xdg-desktop-menu Man page

XDG-DESKTOP-MENU(1) xdg-desktop-menu Manual XDG-DESKTOP-MENU(1)

NAME

xdg-desktop-menu – command line tool for (un)installing desktop menu
items

SYNOPSIS

xdg-desktop-menu install [–noupdate] [–novendor] [–mode mode] directory-file(s) desktop-file(s)

xdg-desktop-menu uninstall [–noupdate] [–mode mode] directory-file(s)
desktop-file(s)

xdg-desktop-menu forceupdate [–mode mode]

xdg-desktop-menu {–help | –manual | –version}

DESCRIPTION

The xdg-desktop-menu program can be used to install new menu entries to
the desktop’s application menu.

The application menu works according to the XDG Desktop Menu
Specification at
http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Specifications/menu-spec

COMMANDS
install
Install one or more applications in a submenu of the desktop menu
system.

desktop-file: A desktop file represents a single menu entry in the
menu. Desktop files are defined by the freedesktop.org Desktop
Entry Specification. The most important aspects of *.desktop files
are summarized below.

Menu entries can be added to the menu system in two different ways.
They can either be added to a predefined submenu in the menu system
based on one or more category keywords, or they can be added to a
new submenu.

To add a menu entry to a predefined submenu the desktop file that
represents the menu entry must have a Categories= entry that lists
one or more keywords. The menu item will be included in an
appropriate submenu based on the included keywords.

To add menu items to a new submenu the desktop-files must be
preceded by a directory-file that describes the submenu. If
multiple desktop-files are specified, all entries will be added to
the same menu. If entries are installed to a menu that has been
created with a previous call to xdg-desktop-menu the entries will
be installed in addition to any already existing entries.

directory-file: The *.directory file indicated by directory-file
represents a submenu. The directory file provides the name and icon
for a submenu. The name of the directory file is used to identify
the submenu.

If multiple directory files are provided each file will represent a
submenu within the menu that precedes it, creating a nested menu
hierarchy (sub-sub-menus). The menu entries themselves will be
added to the last submenu.

Directory files follow the syntax defined by the freedesktop.org
Desktop Entry Specification.

uninstall
Remove applications or submenus from the desktop menu system
previously installed with xdg-desktop-menu install.

A submenu and the associated directory file is only removed when
the submenu no longer contains any menu entries.

forceupdate
Force an update of the menu system.

This command is only useful if the last call to xdg-desktop-menu
included the –noupdate option.

OPTIONS

–noupdate
Postpone updating the menu system. If multiple updates to the menu
system are made in sequence this flag can be used to indicate that
additional changes will follow and that it is not necessary to
update the menu system right away.

–novendor
Normally, xdg-desktop-menu checks to ensure that any *.directory
and *.desktop files to be installed has a vendor prefix. This
option can be used to disable that check.

A vendor prefix consists of alpha characters ([a-zA-Z]) and is
terminated with a dash (“-“). Companies and organizations are
encouraged to use a word or phrase, preferably the organizations
name, for which they hold a trademark as their vendor prefix. The
purpose of the vendor prefix is to prevent name conflicts.

–mode mode
mode can be user or system. In user mode the file is (un)installed
for the current user only. In system mode the file is (un)installed
for all users on the system. Usually only root is allowed to
install in system mode.

The default is to use system mode when called by root and to use
user mode when called by a non-root user.

–help
Show command synopsis.

–manual
Show this manual page.

–version
Show the xdg-utils version information.

DESKTOP FILES
An application item in the application menu is represented by a
*.desktop file. A *.desktop file consists of a [Desktop Entry] header
followed by several Key=Value lines.

A *.desktop file can provide a name and description for an application
in several different languages. This is done by adding a language code
as used by LC_MESSAGES in square brackets behind the Key. This way one
can specify different values for the same Key depending on the
currently selected language.

The following keys are often used:

Type=Application
This is a mandatory field that indicates that the *.desktop file
describes an application launcher.

Name=Application Name
The name of the application. For example Mozilla

GenericName=Generic Name
A generic description of the application. For example Web Browser

Comment=Comment
Optional field to specify a tooltip for the application. For
example Visit websites on the Internet

Icon=Icon File
The icon to use for the application. This can either be an absolute
path to an image file or an icon-name. If an icon-name is provided
an image lookup by name is done in the user’s current icon theme.
The xdg-icon-resource command can be used to install image files
into icon themes. The advantage of using an icon-name instead of an
absolute path is that with an icon-name the application icon can be
provided in several different sizes as well as in several
differently themed styles.

Exec=Command Line
The command line to start the application. If the application can
open files the %f placeholder should be specified. When a file is
dropped on the application launcher the %f is replaced with the
file path of the dropped file. If multiple files can be specified
on the command line the %F placeholder should be used instead of
%f. If the application is able to open URLs in addition to local
files then %u or %U can be used instead of %f or %F.

Categories=Categories
A list of categories separated by semi-colons. A category is a
keyword that describes and classifies the application. By default
applications are organized in the application menu based on
category. When menu entries are explicitly assigned to a new
submenu it is not necessary to list any categories.

When using categories it is recommended to include one of the
following categories: AudioVideo, Development, Education, Game,
Graphics, Network, Office, Settings, System, Utility.

See Appendix A of the XDG Desktop Menu Specification for
information about additional categories:
http://standards.freedesktop.org/menu-spec/menu-spec-1.0.html#category-registry

MimeType=Mimetypes
A list of mimetypes separated by semi-colons. This field is used to
indicate which file types the application is able to open.

