postfix Man page

Resume Wikipedia de Postfix

Postfix est un serveur de messagerie électronique et un logiciel libre développé par Wietse Venema et plusieurs contributeurs. Il se charge de la livraison de courriers électroniques (courriels) et a été conçu comme une alternative plus rapide, plus facile à administrer et plus sécurisée que l’historique Sendmail.
Il est le serveur de courriel par défaut dans plusieurs systèmes de type UNIX, comme Mac OS X, NetBSD, diverses distributions GNU/Linux, etc.
Postfix est publié sous licence IBM Public License 1.0. C’est une licence libre, mais incompatible avec la GPL.
Postfix a tout d’abord été connu sous les noms de VMailer et par la suite IBM Secure Mailer. Il a été écrit par Wietse Venema durant son passage au centre de recherche IBM T. J. Watson. La première version a été publiée au milieu de l’année 1999.

Resume Wikipedia de Postfix

Postfix est un serveur de messagerie électronique et un logiciel libre développé par Wietse Venema et plusieurs contributeurs. Il se charge de la livraison de courriers électroniques (courriels) et a été conçu comme une alternative plus rapide, plus facile à administrer et plus sécurisée que l’historique Sendmail.
Il est le serveur de courriel par défaut dans plusieurs systèmes de type UNIX, comme Mac OS X, NetBSD, diverses distributions GNU/Linux, etc.
Postfix est publié sous licence IBM Public License 1.0. C’est une licence libre, mais incompatible avec la GPL.
Postfix a tout d’abord été connu sous les noms de VMailer et par la suite IBM Secure Mailer. Il a été écrit par Wietse Venema durant son passage au centre de recherche IBM T. J. Watson. La première version a été publiée au milieu de l’année 1999.

POSTFIX General Commands Manual POSTFIX

NAME

postfix – Postfix control program

SYNOPSIS

postfix [-Dv] [-c config_dir] command

DESCRIPTION

This command is reserved for the superuser. To submit mail, use the
Postfix sendmail command.

The postfix command controls the operation of the Postfix mail sys‐
tem: start or stop the master(8) daemon, do a health check, and other
maintenance.

By default, the postfix command sets up a standardized environment
and runs the postfix-script shell script to do the actual work.

However, when support for multiple Postfix instances is configured,
postfix executes the command specified with the multi_instance_wrap‐
per configuration parameter. This command will execute the command for
each applicable Postfix instance.

The following commands are implemented:

check Warn about bad directory/file ownership or permissions, and cre‐
ate missing directories.

start Start the Postfix mail system. This also runs the configuration
check described above.

stop Stop the Postfix mail system in an orderly fashion. If possible,
running processes are allowed to terminate at their earliest
convenience.

Note: in order to refresh the Postfix mail system after a con‐
figuration change, do not use the start and stop commands in
succession. Use the reload command instead.

abort Stop the Postfix mail system abruptly. Running processes are
signaled to stop immediately.

flush Force delivery: attempt to deliver every message in the deferred
mail queue. Normally, attempts to deliver delayed mail happen at
regular intervals, the interval doubling after each failed
attempt.

Warning: flushing undeliverable mail frequently will result in
poor delivery performance of all other mail.

reload Re-read configuration files. Running processes terminate at
their earliest convenience.

status Indicate if the Postfix mail system is currently running.

set-permissions [name=value …] Set the ownership and permissions of Postfix related files and
directories, as specified in the postfix-files file.

Specify name=value to override and update specific main.cf con‐
figuration parameters. Use this, for example, to change the
mail_owner or setgid_group setting for an already installed
Postfix system.

This feature is available in Postfix 2.1 and later. With Post‐
fix 2.0 and earlier, use “$config_directory/post-install
set-permissions”.

tls subcommand
Enable opportunistic TLS in the Postfix SMTP client or server,
and manage Postfix SMTP server TLS private keys and certifi‐
cates. See postfix-tls for documentation.

This feature is available in Postfix 3.1 and later.

upgrade-configuration [name=value …] Update the main.cf and master.cf files with information that
Postfix needs in order to run: add or update services, and add
or update configuration parameter settings.

Specify name=value to override and update specific main.cf con‐
figuration parameters.

This feature is available in Postfix 2.1 and later. With Post‐
fix 2.0 and earlier, use “$config_directory/post-install
upgrade-configuration”.

The following options are implemented:

-c config_dir
Read the main.cf and master.cf configuration files in the named
directory instead of the default configuration directory. Use
this to distinguish between multiple Postfix instances on the
same host.

