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Resume Wikipedia de Linux

GNU/Linux ou Linux est un système d’exploitation associant des éléments essentiels du projet GNU et le noyau Linux.
Fondé en 1984 par Richard Stallman, le système d’exploitation GNU resta jusqu’en 1991 au stade expérimental car son noyau Hurd était toujours en développement. Cependant, Linus Torvalds créa indépendamment le noyau Linux qui résolut le problème en remplaçant Hurd.
Néanmoins, cette mise en relation des deux projets engendra une controverse toujours d’actualité autour du nom du système associant les deux éléments, certains, dont le grand public, appelant le système simplement Linux, et d’autres, dont Richard Stallman, défendant le nom combiné GNU/Linux.

TEST(1) User Commands TEST(1)

NAME

test – check file types and compare values

SYNOPSIS

test EXPRESSION
test

[ EXPRESSION ] [ ] [ OPTION

DESCRIPTION

Exit with the status determined by EXPRESSION.

–help display this help and exit

–version
output version information and exit

An omitted EXPRESSION defaults to false. Otherwise, EXPRESSION is true
or false and sets exit status. It is one of:

( EXPRESSION )
EXPRESSION is true

! EXPRESSION
EXPRESSION is false

EXPRESSION1 -a EXPRESSION2
both EXPRESSION1 and EXPRESSION2 are true

EXPRESSION1 -o EXPRESSION2
either EXPRESSION1 or EXPRESSION2 is true

-n STRING
the length of STRING is nonzero

STRING equivalent to -n STRING

-z STRING
the length of STRING is zero

STRING1 = STRING2
the strings are equal

STRING1 != STRING2
the strings are not equal

INTEGER1 -eq INTEGER2
INTEGER1 is equal to INTEGER2

INTEGER1 -ge INTEGER2
INTEGER1 is greater than or equal to INTEGER2

INTEGER1 -gt INTEGER2
INTEGER1 is greater than INTEGER2

INTEGER1 -le INTEGER2
INTEGER1 is less than or equal to INTEGER2

INTEGER1 -lt INTEGER2
INTEGER1 is less than INTEGER2

INTEGER1 -ne INTEGER2
INTEGER1 is not equal to INTEGER2

FILE1 -ef FILE2
FILE1 and FILE2 have the same device and inode numbers

FILE1 -nt FILE2
FILE1 is newer (modification date) than FILE2

FILE1 -ot FILE2
FILE1 is older than FILE2

-b FILE
FILE exists and is block special

-c FILE
FILE exists and is character special

-d FILE
FILE exists and is a directory

-e FILE
FILE exists

-f FILE
FILE exists and is a regular file

-g FILE
FILE exists and is set-group-ID

-G FILE
FILE exists and is owned by the effective group ID

-h FILE
FILE exists and is a symbolic link (same as -L)

-k FILE
FILE exists and has its sticky bit set

-L FILE
FILE exists and is a symbolic link (same as -h)

-O FILE
FILE exists and is owned by the effective user ID

-p FILE
FILE exists and is a named pipe

-r FILE
FILE exists and read permission is granted

-s FILE
FILE exists and has a size greater than zero

-S FILE
FILE exists and is a socket

-t FD file descriptor FD is opened on a terminal

-u FILE
FILE exists and its set-user-ID bit is set

-w FILE
FILE exists and write permission is granted

-x FILE
FILE exists and execute (or search) permission is granted

Except for -h and -L, all FILE-related tests dereference symbolic
links. Beware that parentheses need to be escaped (e.g., by back‐
slashes) for shells. INTEGER may also be -l STRING, which evaluates to
the length of STRING.

NOTE: [ honors the –help and –version options, but test does not.
test treats each of those as it treats any other nonempty STRING.

NOTE: your shell may have its own version of test and/or [, which usu‐
ally supersedes the version described here. Please refer to your
shell’s documentation for details about the options it supports.

AUTHOR

Written by Kevin Braunsdorf and Matthew Bradburn.

REPORTING BUGS

GNU coreutils online help:
Report [ translation bugs to

COPRYRIGHT

Copyright © 2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU
GPL version 3 or later .
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO

Full documentation at:
or available locally via: info ‘(coreutils) test invocation’

GNU coreutils 8.25 February 2016 TEST(1)