rawshark Man page

RAWSHARK(1) The Wireshark Network Analyzer RAWSHARK(1)

NAME

rawshark – Dump and analyze raw pcap data

SYNOPSIS

rawshark [ -d | ] [ -F ] [ -h ] [ -l ] [ -n ] [ -N ] [ -o ] … [ -p ] [ -r |- ] [ -R ] [ -s ] [ -S ] [ -t a|ad|adoy|d|dd|e|r|u|ud|udoy ] [ -v ]

DESCRIPTION

Rawshark reads a stream of packets from a file or pipe, and prints a
line describing its output, followed by a set of matching fields for
each packet on stdout.

INPUT
Unlike TShark, Rawshark makes no assumptions about encapsulation or
input. The -d and -r flags must be specified in order for it to run.
One or more -F flags should be specified in order for the output to be
useful. The other flags listed above follow the same conventions as
Wireshark and TShark.

Rawshark expects input records with the following format by default.
This matches the format of the packet header and packet data in a pcap-
formatted file on disk.

struct rawshark_rec_s {
uint32_t ts_sec; /* Time stamp (seconds) */
uint32_t ts_usec; /* Time stamp (microseconds) */
uint32_t caplen; /* Length of the packet buffer */
uint32_t len; /* “On the wire” length of the packet */
uint8_t data[caplen]; /* Packet data */
};

If -p is supplied rawshark expects the following format. This matches
the struct pcap_pkthdr structure and packet data used in
libpcap/WinPcap. This structure’s format is platform-dependent; the
size of the tv_sec field in the struct timeval structure could be 32
bits or 64 bits. For rawshark to work, the layout of the structure in
the input must match the layout of the structure in rawshark. Note
that this format will probably be the same as the previous format if
rawshark is a 32-bit program, but will not necessarily be the same if
rawshark is a 64-bit program.

struct rawshark_rec_s {
struct timeval ts; /* Time stamp */
uint32_t caplen; /* Length of the packet buffer */
uint32_t len; /* “On the wire” length of the packet */
uint8_t data[caplen]; /* Packet data */
};

In either case, the endianness (byte ordering) of each integer must
match the system on which rawshark is running.

OUTPUT
If one or more fields are specified via the -F flag, Rawshark prints
the number, field type, and display format for each field on the first
line as “packet number” 0. For each record, the packet number, matching
fields, and a “1” or “0” are printed to indicate if the field matched
any supplied display filter. A “-” is used to signal the end of a field
description and at the end of each packet line. For example, the flags
-F ip.src -F dns.qry.type might generate the following output:

0 FT_IPv4 BASE_NONE – 1 FT_UINT16 BASE_HEX –
1 1=”1″ 0=”192.168.77.10″ 1 –
2 1=”1″ 0=”192.168.77.250″ 1 –
3 0=”192.168.77.10″ 1 –
4 0=”74.125.19.104″ 1 –

Note that packets 1 and 2 are DNS queries, and 3 and 4 are not. Adding
-R “not dns” still prints each line, but there’s an indication that
packets 1 and 2 didn’t pass the filter:

0 FT_IPv4 BASE_NONE – 1 FT_UINT16 BASE_HEX –
1 1=”1″ 0=”192.168.77.10″ 0 –
2 1=”1″ 0=”192.168.77.250″ 0 –
3 0=”192.168.77.10″ 1 –
4 0=”74.125.19.104″ 1 –

Also note that the output may be in any order, and that multiple
matching fields might be displayed.

OPTIONS

-d
Specify how the packet data should be dissected. The encapsulation
is of the form type:value, where type is one of:

encap:name Packet data should be dissected using the
libpcap/WinPcap data link type (DLT) name, e.g. encap:EN10MB for
Ethernet. Names are converted using pcap_datalink_name_to_val().
A complete list of DLTs can be found at
.

encap:number Packet data should be dissected using the
libpcap/WinPcap LINKTYPE_ number, e.g. encap:105 for raw IEEE
802.11 or encap:101 for raw IP.

proto:protocol Packet data should be passed to the specified
Wireshark protocol dissector, e.g. proto:http for HTTP data.

-F
Add the matching field to the output. Fields are any valid display
filter field. More than one -F flag may be specified, and each
field can match multiple times in a given packet. A single field
may be specified per -F flag. If you want to apply a display
filter, use the -R flag.

