by Yggdrasil Computing, Inc.
Copyright 1996-1997 by Robert Leslie
Copyright 1997-2001 by James Pearson
Copyright 1999-2006 by Jörg Schilling
Copyright 2007 by Jörg Schilling (originating few updates)
Copyright 2002-2003 by Jungshik Shin
Copyright 2003 by Jaakko Heinonen
Copyright 2006 by the Cdrkit maintainers

If you want to take part in the development of genisoimage, you may
join the cdrkit developer mailing list by following the instructions on
http://alioth.debian.org/mail/?group_id=31006. The email address of
the list is debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org. This is also the
address for user support questions. Note that cdrkit and cdrtools are
not affiliated.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the US and other
countries.

13 Dec 2006 GENISOIMAGE(1)