od Man page

OD(1) User Commands OD(1)


od – dump files in octal and other formats


od [OPTION]… [FILE]…
od [-abcdfilosx]… [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b]] od –traditional [OPTION]… [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b] [+][LABEL][.][b]]


Write an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of FILE to
standard output. With more than one FILE argument, concatenate them in
the listed order to form the input.

With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

If first and second call formats both apply, the second format is
assumed if the last operand begins with + or (if there are 2 operands)
a digit. An OFFSET operand means -j OFFSET. LABEL is the
pseudo-address at first byte printed, incremented when dump is pro‐
gressing. For OFFSET and LABEL, a 0x or 0X prefix indicates hexadeci‐
mal; suffixes may be . for octal and b for multiply by 512.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options

-A, –address-radix=RADIX
output format for file offsets; RADIX is one of [doxn], for Dec‐
imal, Octal, Hex or None

swap input bytes according the specified order

-j, –skip-bytes=BYTES
skip BYTES input bytes first

-N, –read-bytes=BYTES
limit dump to BYTES input bytes

-S BYTES, –strings[=BYTES] output strings of at least BYTES graphic chars; 3 is implied
when BYTES is not specified

-t, –format=TYPE
select output format or formats

-v, –output-duplicates
do not use * to mark line suppression

-w[BYTES], –width[=BYTES] output BYTES bytes per output line; 32 is implied when BYTES is
not specified

accept arguments in third form above

–help display this help and exit

output version information and exit

Traditional format specifications may be intermixed; they accumulate:
-a same as -t a, select named characters, ignoring high-order bit

-b same as -t o1, select octal bytes

-c same as -t c, select printable characters or backslash escapes

-d same as -t u2, select unsigned decimal 2-byte units

-f same as -t fF, select floats

-i same as -t dI, select decimal ints

-l same as -t dL, select decimal longs

-o same as -t o2, select octal 2-byte units

-s same as -t d2, select decimal 2-byte units

-x same as -t x2, select hexadecimal 2-byte units

TYPE is made up of one or more of these specifications:
a named character, ignoring high-order bit

c printable character or backslash escape

d[SIZE] signed decimal, SIZE bytes per integer

f[SIZE] floating point, SIZE bytes per integer

o[SIZE] octal, SIZE bytes per integer

u[SIZE] unsigned decimal, SIZE bytes per integer

x[SIZE] hexadecimal, SIZE bytes per integer

SIZE is a number. For TYPE in [doux], SIZE may also be C for
sizeof(char), S for sizeof(short), I for sizeof(int) or L for
sizeof(long). If TYPE is f, SIZE may also be F for sizeof(float), D
for sizeof(double) or L for sizeof(long double).

Adding a z suffix to any type displays printable characters at the end
of each output line.

BYTES is hex with 0x or 0X prefix, and may have a multiplier suffix:
b 512

KB 1000

K 1024

MB 1000*1000

M 1024*1024

and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

od -A x -t x1z -v
Display hexdump format output

od -A o -t oS -w16
The default output format used by od


Written by Jim Meyering.


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Copyright © 2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU
GPL version 3 or later .
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


Full documentation at:
or available locally via: info ‘(coreutils) od invocation’

GNU coreutils 8.25 February 2016 OD(1)