pnmrotate Man page

pnmrotate General Commands Manual pnmrotate


pnmrotate – rotate a portable anymap by some angle


pnmrotate [-noantialias] angle [pnmfile]


Reads a portable anymap as input. Rotates it by the specified angle
and produces a portable anymap as output. If the input file is in
color, the output will be too, otherwise it will be grayscale. The
angle is in degrees (floating point), measured counter-clockwise. It
can be negative, but it should be between -90 and 90. Also, for rota‐
tions greater than 45 degrees you may get better results if you first
use pnmflip to do a 90 degree rotation and then pnmrotate less than 45
degrees back the other direction

The rotation algorithm is Alan Paeth’s three-shear method. Each shear
is implemented by looping over the source pixels and distributing frac‐
tions to each of the destination pixels. This has an “anti-aliasing”
effect – it avoids jagged edges and similar artifacts. However, it
also means that the original colors or gray levels in the image are
modified. If you need to keep precisely the same set of colors, you
can use the -noantialias flag. This does the shearing by moving pixels
without changing their values. If you want anti-aliasing and don’t
care about the precise colors, but still need a limited *number* of
colors, you can run the result through ppmquant.

All flags can be abbreviated to their shortest unique prefix.

“A Fast Algorithm for General Raster Rotation” by Alan Paeth, Graphics
Interface ’86, pp. 77-81.


pnmshear, pnmflip, pnm(5), ppmquant


Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 by Jef Poskanzer.

12 January 1991 pnmrotate