For a complete overview of the *.desktop file format please visit
http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Specifications/desktop-entry-spec

DIRECTORY FILES
The appearance of submenu in the application menu is provided by a
*.directory file. In particular it provides the title of the submenu
and a possible icon. A *.directory file consists of a [Desktop Entry] header followed by several Key=Value lines.

A *.directory file can provide a title (name) for the submenu in
several different languages. This is done by adding a language code as
used by LC_MESSAGES in square brackets behind the Key. This way one can
specify different values for the same Key depending on the currently
selected language.

The following keys are relevant for submenus:

Type=Directory
This is a mandatory field that indicates that the *.directory file
describes a submenu.

Name=Menu Name
The title of submenu. For example Mozilla

Comment=Comment
Optional field to specify a tooltip for the submenu.

Icon=Icon File
The icon to use for the submenu. This can either be an absolute
path to an image file or an icon-name. If an icon-name is provided
an image lookup by name is done in the user’s current icon theme.
The xdg-icon-resource command can be used to install image files
into icon themes. The advantage of using an icon-name instead of an
absolute path is that with an icon-name the submenu icon can be
provided in several different sizes as well as in several
differently themed styles.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
xdg-desktop-menu honours the following environment variables:

XDG_UTILS_DEBUG_LEVEL
Setting this environment variable to a non-zero numerical value
makes xdg-desktop-menu do more verbose reporting on stderr. Setting
a higher value increases the verbosity.

XDG_UTILS_INSTALL_MODE
This environment variable can be used by the user or administrator
to override the installation mode. Valid values are user and
system.

EXIT CODES
An exit code of 0 indicates success while a non-zero exit code
indicates failure. The following failure codes can be returned:

1
Error in command line syntax.

2
One of the files passed on the command line did not exist.

3
A required tool could not be found.

4
The action failed.

5
No permission to read one of the files passed on the command line.

SEE ALSO

xdg-desktop-icon(1), xdg-icon-resource(1), xdg-mime(1), Desktop entry
specification[1], Desktop menu specification[2]

EXAMPLES
The company ShinyThings Inc. has developed an application named
“WebMirror” and would like to add it to the application menu. The
company will use “shinythings” as its vendor id. In order to add the
application to the menu there needs to be a .desktop file with a
suitable Categories entry:

shinythings-webmirror.desktop:

[Desktop Entry] Encoding=UTF-8
Type=Application

Exec=webmirror
Icon=webmirror

Name=WebMirror
Name[nl]=WebSpiegel

Categories=Network;WebDevelopment;

Now the xdg-desktop-menu tool can be used to add the
shinythings-webmirror.desktop file to the desktop application menu:

xdg-desktop-menu install ./shinythings-webmirror.desktop

Note that for the purpose of this example the menu items are available
in two languages, English and Dutch. The language code for Dutch is nl.

In the next example the company ShinyThings Inc. will add its own
submenu to the desktop application menu consisting of a “WebMirror”
menu item and a “WebMirror Admin Tool” menu item.

First the company needs to create two .desktop files that describe the
two menu items. Since the items are to be added to a new submenu it is
not necessary to include a Categories= line:

shinythings-webmirror.desktop:

[Desktop Entry] Encoding=UTF-8
Type=Application

Exec=webmirror
Icon=shinythings-webmirror

Name=WebMirror
Name[nl]=WebSpiegel

shinythings-webmirror-admin.desktop:

[Desktop Entry] Encoding=UTF-8
Type=Application

Exec=webmirror-admintool
Icon=shinythings-webmirror-admintool

Name=WebMirror Admin Tool
Name[nl]=WebSpiegel Administratie Tool

In addition a .directory file needs to be created to provide a title
and icon for the sub-menu itself:

shinythings-webmirror.directory:

[Desktop Entry] Encoding=UTF-8

Icon=shinythings-webmirror-menu

Name=WebMirror
Name[nl]=WebSpiegel

These file can now be installed with:

xdg-desktop-menu install ./shinythings-webmirror.directory \
./shinythings-webmirror.desktop ./shinythings-webmirror-admin.desktop

The menu entries could also be installed one by one:

xdg-desktop-menu install –noupdate ./shinythings-webmirror.directory \
./shinythings-webmirror.desktop
xdg-desktop-menu install –noupdate ./shinythings-webmirror.directory \
./shinythings-webmirror-admin.desktop
xdg-desktop-menu forceupdate

Although the result is the same it is slightly more efficient to
install all files at the same time.

The *.desktop and *.directory files reference icons with the names
webmirror, webmirror-admin and webmirror-menu which should also be
installed. In this example the icons are installed in two different
sizes, once with a size of 22×22 pixels and once with a size of 64×64
pixels:

xdg-icon-resource install –size 22 ./wmicon-22.png shinythings-webmirror
xdg-icon-resource install –size 22 ./wmicon-menu-22.png shinythings-webmirror-menu
xdg-icon-resource install –size 22 ./wmicon-admin-22.png shinythings-webmirror-admin
xdg-icon-resource install –size 64 ./wmicon-64.png shinythings-webmirror
xdg-icon-resource install –size 64 ./wmicon-menu-64.png shinythings-webmirror-menu
xdg-icon-resource install –size 64 ./wmicon-admin-64.png shinythings-webmirror-admin

AUTHORS
Kevin Krammer
Author.

Jeremy White
Author.

COPRYRIGHT

Copyright © 2006

NOTES
1. Desktop entry specification
http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Specifications/desktop-entry-spec/

2. Desktop menu specification
http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Specifications/menu-spec/

xdg-utils 1.0 02/01/2016 XDG-DESKTOP-MENU(1)