Resume Wikipedia de Grep
grep est un programme en ligne de commande de recherche de chaînes de caractères, initialement écrit pour UNIX par Ken Thompson, puis amélioré par l’utilisation de l’algorithme d’Aho-Corasick.
Il existe de nombreuses implémentations de grep sur différents systèmes, en particulier sous tous les systèmes de type UNIX. Une des implémentations les plus répandues est GNU grep.
PGREP(1) User Commands PGREP(1)
pgrep, pkill – look up or signal processes based on name and other
pgrep [options] pattern
pkill [options] pattern
pgrep looks through the currently running processes and lists the
process IDs which match the selection criteria to stdout. All the cri‐
teria have to match. For example,
$ pgrep -u root sshd
will only list the processes called sshd AND owned by root. On the
$ pgrep -u root,daemon
will list the processes owned by root OR daemon.
pkill will send the specified signal (by default SIGTERM) to each
process instead of listing them on stdout.
Defines the signal to send to each matched process. Either the
numeric or the symbolic signal name can be used. (pkill only.)
Suppress normal output; instead print a count of matching pro‐
cesses. When count does not match anything, e.g. returns zero,
the command will return non-zero value.
-d, –delimiter delimiter
Sets the string used to delimit each process ID in the output
(by default a newline). (pgrep only.)
The pattern is normally only matched against the process name.
When -f is set, the full command line is used.
-g, –pgroup pgrp,…
Only match processes in the process group IDs listed. Process
group 0 is translated into pgrep’s or pkill’s own process group.
-G, –group gid,…
Only match processes whose real group ID is listed. Either the
numerical or symbolical value may be used.
List the process name as well as the process ID. (pgrep only.)
List the full command line as well as the process ID. (pgrep
Select only the newest (most recently started) of the matching
Select only the oldest (least recently started) of the matching
-P, –parent ppid,…
Only match processes whose parent process ID is listed.
-s, –session sid,…
Only match processes whose process session ID is listed. Ses‐
sion ID 0 is translated into pgrep’s or pkill’s own session ID.
-t, –terminal term,…
Only match processes whose controlling terminal is listed. The
terminal name should be specified without the “/dev/” prefix.
-u, –euid euid,…
Only match processes whose effective user ID is listed. Either
the numerical or symbolical value may be used.
-U, –uid uid,…
Only match processes whose real user ID is listed. Either the
numerical or symbolical value may be used.
Negates the matching. This option is usually used in pgrep’s
context. In pkill’s context the short option is disabled to
avoid accidental usage of the option.
Shows all thread ids instead of pids in pgrep’s context. In
pkill’s context this option is disabled.
Only match processes whose names (or command line if -f is spec‐
ified) exactly match the pattern.
-F, –pidfile file
Read PID’s from file. This option is perhaps more useful for
pkill than pgrep.
Fail if pidfile (see -F) not locked.
Match processes that belong to the same namespaces. Required to
run as root to match processes from other users. See –nslist
for how to limit which namespaces to match.
Match only the provided namespaces. Available namespaces: ipc,
mnt, net, pid, user,uts.
Display version information and exit.
Display help and exit.
Specifies an Extended Regular Expression for matching against
the process names or command lines.
Example 1: Find the process ID of the named daemon:
$ pgrep -u root named
Example 2: Make syslog reread its configuration file:
$ pkill -HUP syslogd
Example 3: Give detailed information on all xterm processes:
$ ps -fp $(pgrep -d, -x xterm)
Example 4: Make all netscape processes run nicer:
$ renice +4 $(pgrep netscape)
0 One or more processes matched the criteria.
1 No processes matched.
2 Syntax error in the command line.
3 Fatal error: out of memory etc.
The process name used for matching is limited to the 15 characters
present in the output of /proc/pid/stat. Use the -f option to match
against the complete command line, /proc/pid/cmdline.
The running pgrep or pkill process will never report itself as a match.
The options -n and -o and -v can not be combined. Let me know if you
need to do this.
Defunct processes are reported.
pkill and pgrep were introduced in Sun’s Solaris 7. This implementa‐
tion is fully compatible.
Kjetil Torgrim Homme ⟨email@example.com⟩
Please send bug reports to ⟨firstname.lastname@example.org⟩
procps-ng October 2012 PGREP(1)