With Postfix 2.6 and later, this option forces the postfix
command to operate on the specified Postfix instance only. This
behavior is inherited by postfix commands that run as a
descendant of the current process.

-D (with postfix start only)
Run each Postfix daemon under control of a debugger as specified
via the debugger_command configuration parameter.

-v Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes. Multiple -v
options make the software increasingly verbose.

ENVIRONMENT
The postfix command exports the following environment variables
before executing the postfix-script file:

MAIL_CONFIG
This is set when the -c command-line option is present.

With Postfix 2.6 and later, this environment variable forces the
postfix command to operate on the specified Postfix instance
only. This behavior is inherited by postfix commands that
run as a descendant of the current process.

MAIL_VERBOSE
This is set when the -v command-line option is present.

MAIL_DEBUG
This is set when the -D command-line option is present.

CONFIGURATION

PARAMETERS

The following main.cf configuration parameters are exported as environ‐
ment variables with the same names:

config_directory (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
The default location of the Postfix main.cf and master.cf con‐
figuration files.

command_directory (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
The location of all postfix administrative commands.

daemon_directory (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
The directory with Postfix support programs and daemon programs.

html_directory (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
The location of Postfix HTML files that describe how to build,
configure or operate a specific Postfix subsystem or feature.

mail_owner (postfix)
The UNIX system account that owns the Postfix queue and most
Postfix daemon processes.

mailq_path (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
Sendmail compatibility feature that specifies where the Postfix
mailq command is installed.

manpage_directory (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
Where the Postfix manual pages are installed.

newaliases_path (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
Sendmail compatibility feature that specifies the location of
the newaliases command.

queue_directory (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.

readme_directory (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
The location of Postfix README files that describe how to build,
configure or operate a specific Postfix subsystem or feature.

sendmail_path (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
A Sendmail compatibility feature that specifies the location of
the Postfix sendmail command.

setgid_group (postdrop)
The group ownership of set-gid Postfix commands and of
group-writable Postfix directories.

Available in Postfix version 2.5 and later:

data_directory (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
The directory with Postfix-writable data files (for example:
caches, pseudo-random numbers).

Available in Postfix version 3.0 and later:

meta_directory (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
The location of non-executable files that are shared among mul‐
tiple Postfix instances, such as postfix-files, dynamicmaps.cf,
and the multi-instance template files main.cf.proto and mas‐
ter.cf.proto.

shlib_directory (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
The location of Postfix dynamically-linked libraries (libpost‐
fix-*.so), and the default location of Postfix database plugins
(postfix-*.so) that have a relative pathname in the dynam‐
icmaps.cf file.

Available in Postfix version 3.1 and later:

openssl_path (openssl)
The location of the OpenSSL command line program openssl.

Other configuration parameters:

import_environment (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
The list of environment parameters that a Postfix process will
import from a non-Postfix parent process.

syslog_facility (mail)
The syslog facility of Postfix logging.

syslog_name (see ‘postconf -d’ output)
The mail system name that is prepended to the process name in
syslog records, so that “smtpd” becomes, for example, “post‐
fix/smtpd”.

Available in Postfix version 2.6 and later:

multi_instance_directories (empty)
An optional list of non-default Postfix configuration directo‐
ries; these directories belong to additional Postfix instances
that share the Postfix executable files and documentation with
the default Postfix instance, and that are started, stopped,
etc., together with the default Postfix instance.

multi_instance_wrapper (empty)
The pathname of a multi-instance manager command that the post‐
fix(1) command invokes when the multi_instance_directories
parameter value is non-empty.

multi_instance_group (empty)
The optional instance group name of this Postfix instance.

multi_instance_name (empty)
The optional instance name of this Postfix instance.

multi_instance_enable (no)
Allow this Postfix instance to be started, stopped, etc., by a
multi-instance manager.

FILES
Prior to Postfix version 2.6, all of the following files were in $con‐
fig_directory. Some files are now in $daemon_directory so that they can
be shared among multiple instances that run the same Postfix version.

Use the command “postconf config_directory” or “postconf daemon_direc‐
tory” to expand the names into their actual values.