-h Print the version and options and exits.

-l Flush the standard output after the information for each packet is
printed. (This is not, strictly speaking, line-buffered if -V was
specified; however, it is the same as line-buffered if -V wasn’t
specified, as only one line is printed for each packet, and, as -l
is normally used when piping a live capture to a program or script,
so that output for a packet shows up as soon as the packet is seen
and dissected, it should work just as well as true line-buffering.
We do this as a workaround for a deficiency in the Microsoft Visual
C++ C library.)

This may be useful when piping the output of TShark to another
program, as it means that the program to which the output is piped
will see the dissected data for a packet as soon as TShark sees the
packet and generates that output, rather than seeing it only when
the standard output buffer containing that data fills up.

-n Disable network object name resolution (such as hostname, TCP and
UDP port names), the -N flag might override this one.

-N
Turn on name resolving only for particular types of addresses and
port numbers, with name resolving for other types of addresses and
port numbers turned off. This flag overrides -n if both -N and -n
are present. If both -N and -n flags are not present, all name
resolutions are turned on.

The argument is a string that may contain the letters:

m to enable MAC address resolution

n to enable network address resolution

N to enable using external resolvers (e.g., DNS) for network
address resolution

t to enable transport-layer port number resolution

C to enable concurrent (asynchronous) DNS lookups

d to enable resolution from captured DNS packets

-o :
Set a preference value, overriding the default value and any value
read from a preference file. The argument to the option is a
string of the form prefname:value, where prefname is the name of
the preference (which is the same name that would appear in the
preference file), and value is the value to which it should be set.

-p Assume that packet data is preceded by a pcap_pkthdr struct as
defined in pcap.h. On some systems the size of the timestamp data
will be different from the data written to disk. On other systems
they are identical and this flag has no effect.

-r |-
Read packet data from input source. It can be either the name of a
FIFO (named pipe) or “-” to read data from the standard input,
and must have the record format specified above.

-R
Cause the specified filter (which uses the syntax of read/display
filters, rather than that of capture filters) to be applied before
printing the output.

-s Allows standard pcap files to be used as input, by skipping over
the 24 byte pcap file header.

-S Use the specified format string to print each field. The following
formats are supported:

%D Field name or description, e.g. “Type” for dns.qry.type

%N Base 10 numeric value of the field.

%S String value of the field.

For something similar to Wireshark’s standard display (“Type: A
(1)”) you could use %D: %S (%N).

-t a|ad|adoy|d|dd|e|r|u|ud|udoy
Set the format of the packet timestamp printed in summary lines.
The format can be one of:

a absolute: The absolute time, as local time in your time zone, is
the actual time the packet was captured, with no date displayed

ad absolute with date: The absolute date, displayed as YYYY-MM-DD,
and time, as local time in your time zone, is the actual time and
date the packet was captured

adoy absolute with date using day of year: The absolute date,
displayed as YYYY/DOY, and time, as local time in your time zone,
is the actual time and date the packet was captured

d delta: The delta time is the time since the previous packet was
captured

dd delta_displayed: The delta_displayed time is the time since the
previous displayed packet was captured

e epoch: The time in seconds since epoch (Jan 1, 1970 00:00:00)

r relative: The relative time is the time elapsed between the first
packet and the current packet

u UTC: The absolute time, as UTC, is the actual time the packet was
captured, with no date displayed

ud UTC with date: The absolute date, displayed as YYYY-MM-DD, and
time, as UTC, is the actual time and date the packet was captured

udoy UTC with date using day of year: The absolute date, displayed
as YYYY/DOY, and time, as UTC, is the actual time and date the
packet was captured

The default format is relative.

-v Print the version and exit.

READ FILTER SYNTAX
For a complete table of protocol and protocol fields that are
filterable in TShark see the wireshark-filter(4) manual page.

FILES
These files contains various Wireshark configuration values.

Preferences
The preferences files contain global (system-wide) and personal
preference settings. If the system-wide preference file exists, it
is read first, overriding the default settings. If the personal
preferences file exists, it is read next, overriding any previous
values. Note: If the command line option -o is used (possibly more
than once), it will in turn override values from the preferences
files.