$config_directory/main.cf, Postfix configuration parameters
$config_directory/master.cf, Postfix daemon processes
$daemon_directory/postfix-files, file/directory permissions
$daemon_directory/postfix-script, administrative commands
$daemon_directory/post-install, post-installation configuration
$daemon_directory/dynamicmaps.cf, plug-in database clients

SEE ALSO

Commands:
postalias, create/update/query alias database
postcat, examine Postfix queue file
postconf, Postfix configuration utility
postfix, Postfix control program
postfix-tls, Postfix TLS management
postkick, trigger Postfix daemon
postlock, Postfix-compatible locking
postlog, Postfix-compatible logging
postmap, Postfix lookup table manager
postmulti, Postfix multi-instance manager
postqueue, Postfix mail queue control
postsuper, Postfix housekeeping
mailq, Sendmail compatibility interface
newaliases, Sendmail compatibility interface
sendmail, Sendmail compatibility interface

Postfix configuration:
bounce(5), Postfix bounce message templates
master(5), Postfix master.cf file syntax
postconf(5), Postfix main.cf file syntax
postfix-wrapper(5), Postfix multi-instance API

Table-driven mechanisms:
access(5), Postfix SMTP access control table
aliases(5), Postfix alias database
canonical(5), Postfix input address rewriting
generic(5), Postfix output address rewriting
header_checks(5), body_checks(5), Postfix content inspection
relocated(5), Users that have moved
transport(5), Postfix routing table
virtual(5), Postfix virtual aliasing

Table lookup mechanisms:
cidr_table(5), Associate CIDR pattern with value
ldap_table(5), Postfix LDAP client
lmdb_table(5), Postfix LMDB database driver
memcache_table(5), Postfix memcache client
mysql_table(5), Postfix MYSQL client
nisplus_table(5), Postfix NIS+ client
pcre_table(5), Associate PCRE pattern with value
pgsql_table(5), Postfix PostgreSQL client
regexp_table(5), Associate POSIX regexp pattern with value
socketmap_table(5), Postfix socketmap client
sqlite_table(5), Postfix SQLite database driver
tcp_table(5), Postfix client-server table lookup

Daemon processes:
anvil(8), Postfix connection/rate limiting
bounce(8), defer(8), trace(8), Delivery status reports
cleanup(8), canonicalize and enqueue message
discard(8), Postfix discard delivery agent
dnsblog(8), DNS black/whitelist logger
error(8), Postfix error delivery agent
flush(8), Postfix fast ETRN service
local(8), Postfix local delivery agent
master(8), Postfix master daemon
oqmgr(8), old Postfix queue manager
pickup(8), Postfix local mail pickup
pipe(8), deliver mail to non-Postfix command
postscreen(8), Postfix zombie blocker
proxymap(8), Postfix lookup table proxy server
qmgr(8), Postfix queue manager
qmqpd(8), Postfix QMQP server
scache(8), Postfix connection cache manager
showq(8), list Postfix mail queue
smtp(8), lmtp(8), Postfix SMTP+LMTP client
smtpd(8), Postfix SMTP server
spawn(8), run non-Postfix server
tlsmgr(8), Postfix TLS cache and randomness manager
tlsproxy(8), Postfix TLS proxy server
trivial-rewrite(8), Postfix address rewriting
verify(8), Postfix address verification
virtual(8), Postfix virtual delivery agent

Other:
syslogd(8), system logging

README FILES
Use “postconf readme_directory” or “postconf html_directory” to locate
this information.
OVERVIEW, overview of Postfix commands and processes
BASIC_CONFIGURATION_README, Postfix basic configuration
ADDRESS_REWRITING_README, Postfix address rewriting
SMTPD_ACCESS_README, SMTP relay/access control
CONTENT_INSPECTION_README, Postfix content inspection
QSHAPE_README, Postfix queue analysis

LICENSE
The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

AUTHOR(S)
Wietse Venema
IBM T.J. Watson Research
P.O. Box 704
Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

Wietse Venema
Google, Inc.
111 8th Avenue
New York, NY 10011, USA

TLS support by:
Lutz Jaenicke
Brandenburg University of Technology
Cottbus, Germany

Victor Duchovni
Morgan Stanley

SASL support originally by:
Till Franke
SuSE Rhein/Main AG
65760 Eschborn, Germany

LMTP support originally by:
Philip A. Prindeville
Mirapoint, Inc.
USA.

Amos Gouaux
University of Texas at Dallas
P.O. Box 830688, MC34
Richardson, TX 75083, USA

IPv6 support originally by:
Mark Huizer, Eindhoven University, The Netherlands
Jun-ichiro ‘itojun’ Hagino, KAME project, Japan
The Linux PLD project
Dean Strik, Eindhoven University, The Netherlands

POSTFIX

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