The preferences settings are in the form prefname:value, one per
line, where prefname is the name of the preference and value is the
value to which it should be set; white space is allowed between :
and value. A preference setting can be continued on subsequent
lines by indenting the continuation lines with white space. A #
character starts a comment that runs to the end of the line:

# Capture in promiscuous mode?
# TRUE or FALSE (case-insensitive).
capture.prom_mode: TRUE

The global preferences file is looked for in the wireshark
directory under the share subdirectory of the main installation
directory (for example, /usr/local/share/wireshark/preferences) on
UNIX-compatible systems, and in the main installation directory
(for example, C:\Program Files\Wireshark\preferences) on Windows
systems.

The personal preferences file is looked for in
$HOME/.wireshark/preferences on UNIX-compatible systems and
%APPDATA%\Wireshark\preferences (or, if %APPDATA% isn’t defined,
%USERPROFILE%\Application Data\Wireshark\preferences) on Windows
systems.

Disabled (Enabled) Protocols
The disabled_protos files contain system-wide and personal lists of
protocols that have been disabled, so that their dissectors are
never called. The files contain protocol names, one per line,
where the protocol name is the same name that would be used in a
display filter for the protocol:

http
tcp # a comment

The global disabled_protos file uses the same directory as the
global preferences file.

The personal disabled_protos file uses the same directory as the
personal preferences file.

Name Resolution (hosts)
If the personal hosts file exists, it is used to resolve IPv4 and
IPv6 addresses before any other attempts are made to resolve them.
The file has the standard hosts file syntax; each line contains one
IP address and name, separated by whitespace. The same directory as
for the personal preferences file is used.

Capture filter name resolution is handled by libpcap on UNIX-
compatible systems and WinPcap on Windows. As such the Wireshark
personal hosts file will not be consulted for capture filter name
resolution.

Name Resolution (subnets)
If the an IPv4 address cannot be translated via name resolution (no
exact match is found) then a partial match is attempted via the
subnets file.

Each line of this file consists of an IPv4 address, a subnet mask
length separated only by a / and a name separated by whitespace.
While the address must be a full IPv4 address, any values beyond
the mask length are subsequently ignored.

An example is:

# Comments must be prepended by the # sign! 192.168.0.0/24
ws_test_network

A partially matched name will be printed as
“subnet-name.remaining-address”. For example, “192.168.0.1” under
the subnet above would be printed as “ws_test_network.1″; if the
mask length above had been 16 rather than 24, the printed address
would be “ws_test_network.0.1”.

Name Resolution (ethers)
The ethers files are consulted to correlate 6-byte hardware
addresses to names. First the personal ethers file is tried and if
an address is not found there the global ethers file is tried next.

Each line contains one hardware address and name, separated by
whitespace. The digits of the hardware address are separated by
colons (:), dashes (-) or periods (.). The same separator
character must be used consistently in an address. The following
three lines are valid lines of an ethers file:

ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff Broadcast
c0-00-ff-ff-ff-ff TR_broadcast
00.00.00.00.00.00 Zero_broadcast

The global ethers file is looked for in the /etc directory on UNIX-
compatible systems, and in the main installation directory (for
example, C:\Program Files\Wireshark) on Windows systems.

The personal ethers file is looked for in the same directory as the
personal preferences file.

Capture filter name resolution is handled by libpcap on UNIX-
compatible systems and WinPcap on Windows. As such the Wireshark
personal ethers file will not be consulted for capture filter name
resolution.

Name Resolution (manuf)
The manuf file is used to match the 3-byte vendor portion of a
6-byte hardware address with the manufacturer’s name; it can also
contain well-known MAC addresses and address ranges specified with
a netmask. The format of the file is the same as the ethers files,
except that entries of the form:

00:00:0C Cisco

can be provided, with the 3-byte OUI and the name for a vendor, and
entries such as:

00-00-0C-07-AC/40 All-HSRP-routers

can be specified, with a MAC address and a mask indicating how many
bits of the address must match. The above entry, for example, has
40 significant bits, or 5 bytes, and would match addresses from
00-00-0C-07-AC-00 through 00-00-0C-07-AC-FF. The mask need not be a
multiple of 8.

The manuf file is looked for in the same directory as the global
preferences file.

Name Resolution (services)
The services file is used to translate port numbers into names.

The file has the standard services file syntax; each line contains
one (service) name and one transport identifier separated by white
space. The transport identifier includes one port number and one
transport protocol name (typically tcp, udp, or sctp) separated by
a /.

An example is:

mydns 5045/udp # My own Domain Name Server mydns
5045/tcp # My own Domain Name Server

Name Resolution (ipxnets)
The ipxnets files are used to correlate 4-byte IPX network numbers
to names. First the global ipxnets file is tried and if that
address is not found there the personal one is tried next.

The format is the same as the ethers file, except that each address
is four bytes instead of six. Additionally, the address can be
represented as a single hexadecimal number, as is more common in
the IPX world, rather than four hex octets. For example, these
four lines are valid lines of an ipxnets file:

C0.A8.2C.00 HR
c0-a8-1c-00 CEO
00:00:BE:EF IT_Server1
110f FileServer3

The global ipxnets file is looked for in the /etc directory on
UNIX-compatible systems, and in the main installation directory
(for example, C:\Program Files\Wireshark) on Windows systems.

The personal ipxnets file is looked for in the same directory as
the personal preferences file.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
WIRESHARK_APPDATA
On Windows, Wireshark normally stores all application data in
%APPDATA% or %USERPROFILE%. You can override the default location
by exporting this environment variable to specify an alternate
location.

WIRESHARK_DEBUG_WMEM_OVERRIDE
Setting this environment variable forces the wmem framework to use
the specified allocator backend for *all* allocations, regardless
of which backend is normally specified by the code. This is mainly
useful to developers when testing or debugging. See README.wmem in
the source distribution for details.

WIRESHARK_RUN_FROM_BUILD_DIRECTORY
This environment variable causes the plugins and other data files
to be loaded from the build directory (where the program was
compiled) rather than from the standard locations. It has no
effect when the program in question is running with root (or
setuid) permissions on *NIX.

WIRESHARK_DATA_DIR
This environment variable causes the various data files to be
loaded from a directory other than the standard locations. It has
no effect when the program in question is running with root (or
setuid) permissions on *NIX.

ERF_RECORDS_TO_CHECK
This environment variable controls the number of ERF records
checked when deciding if a file really is in the ERF format.
Setting this environment variable a number higher than the default
(20) would make false positives less likely.

IPFIX_RECORDS_TO_CHECK
This environment variable controls the number of IPFIX records
checked when deciding if a file really is in the IPFIX format.
Setting this environment variable a number higher than the default
(20) would make false positives less likely.

WIRESHARK_ABORT_ON_DISSECTOR_BUG
If this environment variable is set, Rawshark will call abort(3)
when a dissector bug is encountered. abort(3) will cause the
program to exit abnormally; if you are running Rawshark in a
debugger, it should halt in the debugger and allow inspection of
the process, and, if you are not running it in a debugger, it will,
on some OSes, assuming your environment is configured correctly,
generate a core dump file. This can be useful to developers
attempting to troubleshoot a problem with a protocol dissector.

WIRESHARK_ABORT_ON_TOO_MANY_ITEMS
If this environment variable is set, Rawshark will call abort(3) if
a dissector tries to add too many items to a tree (generally this
is an indication of the dissector not breaking out of a loop soon
enough). abort(3) will cause the program to exit abnormally; if
you are running Rawshark in a debugger, it should halt in the
debugger and allow inspection of the process, and, if you are not
running it in a debugger, it will, on some OSes, assuming your
environment is configured correctly, generate a core dump file.
This can be useful to developers attempting to troubleshoot a
problem with a protocol dissector.

SEE ALSO

wireshark-filter(4), wireshark, tshark(1), editcap, pcap(3),
dumpcap, text2pcap, pcap-filter(7) or tcpdump(8)

NOTES
Rawshark is part of the Wireshark distribution. The latest version of
Wireshark can be found at .

HTML versions of the Wireshark project man pages are available at:
.

AUTHORS
Rawshark uses the same packet dissection code that Wireshark does, as
well as using many other modules from Wireshark; see the list of
authors in the Wireshark man page for a list of authors of that code.

2.0.2 2016-02-28 RAWSHARK(1)